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History of Morrow 
County, Ohio 

Abraham J. Baughman, Robert Frarnklin Bartlett 

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Digitized by 





Ohio Always a State — Surface op Country — Chief Rivers — 
Geology op the State — Geology of the County — Building 
Stone, Clays, Etc. — Drainage, Soil and Natural Wealth— 
**Ohio, Good and True,^' 3-12 



Mound Builders in Morrow County — Location op Mounds — 
Sacred to the Indians — The Original Ohio Man — Garden of 
Eden in Morrow County? — The Indians as a Race — Ohio, the 
Battle Ground — Near-by Indian Massacres — Indian Tales by 
Pioneers — Early Indian Trails. 13-26 



Ohio A State — Physical Aspects — First Settlements- 
Goal, Iron and Salt — Interior Commerce — Education and 
Charity — Future Development — The Ancestry op the Ohioan. 


Digitized by 





' Controversy Over New Counties — Division op the North- 
west Territory — Counties op the Northwest Territory — 
Original State Counties. 42-53 



Morrow County Opponents — ^Rival Claims at Columbus — 
Morrow's Final Campaign — ^Minority Report^ on New Counties 
— How the Qilead Claim Won — County's Creative Act — First 
Year op Infancy — Political Record— -Oppicial Representatives 
OP the County^^Morrow County Inpirmary. 54-75 



Change Since Pioneer Days — Men and Women Together — 
Old Roads — Immigration From 1830 to 1848 — Tales op Pioneers 
— Ross N. Mateer, Mt. Oilead Pioneer — The Remarkable Rine- 
HART Family — **From First to Last'' (by Mrs. Martha M. 
Harlan) — Indians and A Scalping Knipe — First White Set- 
tlers — The Legislative Struggles — Progress — ^''In the Long 
Ago" (By Capt. L. N. Cunard) — ^Mt. Gilead in February, 1848 
— Mt. Qilead 's Day op Days — The Boys op Morrow County — 
First Newspapers — Exciting Financial Episode — Qodfather op 
Mt. Qilead — A Memory Prodigy — ^Mrs. Smith DeMuth's 
Recollections. 76-105 

Rich and Varied Soil — ^Mixed Husbandry — Agricultural 

Digitized by 




Implements — ^Pirst Farm Machinery — ^Underdrainino and 
Ditching — Grass Crops and Live Stock — ^Pruit Culture — The 
Farmers' Broadening Life — Morrow County Agricultural 
Society (by Robert F. Bartlett) — ^'^ Johnny Appleseed'' (by A. 
J. Baughman). 106-122 



Three Months' Men in Civil War — Company I, Third Reoi' 
ment, O. V. I. (Three Years) — Company C, Fifteenth Rbgi 
ment — Company A, Twentieth Regiment — Companies C and E, 
Twenty-Sixth Regiment — Company E, Thirty-First Regiment 
— Company B, Forty-Third Regiment — Fipty-Fipth Infantry — 
Company C, Sixty-Fourth Regiment — Company D, Sixty-Fifth 
Infantry — Company K, Sixty-Sixth Regiment — Companies F, 
G AND K, Eighty-First Regiment — Company C, Eighty-Second 
Infantry — Companies B and C, Eighty-Fifth Regiment — 
Eighty- Seventh and Eighty-Eighth Regiments — Companies C 
and D, Ninety-Sixth Regiment — One Hundred and Second, One 
Hundred and Twenty-First, One Hundred and Twenty-Eighth, 
One Hundred and Thirty-Sixth, One Hundred and Seventy- 
Fourth, One Hundred and Seventy-Ninth, One Hundrex^ and 
Eightieth and One Hundred and Eighty-Eighth Infantry Regi- 
ments — Artillery and Cavalry — Ohio Boys in Other Com- 
mands — United States Army and Navy — Spanish- American War. 




First Year op Bench and Bar — Other Leading Lawyers — 
Thi: Divorce Bi'Siness^ -Changes in Court Systems — Circuit 
Bench — Resident Practicing Attorneys — Made Their Marks 
Abroad — Judges, Attorneys. Sheriffs and Clerks. 181-197 

Digitized by 




Schools and Newspapers. 

State School Laws — Pioneer Schools — Defects in Present 
System — ''Lickin' and Larnin' " Teachers — Union Schools op 
Mount Gilead— Superintendents — Distinguished Graduates — 
High School Graduates (1876-1910) — Teachers and Course of 
Study — Hesper Mount Seminary — Jesse Harkness — The- Alum 
Creek Academy — Ohio Central College — Press and County 
Coextensive. 1 98-223 



Demands on the Pioneer Doctor — Early Physicians of the 
County — Morrow County Medical Society. 224-232 



First Forest Lands Taken Up — Clearing off the Forests — 
First Permanent Settlers — Whetstone Laid Out — The Young 
AND Harris Families — How the Pioneers Lived— Nathan 
Nichols, Jr., and Descendants — Other Pioneer Families and 
Citizens — Distant PRODUCfc Markets — Mt. Gilead as it is — 
Railroads and Industries. 233-255 



Early Business Men — Mayors and Municipal Matters — 
Memorial Day and Soldier Dead — Mt. Gilead As It Is — Rail- 
roads and Industries — Banks of Mt. Gilead. 256-270 

Digitized by 






Presbyterian Church in Mount Gilead — The Methodist 
Church — The Baptist Church — Universaust Church — ^Protes- 
tant Episcopal Church — Church of Christ, Scientist. 271-280 



First Lodge (Odd Fellows) — Other Odd Peux)w Bodies — 
The Masons in Mount Gilead — Patriotic Societies — ^Knights op 
Pythias — Sketch op Pythianism — Literary Clubs — ^Mount 
Gilead Free Public Library — Temperance Movements. 281-299 



Natural Features of Gilead Township — Political — Early 
Settlers — Pioneer Mills and Roads — First Villages — Territory 
op Township — John Beatty — Edison — Cardington Townshh* — 
Isaac Bunker and Family — Old Mills and Hospitable Millers 
— Indian Village on the Whetstone — Settlement Around the 
Whetstone Mills — Approved Bee Hunting — First Road — 
Water Courses and Drainage. 300-319 



Founded, Platted and Improved — Mayors op Cardington — 
Early. Events and Settlers — Founding op the Churches — The 
Park Museum — ^Founding op Industries — Hon. Caleb H. Norris 
and C. S. Hamh^ton — Cardington in 1850 — Cardington Sixty 
Years Ago — Railroad Better Than Court House — The Old 
Carding Mill — Cardington in 1911. 321-352 

Digitized by 





First Settlers op Chester — The Chester Settlement — 
First Mills in the Township — Churches and Schools — Ches- 
TERViLLE — First Churches — Chestervillb (Miles' Cross Roads) 
Founded — South Bloompield Township — Schools and 
Churches — Sparta op the Present— Methodist and Christian 
Churches — Sparta of the Past — Bloompield. 353-373 



Events up to the Early Thirties — Marengo — Pagetown 
AND Vail's Cross Roads — Morton's Corners — Canaan Township 
— Friends in Need^Churches op the Township — Denmark — 
Climax. ^ 374-389 

Soil and Drainage op Congress Township — Pioneers — 


Houses — John Cook and Others — Pulaskiville. 390-402 



Physical Features op Harmony Township — Settlers Prior 
to 1830 — Later Settlers — Religious Organizations — ^Penlan 
— Lincoln Township Erected — Pioneer Settlers — Churches 
and Schools — Fulton. 403-417 

Digitized by 





Formation and Natural Features op North Bloomfibld 
Township — Early Settlers and Settlements — Roads and Post 
Offices — Blooming Grove — Perry Township — Physical Char- 
acteristics — Organized — The Early Arrivals — Churches and 
Schools — Johnsville — North Woodbury. 418-431 



General Description op Peru Township — Churches and 
Schools Side by Side — Pioneer Characters and Events — South 
Woodbury — West Liberty — Old Time Trapping and Hunting — 
Early Settlement on Alum Creek — General Description op 
Troy Township — First White Settlers — Steam Corners. 




Washington Township Generally — Benjamin Sharrock 
and Other Pioneers — Schools and Churches — Iberia — West- 
field Township — The Shaws — Schools, Roads and IMails 
— Westfield — Whetstone (Olentangy) and St. James. 456-470 

Digitized by 


Digitized by 



Ackermaii, John, 399 

Adam«, Samuel E., 203 

Agard, Noah, 433 

Agriculture (see Farming) 

Agricultural implements, 109 

Agricultural schools, 112 

Albach, William H., 186, 192, 257 

Aldrich, Timothy, 467 

Alexander, Josiah, 215 

Alexander, Samuel, 216 

Alextown (see North Cardington) 

Allison, Charles W., 181, 186 

Allison, John, 914 

Alum creek, 8, 9, 411, 432, 444 

Alum Creek Academy, 221, 435 

Anderstfn, David, 86 

Andrews, Abraham G., 384 

Andrews, Bertrand, 181, 183, 185, 

Andrews, Harry S., 884 
Andrews, Hester A., 279 
Andrews, John, 323 
Andrews, Joseph, 216 
Andrews, William, 394 
American House, 256, 325 
Antrim, Jabez J., 179 
Arnold, Nathan, 385 
Ashley, William H., 365, 367, 370, 

Auker, William E., 833 
Avery, Edward, 188 
Ayres, Lyman N., 133 

Babcock, Thomas W., 885 
Babson, Dexter J., 681 
Babson, D. J., 344 
Bailey, James, 304, 305 
Baker, Adam, 427 
Baker, I. G., 423 
Ball, Fanny Berry, 291, 296 
Balliett, Isaac S., 739 
Bankes, W. J., 348 
Barber, Hiram, 772 
Barcelona (see Corsica) 
Barge, Lewis, 325 
Bamabay, Stephen, 377 
Barnes, William, 314, 325 

Barnhard, William H., 192 

Barre, Stephen S., 498 

Bartlett, C. H., 223 

Bartlett, C. M., 223 

Bartlett, John O., 150 

Bartlett, Martha Miller, 292, 296, 481 

Bartlett, Mary J., 203 

Bartlett, Nathan H., 886 

Bartlett, Robert F., 113, 115, 125, 
163, 181, 192, 198, 206, 233, 256, 
271, 281, 477 

Bartlett, William F., 116, 268 

Bartley, Thomas W., 188 

Barry, J. W., 323 

Barry, John W., 186, 192, 193, 556 

Barry, Lawrence A., 611 

Barry, Minnie O., 566 

Baxter, John Chambers, 148, 149 

Baxter, John Comly, 170 

Baughman, L. Harvey, 256 

Beard, Philander C, 181 

Beard, Randall L., 758 

Beatty, James, 274, 304 

Beatty, John, 104, 130, 257, 306, 338 

Beatty, William G., 169, 193, 257, 

Beck, Arthur, 768 

Bee hunting, 316 

Beebe, Carl V., 222 

Beebe, Charles S., 222 

Beebe, J. J., 287 

Beebe, James H., 186 

Beebe, John T., 115, 229 

Beebe, Judson A., 181, 183, 222 

Beetle, Roberta Vorhies, 291 

Beebe, William G., 222, 255 

Bell, Zephaniah, 275, 276, 328, 460 

Bench and bar — First year, 182; 
other leading lawyers, 183; the 
divorce business, 187; changes in 
court systems, 188; district judg- 
es, 188; circuit bench, 191; resi- 
dent practicing attorneys, 192; 
made their marks abroad, 194; 
judges, attorneys, sheriffs and 
clerks, 196. 

Bender, James, 784 

Benedict, Aaron, 436, 451 

Benedict, A. S., 439 


Digitized by 




Benedict, Cynw, 91, 309, 311, 436, 

Benedict, Mrs. Cyrus, 444-51 

Benedict, Elizabeth, 451 

Benedict, Reuben, 435, 436, 442 

Benedict, Sarah, 436 

Benedict, William, 436 

Bennett-Beebe, Mayme E., 285, 297 

Bennett-Robeson Family, 861 

Bennett, Mrs. Sarah E., 861 

Bennett, Walter C, 601 

Bennett, W. C, 232 

Bennington — Contest for county of, 

Bennington township — Events of 
the early thirties, 375; physical 
features, 376; schools and church- 
es, 377; Marengo, 379; Pagetown 
and Vail's Cross Roads, 381; 
Morton's Comers, 382 

Bigelow, Russell, 274 

Bigelow, Russell, 413, 414 

"Big Four'' Railroad, 248-343 

Binf^am. D. C, 115 

Bishop, Samuel, 688 

Bitzer, Chris, 586 

Blair, B. B., 307 

Blaney, J. B., 215 

Blayney, William F., 770 

Bliss, David, 225, 365 

Bloomfleld, 373 

Blooming Grove, 419, 422 

Blooming Grove Methodist church, 

Blue, Joel G., 116 

Bockover, Ransom T., 881 

Boggs, Andrew R., 185 

Boner, John, 431 

Booher, D. D., 257 

Borham, Stephen, 419 

Bowen, James B., 142 

Bowen^ Julia, 287 

Bowyer, Isaac, 310 

Boyd & Ackley, 430 

Boyes, John, 385 

Braden, Andrew D., 257 

Brady, James, 397 

Bratton, David, 847 

Branch, William, 277 

Breese, Charles, 98 

Breese, James, 357 

Breese, L. H., 88 

Brenizer, William C, 771 

Brenizer, William G., 916 

Brice, Calvin S., 104, 388 

Briggs, Frederic F., 911 

Briggs, J. M., 230, 231 

Briggs, James M., 257, 268 

Brinkerhoff, Jacob, 188 

Brollier, William A., 729 

Brooks, William, 549 

Brown, George R., 279 

Brown, H. A., 285 

Brown, S., 323, 352 

Brown, Samuel P., 259 

Brown, Silas M., 250 

Brown, Stephen, 181 

Brown, Theodore, 863 

Brown, Victor E., 615 

Brown, William, 279 

Brown, William T., 227 

Bruce, George S., 224 

Bruce, William F., 192, 193, 258, 

288, 289 
Brumback, Henry C, 136, 181, 185 
Bryn Zion Baptist church, 395 
Buck, Collins 415 
Buck, Edmund, 412, 415, 436 
Buck, J. T., 415 
Buck, Rachael, 438 
Buck, Thaddeus E., 616 
Buckingham, William, 420 
Buckmaster, Wilbur, 371 
Bump, J. C, 323 
Bump, Winters N., 921 
Bunker, David G., 325 
Bunker, Elwood E., 864 
Bunker, Isaac, 308, 309, 324 
Bunker, Joseph, 325 
Bunker, Peleg, 310 
Bunker, Slocum, 308, 323, 324, 325, 

Bums, Alfred, 229 
Bums, Ross, 94, 99 
Burt, Merritt, 345 
Bushfleld, John M., 182 
Bushfleld, Samuel, 257 
Butters, Alfred, 225, 376, 377 
Buxton, Bush rod, 230 
Byrd, Miles, 685 

Caddy, Charles, 323 

Campbell, Charles, 430 

Campbell, Harry B., 632 

Campbell, Robert M., 190 

Campbell, W. T., 398 

Canaan township — Territory, 383 ; 
early settlers, 384; churches, 387; 
Denmark, 388; Climax, 389 

Cardington, 91, 248; first Sunday 
school 328; fraternal societies, 
350; founded, platted and im- 
proved, 321; early events and 
settlers, 323; mayors, 323; found- 
ing of the churches, 325; the Park 
Museum, 330; founding of indus- 
tries, 335; Cardington in 1850, 
338; sixty years ago, 340; rail- 
road better than court house, 342; 
the old carding mill, 343; Card- 
ington in 1911, 346; industries, 
335; physicians, 350; social clubs, 

Digitized by 





Cardington Cabinet Company, 347 
Cardington Canning Company, 347 
Cardington Catholic church, 329 
Cardington Cement Tile & Block 

Company, 347 
Cardington Christian church, 341 
Cardington First Presbyterian 

church, 328 
"Cardington Flag,'' 345 
Cardington German Lutheran 

church, 329 
* * Cardington Independent, ' ' 352 
Cardington Ladies' Public Library, 

Cardington Methodist church, 327 
Cardington Public Library, 325 
"Cardington Reveille," 351 
"Cardington Republican," 351 
Cardington township — Isaac Bunker 
and family, 309; old mills and hos- 
pitable millers, 311; Indian vil- 
lage on the Whetstone, 313; set- 
tlement around the Whetstone, 
315; approved bee hunting, 316; 
first road, 316; water courses and 
drainage, 317 
Cardington United Brethren church, 

Carlisle, James, 242, 249, 252 
Carlisle, WilUam M„ 242, 268, 269 
Carpenter, John R., 258, 279, 538 
Carpenter, William B., 372 
Case, C. W., 323' 
Cattle, 111 
Catty, B. J., 192 

Center United Brethren church, 416 
Chamberlain, Gideon, 392 
Chapman, John ("Johnny Apple- 
seed"), 117-22, 236 
Chase, Benjamin, 373 
Chase, Beverly W., 740 
Chase, E. C, 249, 257 
Chase, Martha, 740 
Chase, Plimpton B., 740 
Chase, William, 370, 372 
Chesterville, 63, 356, 360-3 
Chester county — Contest for, 56-71 
CTiester township — ^First whites of, 
354; the Chester settlement, 356; 
first mills, 358; churches and 
schools, 359; Chesterville, 360 
Christie, Jonathan S., 257 
Circuit judges, 191 
Civil war history — ^Underground 
railway stations, 126; Three 
Months' men, 128; Company I, 
Third Regiment, 130; Company C, 
Fifteenth Regiment, 131; Com- 
pany A, Twentieth Regiment, 
133; Company C, Twenty-sixth 
Regiment, 135; Company E, Twen- 
ty-sixth Regiment, 136; Company 

E, Thirty-first Regiment, 138; 
Company B, Forty-third' Regi- 
ment, 139; an escaped Anderson - 
ville prisoner (Calvin D. French), 
141; Forty-fifth Ohio Volunteer 
Infantry, 146; Company C, Sixty- 
fourth Regiment, 147; Company 
D, Sixty-fifth Regiment (by Wash- 
ington Gardner), 148; Company 
K, Sixty-sixth Regiment, 155; 
Companies F, G and K, Eighty- 
first Regiment, 155; Company C, 
Eighty-second Regiment, 158; 
Companies B and C, Eighty-fifth 
Regiment, 158; Company I, Eigh- 
ty-seventh Regiment, 158; Eighty- 
eighth Regiment, 159; (Companies 
C and D, Ninety-sixth Regiment, 

Clark, George L., 624 

Clark, George N., 67, 75, 95, 159, 269, 

Clark, James, 624 

Clark, J. B., 323 

Clark, John R., 722 

Clark, Marshall, 366 

Clark, Roswell, 366 

Clark, Wesley C, 284 

aark, William, 135 

Clerks of courts, 196 

Clevenger, Ellsworth W., 807 

Climax, 389 

Close, Robert, 370 

Clouse, Adam, 865 

Clymer, Francis, 325 

Qyne, Z. M., 230 

Coe, Edward, Jr., 636 

Coe, George 0., 591 

Coile, Edward R., 721 

Cole, Hugh, 467 

Coleridge, John A., 461 

Collins, Benjamin, 412 

Conaway, E. H., 348 

Conaway, W. R., 346, 351 

Conard, Elijah, 816 

Conard, Cornelia, 816 

Congress township — Soil and drain- 
age, 390; pioneers, 391; Williams- 
port, 394; West Point, 395 

Conrad, Henry B., 130 

Conrad, William, 385 

Connolly, James A., 194 

Cook, Elisha, 373 

Cook, John, Sr., 391, 398, 399 

Cook, John W., 282, 849 

Cook, Mark, 247 

Cook, Noah, 453 

Cook, Perry, 247 

Cook, Seth, 323 

Cook, Thomas, 182 

Cook, William F., 797 

Coomer, Ira E., 664 


Digitized by 




Coomer, Jerry E., 135 

Cooper, John S., 205, 932 

Cooper, Elias F., 281 

Cooper, Elijah, 932 

Cooper, William, 242, 245 

Cornwall, Elisha, 430 

Corsica (see Blooming C J rove) 

Corwin, Arthur C, 730 

Corwin, Benjamin, 401 

Corwin, Stephen, 415 

Counterman, William H., 812 

Counties — Of the Northwest terri- 
tory, 51; of the state (original), 

County auditors, 73 

County commissioners, 71, 74 

County coroners, 74 

County Infirmary directors, 75 

County Infirmary superintendents, 

County oflicers, 73-5 

County recorders, 74 

County surveyors, 74 

County treasurers, 73 

Courtenay, A. M., 38 

Court house, 71 

Cover, J. J., 268 

Cover, Upton J., 668 

Craig, John W., 278 

Cratty, Thomas, 462 

Craven, Arthur, 575 

Creigh, J. T., 94 

Crider, Adam, 745 

Crider, Joseph, 856 

Cronk, Henry, 378 

Cross, Ann R., 271 

Cross, George D., 271 

Cruikshank, Harry S., 498 

Culp, John B., 757 

Culver, Jesse B., 826 

Cunard, L. M., 94 

Cunard, Lee S., 866 

Cunard, Stephen T., 94, 99, 115, 188 

Dakan, William, 394 

Dalrymple, Charles H., 171 

Dalrymple, Mary B., 285 

Dalrymple, Robert, 362 

Dalrymple, Thomas H., 181, 183, 257 

Darling, John, 504 

Daugherty, Elza, 371 

Davis, Byron, 663 

Davis, Henry P., 181 

Davis, William, 405 

Day, Luther, 188 

''Deadening,'' 380 

Dean, Jerry, 332 

Delaware and Mansfield road, 311 

Delaware and Mansfield State Road, 

''Democratic Messenger,*' 97 
DeMuth, (Mrs.) Smith, 103 

Denman, Joseph S., 356, 645 

Denman, Uriah, 356 

Denman, William, 356 

Denman, William, 645 

Denmark, 385, 387, 388 

Denmark Episcopal church, 388 

Dennis, Samuel, 427 

Dennison, Edith Talmage, 296 

Devor, William T., 191 

Dickey, Jabez, 181, 186, 190 

Dickey, Moses R., 190 

Dillingham, Sylvester, 414 

Dirlam, Darius, 190 

District Judges, 188 

Dolin, William, 94 

Donovan, Daniel J., 653 

Doty, Frances, 297 

Doty, George W., 415 

Doty, John, 94 

Doty, Stephen, Jr., 415 

Doty, Stephen, Sr., 414 

Double-headed baby, 267 

Douthitt, Fletcher, 181, 195, 257 

Dumble, John B., 97, 115, 222 

Dumble, William P., 223 

Duncan, Thomas E., 190 

Duncan, William F., 207 

Duncan, William K., 195 

Dunlap, James, 460 

Dunn, Andrew K., 181, 186, 202, 

268, 284 
Dunn, Frank K., 497 
Dye, Lloyd, 698 

Eagleson, W. S., 273 

Earl, A. K., 323, 327 

Earl, Benjamin, 434 

Earl, William C, 281 

Eaton, C. M., 230 

Eaton, John, 435 

Eccles, George, 75 

Eccles, William M., 205 

Edgar, Alexander, 415^ 436 

Edison, 307 

Education (see Schools) 

Ekelberry, Jacob, 869 

Elder, John, 420 

Eldridge, Daniel B., 522 

Elliott, Hugh, 215, 216 

Ely, John, 430 

Ely & Shauck, 427 

Emerson, Charles W., 638 

Emerson, Walter S., 249, 782 

Ensign, Silas, 275, 276, 328, 352, 

Evans, Edward, 355, 356 
Evans, John W., 603 
Ewart, James K., 136, 260 
Ewing, S., 230 

Fargo (see Morton's Corners) 

Farley, John, 115 

Farming — Rich and varied soil, 107; 

Digitized by 





mixed husbandry, 107; agricul- 
tural implements, 109; first farm 
machinery, 109; grass crops and 
live stock, 110; fruit culture, 112; 
the farmer's broadening life, 112 

Farquer, William, 228 

Fate, James D., 491 

Fate, Samuel A., 917 

Faust, Amy Payiie, 334 

Feigley, David, 737 

Ferguson, William A., 733 

Finch, Sherman, 186 

Finley, Ann Eliza, 267 

Finley, Barkley, 304 

Finley, Joseph, 267 

First drain tile, 110 

First election, 73 

First farm machinery, 109 

First forest lands taken up, 233 

First marriage record, 72 

First National Bank of Mt. Gilead, 

First plows, 110 

First school in Whetstone (Youngs- 
town), 203 

First schools (by townships, alpha- 
betically), 200-3 

Five Corners (see Vail's Cross 

Flack, John, 454 

Fleming, Harper, 871 

Flemming, Henry, 435 

Flemming, William, 433 

Fliekinger, Finley H., 348, 490 

Florida Grove, 397 

Fluckey, George W., 186, 258 

Fluckey, J. H., 336 

Fogle, Mary V., 511 

Forest clearing, 234 

Foster, Saoiuel, 461 

Foust, Jacob, Jr., 310 

Foust, Jacob, Sr., 310, 314, 317 

Foust, Perry L., 836 

Foust, Wilson, 777 

Fox, Peter, 438 

Foy, John D., 257 

Franklin township, 354 

Franklin township — General descrip- 
tion; 395; defunct towns, 397; 
school houses, 398; John Cook 
and others, 399; Pulaskiville, 401. 

Freeman, Elijah, 433, 438 

Freeman, Isaac P., 380, 381 

Freeman, Thomas, 57 

French, (Mrs.) A. B., 330 

French, Calvin D. 141 

French, Oscar L. R., 136 

French, W. H., 218 

Friendsborough, 91, 305 

Frizzell, William M., 573 

Fruit culture, 112 

Fulton, 416 

Gage, Samuel P., 269, 480 

Galleher, John W., 281 

Garberich, John W., 755 

Gardner, Asa A., 149, 155^ 192 

Gardner, (Mrs.) A. G., 299* 

(lardner, Anna P., 795 

Gardner Family War Record, 891 

Gardner, John, 891 

(Gardner, Marquis, 23 

(lardner, Reuben, 445 

Gardner Washington, 148, 150, 152, 
153, 154, 155, 789 

Garver, John A., 258, 282 

Garverick, John, 392 

Gates, Lafayette, 717 

Geddes, George W., 189 

Geller, William, 57, 94, 99, 228 

George, Enoch, 407 

(leorge, Erneat P., 747 

George, Henry, 358, 359, 360 

Geyer, Jacob, 387 

Gilead township — Natural features, 
301; political, 302; early settlers, 
303; pioneers mills and roads, 
304; first villages, 305; territory 
of township, 306; Edison, 307 

Gilruth, J., 327 

(Jlenn, Alexander E., 281 

Glidden, Theodore P., 226, 230 

Globe Hotel, 256 

Godman, James E., 136 

Goge, Samuel P., 482 

Goodhue, Josiah, 468 

Goodhue, Justin A., 135 

(loodrich, Benton E., 749 

Goodwin, Isaac, 433 

Goodwin, Smith, 433 

Gordon, Asa, 385 

Gordon, George, 217 

Gordon, Mahala D., 754 

Gordon, Thomas F., 597 

Gordon, William, 361 

Granger, George, 229 

Grass crops, 110 

Graves, J. L., 230 

Green, Benjamin, 427 

Green, H. S., 230, 231, 350 

Green, Henry S., 161 

Green, William H., 137 

Greenville treaty line, 402 

Gregory, David, 344, 345 

Gregory, James, Jr., 344, 345 

Gregory, James, Sr., 322, 343, 447 

Gressner, Andrew S., 179 

(;riffin, F. F., 350 

Griffith, Frank, 228 

Griffith, Harry E., 223 

Griffith, Harry S., 223 

Griffith, J. W., 486 

Griffith, John W., 223 

Griffith, Mabel, 294 

Grove Family, 874 

Digitized by 




Grove, Mary E., 877 
GunsauluB, Calvin, 229, 231 
Gunsaulus, Frank W., 919 
Gunsaulus, George W., 258 
GunsauluB, Joseph, 181 
Gunnard, S. T., 57 
Gurley, John J., 181, 184 
Gurley, William W., 207, 489 

Hackedomy, G. Q., 230 

Haft, Mary J., 216 

Hair, Henry C, 633 

Halferty, William, 427 

Haldeman, Daniel J., 719 

Hales, Candace, 287 

Halliday, R. P., 249, 252 

Hamilton, 0. S., 338 

Hance, Thomas, 376 

Hance, William, 57, 59 

Hanna, William, 94 

Hardenbrook, Lewis, 234, 236, 242, 

Hardenbrook, Lodwick, 236, 242 

Hardenbrook, Ralph, 242, 303 

Harding, Amos, 419 

Harding, George T., 419, 423 

Harding, Salmon £., 419, 423, 424 

Harker, Charles G., 148, 149 

Harkness, Cynthia, 218-20, 435 

Harkness, Jesse S., 218-21, 434, 

Harlan, Henry H., 192, 193, 268 

Harlan, Martha Mosher, 90 

Harle, James E., 179 

Harmony Old School Baptists, 408 
Harmony township — Physical fea- 
tures, 403; swamps, 404; settlers, 
prior to 1830, 405; later settlers, 
407; religious organizations, 408; 
Penlan, 409 
Harris, Charles, 348 
Harris, Enoch, 364, 365 
Harris, Fred, 570 
Harris, James, 237, 238 
Harris, George, 237, 238 
Harris. William, 419 
Harrod, Clement L. V., 648 
Harrod, Mills, 371 
Harrod, Minor, 249 
Hart, Benjamin, 400, 426 
Hart, Enoch, 391, 392, 394 
Hartshorn, Hugh, 368 
Hartsook, C. H., 117 
Hastings, G. D., 351 
Hathaway, Joseph, 257 
Hayden, Samuel, 115, 406 
Hayden, William, 406, 408 
Heimlich, Charles, 341 
Helt, John, 365. 367 
Herbert, Lemuel, 329 
Herring, John F., 425 

Herring, O. M., 425 

Hershner, George W., 698 

Heskett, George W., 554 

Hester Mt. Seminary, 218, 436 

Hess, George, 449 

Hess, Jonathan, 365 

Hetrick, Abraham, 425 

Hewitt, Sylvester M., 136, 228, 257 

Hickman, Thomas C, 373 

Hickman, Thomas N., 650 

Hicks, Elizabeth, 203 

Hicks, S. Thomas, 696 

Hickson, Isaac, 934 

Higgins, Clinton O., 682 

Hildebrand, Adam, 598 

Hiskett, George W., 116 

Hitchcock, Peter, 188 

Hixenbaugh, James A., 922 

Hoagland, B. F., 371 

Hoffa, J. M., 223 

Hogs, 112 

Holcomb, D. B.. 351 

Holloway, David, 357 

Holmes, Samuel, 461 

Holmes, William H., 430 

Holt, Evan, 91, 354 

Holt, Frank, 627 

Holt, (Mrs.) J. H., 297 

Holt, Silas, 257 

Hook brothers, 336 

Horr, Celestia, 438 

Horr, Joshua, 331 

Horticulture (see Fruit Culture) 

Hosier, George B., 431 

Hoskins, John C, 778 

House, Beatty & Company, 306, 337 

House brothers, 397 

House, Nathan N., 242, 246 

House, Richard, 94, 188, 246, 268. 

House, Richard J., 268, 337 
House, (R.) & Company, 257 
Houston, Mrs. Lena V., 291 
Houston, William, 273 
Howard, Horton, 311 
Howell, David, 327 
Howell, D. A., 231 
Howes, Edwin, 897 
Hubbard, W. B., 284 
Hubbell, Melvina, 367 
Hubbell, Shadrack, 415, 431 
Huggins, Thomas A., 547 
Hughes, Marion, 650 
Hull, Charles, 304 
Hull, Jesse S., 226 
Hull, William, 268 
Hull, W. E., 351 
Hull & Conaway, 352 
Hulse, Crville, 873 
Hunting, 439 

Huntsman, Jonathan, 425 
Hurd, Alfred H., 285 

Digitized by 




Hurd Post No. 114, G. A. R., 285 
Kurd, Rollin C, 187 
Hyatt, Elisha, 133 
Hyatt, Thomas H., 587 
Hydraulic Press Co., 857 
Hydraulic Press Manufacturing 
Company,- 249-55 

Iberia, 460 

Iberia Methodist church, 461 
Iberia Presbyterian church, 462 
Immigration (1830-48), 79 
Indians, 21, 26, 410, 453 
Irwin, William S., 115, 166, 181, 
257, 268 

Jackson, Freeman^ 370 

Jackson, John, 461 

Jackson, L. E., 257 

Jago, Amos J., 588 

James, A. D., 230 

James, Daniel, 100, 237 

James, David, 311 

James, Ed., 351 

James, Leno R., 552 

James, Samuel E., 767 

James, Thornton L., 259 

Jamestown, 305 

Jeffrey, Albert L., 823 

Jenner, John W., 191 

Jinkins, Byran T., 540 

Johnny cake, 81 

Johnson, Harvey, 178 

Johnson, Samuel, 381 

Johnson, William, 423 

Johnston, Anna C., 285 

Johnston, Eli, 304, 437 

Johnsville, 429 

Jones, David, 358 

Jones, I^vi, 21 

Julian, John, 438 

June killing frost (1858), 108 

Kaufman, William M., 192, 193, 258 

Keese, »lohn, 436 

Keller, Andrew J., 694 

Kelley, Allen, 397 

Kelley, Charles, 230 

Kelley, H. R., 229 

Kelley, James H., 815 

Kellev, William, 397 

Kelly^ Samuel, 183 

Kelly, Walden, 137 

Kenyon, William, 421 

Ketcham, Charles W., ir»9 

Kile, Nicholas, 364, 365 

Kile, Peter, 364, 365 

Kingman, Alexander, 414 

Kingman, Joseph, 413, 414 

Kingman, Stephen C, 192 

Kinney, John M., 223 

Kinsell, Enoch B., 57, 94, 188 

Kineell, Russell B., 156 

Knights of Pythias (historical 

sketch), 289 
**Know Nothings,*' 222 
Koon, John, 152 
Kreis, Jacob, 173 

Lane, W. H., 230 
Langdon, William J., 752 
Laning, J. F., 42 
Lanning, James B., 683 
LaufTer, M. F., 348 
Lavelle, F. N., 323 
Lawyers (see Bench and Bar) 
Leaehner, John, 333 
Lee, Orson A., 906 
I^fever, Blanche, 294 
Lefever, Wilson (i., 635 
Lefever, William S., 788 
Lehner, Milton C, 660 
Leiter, Samuel, 428 
Lemmon, Henry, 459 
Lepp, Henry, 689 
Lepp, William, 552 
Lersch, H. V., 75 
levering, Allen, 268 
Levering, Byram, 779 
lowering, Rachel Ella, 221 
Levering, William, 399 
Levering, William A., 643 
Lewis, Bryant B., 746 

Lewis, James B., 567 
l^wis, John W., 672 
Lewis, Jonathan, 154 
Lewis, Mabel, 297 

Lewis, Milton, 205, 207 
l^wis, Morgan, 467 

Lincoln Christian church, 415 

Lincoln township — Created, 410; pio- 
neer settlement, 412; churches and 
schools, 415; Fulton, 416 

Lindsay, Christopher K., 57, 98 

Linn, William, 396 

Live stock, 110 

Llewellyn, James C, 898 

Lloyd, David, 167 

Lockart, William, 426 

Loeffert (John) Cigar Company, 347 

lx)g cabins, 80 

Log rolling, 235 

Long, Hubert C, 596 

lx)ng, Thomas E., 513 

Long (H. C.) Handle Company, 347 

Lord, J. M., 229, 231 

Lord, Richard E., 225, 358, 359, 362 

Loveland, Eleazar, 373 

Lover, Philip, 343 

Luce. Reuben, 395 

Lvnian, Henry C, 695 

L'vman, John S., 496 

Lvon, Stephen B., 584 

Digitized by 




Lyon, Tom, 90 
Lyon, Walker, 84 
Lyon, William, 366 

Maeomber, Aaron, 368 
Main, Hamilton, 227 
Mansfield, Edwin, 190 
Manville, Fleming, 365 
Marengo, 57, 92, 379-81 
Marion county, 54, 69, 92 
Markey, John, 430 
Martin, Ebenezer, 133 
Marshman, James, 139, 181 
Marvin, Alexander, 373 
Marvin, JameM, 370 
Marvin, Matthew, 367 
Marvin, W. H., 324 
Marvin, William H., 269 
Masters, George F., 831 
Masters, W. Odell, 844 
Mateer, Elizabeth Porter, 86 
Mateer, Emeline, 287 
Mateer, (Gertrude, 287 
Mateer, Lemuel R., 88 
Mateer, Margaret B., 88 
Mateer, Mary E., 88 
Mateer, Ralph V., 88 
Mateer, Ross N., 86, 87 
Mateer, Tolla B., 192, 193 
Mateer, William N., 86 
Mather, Dan S., 805 
Mathews, William D., 193 
Matthews, Alice Wilson, 296 
Matthews, William, 387 
Matthews, William D., 286 
Maxwell, Charles, 323, 351 
May, Manuel, 190 
McAnall, Agnes, 294 
McAnall, Clement, 574 
McAninch, Seymour, 715 
McCammon, James L., 487 
McCartney, Daniel, 100-3 
McCausland, John, 766 
McClenehan, Samuel, 392 
McConica, Alf, 230 
McClure, Andrew, 323 
McCormick, Emma Ward, 296 
McCormick, J. C, 203, 232 
McCormick, Jacob C, 674 
McCoy, Arch, 421 
McCoy, Thomas, 323 
McCoy, Thomas W., 181, 185 
McCracken, Charles, 405 
McCracken, Elsie, 287 
McCracken, James, 355 
McCracken, Mason W., 502 
McCracken, William, 517 
McCracken, William W., 133 
McCray, Henry L., 190 
McCrary, James, 406 
McCrory, John, 227 

McDonald, William, 72 

McFarland, Dr., 423 

McFarland, Joseph, 227, 813 

McFarland, Ray L., 839 

McFarland, (Mrs.) W. C, 299 

McFarland, Willis C, 848 

Mciiinnis, David, 372 

McfJowen, B. B., 249 

McCiowen, (B. B.) & Son, 249 

McKee, Hod, 250 

McKibbin, John S., 152 

McKinnon, Hugh A., 855 

McKinnon, Jane Jago, 296 

McMillan, Edward M., 208 

McMillan, Frederick N., 208 

McMillin, Frank B., 253, 255, 857 

McMillin, Harry B., 255, 269, 704 

McMillin, Margaret Bower, 296 

McMillin, Milton, 273 

McNeal, John, 710 

McPeek, Henry, 169 

Mead, L. W., 380 

Meckley, Edward D., 671 

Medical profession (see Physicians) 

Memorial day (Mt. («ilead), 260 

Mercer, A. J., 223 

Meredith, Bryant M., 731 

Meredith, Jesse, 135 

Meredith, John, 356, 357 

Meredith, Thomas, 407 

Merrin, William, 205 

Merritt, Matthew, 385, 387 

Merritt, Thomas, 385 

Meteor shower (1833), 359 

Meyers, Frederick, 461 

Miles, David, 57 

Miles, Enos, Sr., 201, 360, 361, 362, 

Miles, James G., 281 
Miles, J. Rufus, 282 
Miles, Milton F., 140 

Miles' Cross Roads (see Cliester- 

Miller, Dr., 232 
Miller, David, 355, 358 
Miller, Edward C. S., 205 
Miller, Frank H., 644 
Miller, Gilbert E., 75, 154 
Miller, Hiram, 131, 179 
Miller, T^wis, 765 
Miller, Ralph P., 282 
Miller, Sarah George, 292, 296 
Miller, W. E., 255, 269 
Miller, William E., 798 
Milligan, John, 316 
Mills, Dick, 344 
Mills, Jesse, 344 
Mills, T. S., 230 

Mitchell, Abigail Harris, 237, 238 
Mitchell, Dan., 391, 393, 426 
Mitchell, George, 454 
Mitchell, Lavina, 394 

Digitized by 




Mitchell, Lewis C, 735 

Mitchell, Robert B., 257 

Mitchell, William H., 192, 193 

Mitchell, Z. H., 393, 395 

Mixed farming, 107 

Moccabee, W. D., 350 

Modie, Isabel N., 670 

Modie, George W., 669 

Moffett, John, 392 

Mohican river, 418, 424, 452 

Molison, J. T., 350 

Moody, Miller, 385 

Moore, Bruce, 206 

Moore, John M., 834 

Morehouse, Albert P., 104 

Morehouse, Daniel, 435 

Morehouse, Stephen, Jr., 433, 435 

Morris, Jane, 330 

Morris, Joseph, 100, 330 

Morrison, Thomas P., 397 

Morrow county — Geology of, 7; 
building stone, clays, etc., 10; 
drainage, soil, natural wealth, 11; 
Mound Builders, 13; Garden of 
Eden in (?), 17; near-by Indian 
massacres, 19; early Indian 
trails, 26; opponents to its crea- 
tion, 56; Morrow *8 final cam- 
paign, 59; county's creative act, 
68; first year of infancy, 71; 
official representatives, 78; 

Morrow County Agricultural So- 
ciety, 113 

Morrow County Building and Loan 
Company, 347 

Morrow County Farmers' Mutual 
Insurance Company, 348 

** Morrow County Herald,'' 351 

* * Morrow County Independent, ' ' 

Morrow County Infirmary, 75 

** Morrow County Republican," 223 

*' Morrow County Sentinel," 222, 

Morrow County Telephone Com- 
pany, 258 

Morton, Mr., 382 

Morton's Corners, 376, 382 

Morton's Corner's Wesleyan Metho- 
dist church, 382 

Mosher, Asa, 90, 91, 233, 236 
304, 308, 311 

Mosher, Joseph, 115, 116 

Mosher, Robert, 311 

Mosher, R. F., 348 

Mound Builders, 386 

Mozier, William H., 155 

Mt. Gilead, 56, 71, 86, 92, 94, 233, 
237, 264, 302; banks, 268; first 
permanent settlers, 236; indus- 
tries, 247; water works, 259 

Mt. Gilead Baptist church, 277 

Mt. Gilead Church of Christ, 

Scientist, 280 
Mt. Gilead Dry Goods Company, 

Mt. Gilead Episcopal church, 279 
Mt. Gilead Free Public Library, 296 
Mt. Gilead High School graduates, 

1876-1910, 209 
Mt. Gilead Knights of Pythias, 288 
Mt. Gilead Masons, 283 
Mt. Gilead Methodist church, 274 
Mt. Gilead National Bank, 268 
Mt. Gilead Presbyterian church, 

Mt. Gilead Savings and Loan Com- 
pany, 269 
'*Mt. Gilead Sentinel," 223 
Mt. Gilead Sorosis, 291, 295, 296 
Mt. Gilead Universalist church, 278 
Mt. Gilead Union schools, 203 
Mt. Gilead Woman's Christian 

Temperance Union, 297 
Mt. Pisgah church, 363 
Mulford, Lewis, 329 
Munk, Armondo L., 640 
Myers, George W., 512 

National Bank of Morrow County, 
269, 704 

Neal, C. H., 230, 350 

Neal, E. E., 352 

Neal, Johnson, 352 

Neal, William, 395 

Neff, Aaron, 230 

Nelson, James W., 582 

'*New Mocassin" (see Galion) 

Newson, Abraham, 233, 245 

Newson, Henry B., 207 

Newson, Joseph P., 274 

Newson, Lucy Friend, 245 

Newspapers, 222 

Niblet, Reuben, 222 

Nichols, George, 322 

Nichols, W. C, 323 

Nickols Ann, 244 

Nickols, Harriet, 244 

Nickols, John, 234, 243 

Nickols, Margaret, 244 

Nickols, Martha, 244 

Nickols, Mary Elizabeth, 244 

Nickols, Massey, 243 

Nickols, Nathan, Jr., 242, 243 

Nickols, Sarah Thomas, 239, 244 

Nimmons, John, 382 

Noe, Robert L., 380 

Norris, Caleb H., 194, 337 

Norris, Daniel, 323, 339 

North Bloomfield township — For- 
mation and natural features, 418; 
early settlers, ' 419; schools and 
churches, 421; roads and post- 
oflices, 422; Blooming Grove, 422 

Digitized by 




North Canaan Methodist church, 387 
North Cardington, 339, 340 
North Woodbury, 430 
North Woodbury Evangelical 

Lutheran church, 428 
Northwest Territory, 35, 43, 44, 48, 


Odd Fellows first lodge, 281 

Ogle, John, 400, 425 

Ohio — Always a state, 3; surface of 
country, 4; chief rivers, 4; 
geology, 7; original Ohio man, 16; 
Indians as a race, 18; Ohio, -the 
Battle ground, 19; as a state, 27; 
physical aspects, 28; first settle- 
ments, 29; coal, iron and salt, 
30; interior commerce, 33; educa- 
tion and charity, 34; future de- 
velopment, 37; ancestry of the 
Ohioan, 38; evolution of coun- 
ties, 42, 53 

Ohio Central College, 215, 462 

Ohio State Board of Agriculture, 
112, 113 

Ohio Stave Company, 347 

Old carding mill, Cardington, 343 

Old mills, 311 

Olds, Anna Irwin, 296 

Olds, Benjamin, 192, 193, 258 

Olds Brothers, 376 

Olds, Comfort, 384, 385 

Olds, James, 148, 149, 181, 183, 185 

Olds, Walter, 194 

Olentangy river, 8, 25, 391, 418, 463, 

Oliver, Johnson, 327 

Olmstead, Francis C, 382 

Olmsteadville, 382 

Orr, John, 388 

Osborn, Byron H., 686 

Osbom, David, 43ft 

Orsbom, Thomas, 365 

Owl creek, 354, 396, 424 

Pace, Reuben, 505 
Page, James, 229 
Page, Marcus, 381 
Page, Samuel, 229, 381 
Pagetown, 381 
Palmer, Kelly, 371 
Park Museum, 330 
Parrott, Mellville, 804 
Patee & Cone, 467 
Patee, Henry, 468 
Patee Town, 468 
Patten, Thomas A., 823 
Patton, Joseph, 85 

Patterson, James, 217 

Payne, Ezra, 333 

Payne, Morgan, 331 

Payne, Morgan, 331, 338, 340 

Pearl, Alexander, 614 

Pearl, Joseph^ 615 

Pearson, Benjamin H., 98, 277 

Peck, J. S., 336 

Peck, T., 323 

Penlan, 409 

Pennock, Isaac H^ 230, 231, 259 

Pennock, L. H.^ 228 

Perry township — Physical charac- 
teristics, 424; organized, 425; 
early arrivals, 425; churches and 
schools, 428; Johnsville, 429; 
North Woodbury, 430; general 
description, 432; church and 
school side by side, 433; pioneer 
characters and events, 435; 
South Woodbury, 437; West 
Liberty, 438; early settlement on 
Alum creek, 444 

Perry township Old School Baptists, 

Peoples, David, 397 

Peoples, Samuel, 394 

Peoples' Savings Bank Company, 

Peoples, Zenas B., 930 

Peterson, Sarah Ann, 72 

Phillips, Erasmus, 203 

Phillips, Orlando D., 523 

Phillips, Willis T., 909 

Physicians — Demands on the coun- 
try doctor, 224; of the county, 
225; Morrow County Medical 
Society, 231 

Pierce, Linneus, 808 

Pierce, Lois A., 811 

Pierce, Perry N., 808 

Pierce, Roy L., 485 

Pioneer men and women, 76 

Pipes, Alpheous L., 654 

Pipes, lona M., 659 

Pitman, William, 156 

Place, James H., 840 

Place, John W., 281 

Pleasant Grove Disciple church, 395 

Pleasant Hill church, 409 

Polard, John C, 177 

Poland, Samuel T., 821 

Pollock, Edwin T., 176, 208, 889 

Pollock, Joseph H., 249, 252 

Pomerene, Julius C., 191 

Pompey section, 414 

Porter, James R., 764 

Porterfield, Caroline, 466 

Potter, E. J., 88, 438 

Potter, Lemuel, 368 

Powell, Louis K., 192, 193, 257, 484 

Powell, Sanford D., 910 

Digitized by 




Press (see Newsixapera) 

Probate judges, 196 

Progress Club, Mt. Gilead, 294, 297 

Prominent men and women (by 

townships, alphabetically), 264- 

Prophet, H. S., 222 
Prophet, Hinchman S., 139 
Prosecuting attorneys, 196 
Pulaskiville, 401 
Puns, G. W., 328 
Pur is (Mrs.) Theodore, 333 
Pythian Sisters, 290 

Railroads, 247 
Raniey, Burton C, 750 
Ramey, John W., 259 
Ramey, Walter H., 612 
Ramsay, John A., 218 
Randall, Richard H., 225 
Randolph, Alford F., 936 
Randolph, Hiram F., 57, 94 
Randolph, James F., 438 
Randolph, J. M., 230 
Randolph, Nathan F., 433, 437 
Rathbone, Justus H., 290 
Rathbone (see Pythian) Sisters 
Reed, Ed. F., 218 
Reed, William, 229 
Ressley, John, 230 
Retter, Henry, 323 
Rhodebeck, Sylvester, 75 
Rhodes, John H., 140 ' 
Rice, John, 384, 385 
Rigby, Henry, 128 
Rigour, Joseph D., 281 
Rigour (J. D.) & Company, 257 
Riley, Edward R., 186 
Rinehart, Amos, 520 
Rinehart, Benjamin F., 786 
Rinehart, Margaretta, 88 
Rinehart, Michael B., 88, 89 
River Cliff Cemetery, 259, 261 
Roads, 79, 305, 316, 413, 454, 466 
Robb, John P., 218 
Roben, Douglas, 176 
Robison, W. B., 269, 270 
Rogers, Disney, 181, 186 
Rogers, George W., 854 
Rogers, Hugh G., 852 
Rogers, John H., 142 
Roger's lake, 364 
Romans, O. S., 348 
Rood, Thomas J., 622 
Rose, Andrew M., 661 
Rose, David C, 130, 138 
Rosecrans, Crandall, 365 
Rosecrans, John, 375 
Roy, John, 246 
Ruhl, John, 430 
Ruhlen, Charles A., 604 

Rule, Jacob, 802 
Rule, Newton, 75 
Runyan, J. J., 179 
Rush, William, 391 
Russell, John G., 268 
Russell, J. W., 230 
Russell, John, 393 
Russell, O. P., 323 
Russell-Miles, M. Belle, 207 
Ruthardt, Charles, 566 

Sams, Henry, 400 

Sanford, William, 367 

Schaaf, Elizabeth D., 296 

Schimpf Family, 332 

Schools — State laws, 198; pioneer, 
199; defects in present system, 
202; Union schools of Mt. Gilead, 
203; superintendents, 205; distin- 
guished graduates, 205; high 
school teachers and course of 
study, 212; Ohio. Central College, 
215; Hesper Mt. Seminary, 218; 
Alum Creek Academy, 221 

Scott, Annette M. Bartlett, 207, 525 

Scott, George M., 160 

Scott, Josiah, 188 

Scuddle, William, 373 

Sears, Floyd, 373 

Sears, Schuyler E., 277, 728 

Sell, Adam E., 685 

Sellars, Jane, 534 

Sellars, John, 529 

Sellers, John, 116 

Sexton, James W., 631 

Sexton, Sarah F., 632 

Shadd, Mary G., 203 

Shaff, C. W, 268 

Shaffer, George, 361 

Shaffer, William, 387 

Sharp, Peter, 461 

Sharp, William G., 887 

Sharpe, George W., 222 

Sharpe, Thomas, 314 

Sharpe, William G., 222 

Sharrock, Abner, 457 

Sharrock, Benjamin, 422, 457, 458 

Sharrock, Everett, 458 

Shauck, John, 268, 426, 430 

Shauck, William H., 430 

Shauck (see Johnsville) 

Shaw, David, 397 

Shaw, George A., 837 

Shaw, Henry H., 226, 229, 231 

Shaw, Jonathan, 465, 467 

Shaw, John, 464 

Shaw, Junius B., 150 

Shaw, Salathiel B., 397 

Shaw, Samuel, 328, 397 

Shedd, James G., 207 

Shedd, Henry, 271, 272, 273, 462 

Sheep, 112 

Digitized by 




Sheldon, Anna, 907 

Sheldon, R. Anna, 371 

Sheriffs, 196 

Sherm, Jackson & Company, 257 

Sherman, Allen, 376 

Sherman, Delmo, 308 

Sherman, E. C, 350 

Shively, Frank, 781 

Shotwell, Benjamin W., 135 

Shumaker, Josiah F., 690 

Shunk, John, 248, 343 

Shunk, William, 345 

Shunk & Wagner, 345 

Shur, Jacob, 358 

Shur, John, 323, 345 

Shur, William, 57 

Shurr, A. O., 257 

Shurr, Lafayette B., 801 

Sief, Jacob, 420 

Simms, D. B., 186 

Simms, W. J., 255 

Simonson, William, 115 

Sims, Richard, 329 

Singer, George S., 160, 330 

Singrey, D. M. L., 228, 426 

Singrey, Jehu, 425, 426 

Skinner, Joseph, 372 

Smiley, Aura Bennett, 297 

Smiley, Lettie Detwiler, 292 

Smith, B. F., 284 

Smith, Benjamin C, 599 

Smith, Charles B., 846 

Smith, Daniel G. W., 714 

Smith, David, 281 

Smith, G. v., 250, 251 

Smith, James, 367, 370 

Smith, Jeremiah, 406, 409 

Smith, John, 324 

Smith, Nancy E., 581 

Smith, Seneca A., 576 

Smith, Simeon, 468 

Smith, Timothy, 365 

Smith-White, Florence, 350 

Snider, Denton J., 206 

Snider, Samuel P., 150, 151, 153, 155 

Snyder, Luciana, 786 

Snyder, Samuel S., 709 

South Bloomfield township — First 
settlers locate, 364; schools and 
churches, 367; political and phy- 
sical, 368; Sparta, 369-73; Bloom- 
field, 373 

South Woodbury, 437 

Spalding, (Mrs.) W. S., 203 

Sparta, 369-73 

Sparta M. E. church, 370 

Sparta Christian church, 370 

Spaulding, (Mrs.) W. S., 277 

Spenser, Jesse, 412 

' * Spongetowu * ' (see Galion) 

Sprague, Rachel, 590 

St. James, 470 

Stanley, Winfield S., 626 

Stanton, Jesse, 438 

Stantontown, 438 

Stansberry, Jonas, 437, 443 

State senators, 73 

State representatives, 73 

Stark, David A., 159 

Steam Corners, 455 

Steffee, J. W. 

Steiner, William, 414 

Steiner's Comer, 414 

Steritt, M. W., 379 

Stevens, Abednego, 401 

Stevens, Jacob, 22 

Stevens, Nancy, 22 

Stevens, William, 401 

Stevenson, Elsie, 294 

Stiles, George P., 192, 323 

Stiltz, Philip, 425 

Stinchcomb, James W., 181, 185 

257, 284 
Stone, J. F., 256 
Stone, Johnson, 372 
Story, Nehemiah, 458, 460 
Stout, John, 425 
Straw, Benjamin, 459 
Straw, Samuel, 304 
Strong, Nellie, 398 
Stull, Solomon P., 647 
Stultz, Elmer S., 924 
Sunbury road, 413 
Swallum, John, 392 
Swan, Joseph R., 188 
Sweeny, Edith P., 287 
Sweet land, Mrs. Cornelia, 712 
Sweetland, Duane, 712 
Swetland, Augustus, 366, 370 
Swetland, A. W., 367, 370, 372 
Swetland, Cornelia, 568 
Swetland, Giles, 366 
Swetland, Joseph C, 676 
Swetland, Mary E., 680 
Swetland, Warren, 761 
Swetland, William L., 567 
Swingley, David L., 230, 231, 259 
Swingley, Fred, 228 
Sylvester, Eli S., 227 

Taber, William G., 572 
Taggart, Frank, 191 
Talmage, Byron L., 206 
Talmage, David, 245 
Talmage, Irma, 208 
Talmage, M. Burr, 252, 269 
Talmage, Mell B., 255 
Talmage, Vide, 297 
Taylor, James, 405 
Taylor, Rachel, 590 
Taylor, William, 829 
Taylor Family, 590 
Taverns, 80 

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Terrill, William L., 205 

Terry, Edward, 154 

Thoman, J. A., 229 

Thomas, Smith, 249 

Thompson, F. E., 230 

Thompson, George B., 192 

Thompson, John, 322, 324 

Thompson, Manna, 242 

Thompson, Thomas C, 328, 336 

Three Mile Strip, 302, 306 

Thrift, Stiles, 179 

Throckmorton, Charles W., 700 

Throckmorton, Mary H., 701 

Thuma, Benjamin F., 928 

Thuma, B. F., 75 

Tims, J. H., 912 

Tinis, J. H., 230 

Toledo & Ohio Central Railroad, 248 

Townsend, Clayton, 221 

Trapping, 439 

Traux, Richard, 396 

Tressel, G. C, 218 

Trimble, James S., 116, 256, 257 

Trowbridge, Joseph, 355 

Troy township United Brethren 

church, 455 
Troy township — General description, 

452; first white settlers, 453; 

Steam Corners, 455 
Truex, Benjamin P., 393 
Tucker, A. Q., 249, 250, 251, 252, 

Tucker, Nathan, 247 
Tupper, Austin, 199 
Turner, J. G., 348 
Tumey, Lafayette, 845 
Tuthill, David, 430 
Tyrone (see Patee Town) 

Underground railroad, 460, 461 
Underground railway, 126 
Underwood, David L., 546 
** Union Register, '* 222 
Ustick, Henry, 237, 241 

Vairs Cross Roads, 382 
Van Buskirk, Elkanah, 430 
Van Buskirk, I^wrence, 428 
Van Buskirk, William, 425 
Vanduser, Abi^aham, 444, 446 
Vance, Joseph, 354 
Van Horn, James J., 177 
Vannatta, Charles C, 703 
Vaughan, W. P., 348 
Vaughan, Walter W., 506 
Vaughan, William P., 583 
Vaughan, W. P., 192 
Vigor, J. F., 230 
Vincent, Fred W., 500 
Vining, Jonas, 378, 382 

Virtue, D. B., 230 
Virtue, Samuel, 569 
Voorhees, Richard M., 192 
Vorhies, L. B., 226 
Vorhies, Lyman B,, 257 

Wagner, E., 800 

Wagner, H., 340, 345 

Wagner (Mrs.) H., 340 

Walhonding county, 57, 60, 61 

Walker, Alexander, 405 

Walker, John, 356, 358 

Wallace, William, 422 

Wallace, W. F., 351 

Waring, J. B., 323 

Warner, John, 421 

Waters, William, 443 

Watson, Amariah, 453 

Watson, Joseph, 230 

Watt, David, 98 

Watt, David, 222, 223 

Washington township — Benjarai^i 

Sharrock and other pioneers, 457; 

schools and churches, 460; Iberia, 

Weatherby, A. S., 227, 231 
Weatherby, Peter, 133 
Weaver, Martin, 348 
Weaver, Henry, 193 
Webb, Dewitt C, 256 
Webster, Charles, 233, 239 
Webster, CTiarles C, 238, 239, 304 
Webster, Marvin G., 304 
Weiser, (Mrs.) E. S., 333 
Welch, John, 188 
Welch, William, 257 
West Liberty, 438 
West Point, 395 
Westbrook, Hiram, 370 
Westbrook, Solomon, 377, 381 
West field, Cardington & Chester- 

ville pike, 415 
Westfleld township — The Shaws, 

464; schools, roads and mails, 

466; Westfield, 468; Indian names 

for streams, 469; St. James, 470 
Wnieeler, C. C, 252 
Wheeler, James, 904 
Whetstone (see Olentangy) 
Whetstone Mills settlement, 315 
Whetstone (Youngstown), 236 
''Whig Sentinel, '^ 98 
''Whig Sentinel,** 222, 223 
Whipple, Bartorn, 433 • 
\^Tiite, Florence R., 606 
White, Noah, 308, 413 
White, Oscar A., 223 
White, Paul, 304 
Whitney, A. A., 258 
Whitney, Amza A., 637 
Whitney (A. A.) & Sons, 257 

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Whitney, Samuel, 373 

Wieder, Daniel, 323 

Wieland, Emma, 297 

Wieland, Frank, 208 

Wieland, Nettie, 285 

Wieland, William F., 285 

Wildcat church (see Harmony Old 

School Baptists) 
Williams, J. L., 230 
Williams, James W., 229 
Williams, William, 223 
Williamsport, 394 
Williamson, J. C, 192 
Williamson, John C, 488 
Willits, Edward M., 595 
Willits, E. M., 348 
Wilson, Christopher, 378 
Wilson, James, 387 
Wilson, WUliam E., 518 
Wilson, William, 249 
Wirick, Peter, 425 
Woman's Twentieth Century Club, 

Mt. Gilead, 292, 295, 296, 297 
Wolfe, Adam, 468 

Wolfe, Giarles, 344 

Wolfe, Thomas E., 190 

Wood, C. H., 192, 193 

Wood, Daniel, 437, 443 

Wood, G. L., 297 

Wood, Jonathan, 91, 236, 414 

Wood, John, 206 — 

Wood, Matilda, 323 

Wood vie w( see North Woodbury) 

Worden, Samuel R., 819 

Wyatt, Samuel, 325 

Wyker, James R., 652 

Yeager, Joseph H., 667 
Yeomans, Alban, 925 
Young, Charles C, 818 
Young, Jacob, 305 
Young, Jacob, 236, 237 
Young, John, 57 
Young, Mary, 237, 238 
Young, William H,, 137 
Youngstown (see Whetstone) 

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Ohio Always a State — Surface op Country — Chief Rivers — 
Geology of the State — Geology of the County — ^BuHiDING 
Stone, Clays, Etc. — Drainage, Soil and Natural Wealth— 
**Ohio, Good and True/' 

The state of Ohio, comprises an extent of country 210 miles 
north and south, 220 miles east and west, in length and breadth 
25,576,969 acres — and is a part of the old Northwest Territory, 
which embraced all of the present states of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, 
Michigan, Wisconsin, and that part of Minnesota that lies east of 
the Mississippi river. Ohio is watered by the finest system of 
riyers on the globe; while its inland seas are without a parallel. 
Its entire southern boundary is traversed by the Ohio river and 
upon the north are fresh-water lakes, inland seas capable of float- 
ing the largest ships in the commerce of the world. In the state 
are innumerable streams of limpid water, which come from glen 
and dale, from hill and valley, from forest and prairie, all avenues 
of health, commerce and prosperity. Ohio is in the best part of 
this great Northwest Territory — south of its rivers are tropical 
heaths ; north of Lake Erie are polar snows and a polar climate. 

Ohio Always a State. 

The territory comprised in Ohio has remained the same sinc« 
its organization. Ohio history differs somewhat from other states, 
as it was never under territorial government. When it was 
created it was made a state, and did not pass through the stage 
incident to most other commonwealths — that is, to exist as a 
territory before being advanced to the powers of a state. Ohio's 
boundaries are, on the north, Lake Erie and Michigan ; on the west, 
Indiana ; on the south, the Ohio river, separating it from Kentucky ; 
and, on the east, Pennsylvania and West Virginia. 


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SuBPACB OP Country. 

The face of the country in Ohio, taken as a whole, presents 
the appearance of a monotonous plain. It is moderately undulat- 
ing, but not mountainous, and is excavated in places by the streams 
coursing over its surface, whose waters have forced a way for 
themselves through cliffs of sandstone rock, leaving abutments of 
this material in bold outline. There are no mountain ranges, 
geological uplifts or peaks. A low ridge enters the state near the 
northeast comer and crosses it in a southwesterly direction, emerg- 
ing near the intersection of the 40th degree of north latitude with 
the western boundary of the state. This ** divide" separates the 
lake and Ohio river waters, and maintains an elevation of a little 
more than thirteen hundred feet above the level of the ocean. 

North of this ridge the surface is generally more level, with 
a gentle inclination toward the lake. The central part of Ohio is 
generally level, about dne thousand feet above the sea level, slightly 
inclining southward. The southern part of the state is rather 
hilly, the valleys growing deeper as they incline toward the great 
valley of the Ohio, which is several hundred feet below the general 
level of the state. In the southern counties the surface is generally 
diversified by the inequalities produced by the excavating power of 
the Ohio river and its tributaries, erocised through long periods 
of time. There are a few prairies or plains in the central and 
northwestern parts of the state, but over its greater portion origi- 
nally existed immense growths of timber. 

The ** divide,'' or water-shed referred to, between the waters 
of Lake Erie and the Ohio river, is less elevated in Ohio than in 
New York and Pennsylvania, though the difference is small. It 
is said that to a person passing over the state in a balloon its 
surface presents an unvaring plain, while to one sailing down the 
Ohio river, it appears mountainous. On this river are bluffs 
ranging from two hundred and fifty to six hundred feet in height. 
As one ascends the tributaries of the river, these bluffs diminish 
in height until they become gentle undulations, while toward the 
sources of the streams, in the central part of the state, the banks 
often become low and marshy. 

Chief Rivers. 

The principal rivers are the Ohio, Muskingum, Scioto and 
Miamiy on the southern slope, emptying into the Ohioj on the 

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northern, the Maumee, Sandusky, Huron and Cuyahoga, emptying 
into Lake Erie, and all but the first named entirely in Ohio. 

The Ohio, the chief river in the state and from which it 
derives its name, with its tributaries, drains a country whose area 
is over two hundred thousand square miles in extent and extends 
from the water-shed to Alabama. The river was first discovered 
by La Salle in 1669, and was by him navigated as far as the falls, 
at Louisville, Kentucky. It is formed by the junction of the 
Alleghany and Monongahela rivers, in Pennsylvania, whose waters 
unite at Pittsburg. The entire length of the river from its source 
to its mouth is nine hundred and fifty miles. Its current is very 

The Scioto is one of the largest inland streams in the state, 
and is one of the most beautiful rivers. It rises in Hardin county 
and flows southeasterly to Columbus, where it receives its largest 
affluent, the Olentangy or Whetstone, after which its direction is 
southerly until it enters the Ohio at Portsmouth. It flows through 
one of the richest valleys in the state, and has for its companion the 
Ohio and Erie canal for a distance of ninety miles. Its tributaries 
are, besides the Whetstone, the Darby, Walnut and Paint creeks. 

The Muskingum river is formed by the junction of the Tusca- 
rawas and the Walhonding rivers which rise in the northern part 
of the state and unite at Coshocton. Prom the junction the river 
flows in a southeastern course about one hundred miles, through a 
rich and populous valley, to the Ohio at Marietta, the oldest settle- 
ment in the state. Where it enters the Ohio, the Muskingum is 
over two hundred yards wide. Through all the valleys of Ohio 
mounds, earthworks and various other fortifications are to be 

The Miami river rises in Hardin county near the headwaters 
of the Scioto and runs southwesterly to the Ohio, passing Troy, 
Dayton and Hamilton. It is a beautiful and rapid stream, flow- 
ing through a highly productive and populous valley, in which 
limestone and hard timber are abundant. Its total length is about 
one hundred and fifty miles. 

The Maumee is the largest river in the northern part of Ohio. 
It rises in Indiana and flows northeasterly into Lake Erie. About 
eighty miles of its course are in Ohio. 

The other rivers north of the **di\dde" are smaller streams, 
but afford a large amount of good water power, much used by 
mills and manufactories. 

A remarkable feature of the topography of Ohio is its almost 

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total absence of natural lakes or ponds. A very few small ones 
are found near the watershed, but all too small to be of any prac- 
tical value skve as watering places for stock. 

Lake Erie forms nearly all the northern boundary of the state. 
It is two hundred. and ninety miles long and fifty miles wide at its 
greatest point. There are no islands except in the shallow water 
at the west end, and very few bays. The greatest depth of the 
lake is off Long Point, where the water is three hundred and twelve 
feet deep. 

Lake Erie has several excellent harbors in Ohio, among which 
are Cleveland, Toledo, Sandusky, Port Clinton and Ashtabula. In 
1818 the first steamboat was launched on the lake. 

Geology op the State. 

On the general geological map of the state are two sections 
of Ohio, taken at each northern and southern extremity These 
show, with the map, the general outline of the geological features 
of Ohio, and are all that can be given here. Both sections show 
the general arrangements of the formation, and prove that they 
lie in sheets resting one upon another, but not horizontally. 

The rocks underlying the state all belong i9 three of the great 
groups which geologists have termed ** systems,'* namely, the 
Silurian, Devonian and Carboniferous. Each of these are again 
sub-divided, for convenience, and numbered. Thus the Silurian 
system includes the Cincinnati group, the Medina and Clinton 
groups, the Niagara group, and the Salina and Water-Line groups. 
The Devonian system includes the Oriskany sandstone, the Carboni- 
ferous limestone, the Hamilton group, the Huron shale and the 
Erie shales. The Carboniferous system includes the Waverly 
group, the Carboniferous Conglomerate, the Coal Measures and the 
Drift. This last includes the surface, and has been divided into 
six parts, numbering from the lowest, viz : A glacialed surface, the 
Glacial Drift, the Erie Clays, the Forest Bed, the Iceberg Drift 
and the Terraces or Beaches, which mark intervals of stability in 
the gradual recession of the water surface to its present level. 

Geology op the County. 

The geological series of the county embraces that much dis- 
puted horizon that lies near the jpnction of the Devonian with the 
Carboniferous. It has been satisfactorily shown, in the Michigan 

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Survey, however, that the upper Waverly belongs to the latter, 
thus dividing between the two ages the series usually embraced 
under the single designation of Waverly. For the upper or 
fossiliferous portion of the old Waverly, the term Marshall group 
has been used in the Michigan Survey, and that name intended to 
cover the base of the Carboniferous, antedates all other names. 

To what extent these subdivisions exist in Morrow county is not 
possible to determine from the exposures that occur. It is only 
kno\\Ti that there is (1) in the eastern part of the country a free 
grained, shaly sandstone, which is probably some part of the 
Cuyahoga shale and sandstone, although having more the lithologi- 
cal character of the Logan sandstone, its equivalent in the southern 
part of the state. 

(2) Succeeding this shaly sandstone is a valuable series of 
even-bedded sandstones, useful for building, and extensively 
quarried, the equivalent of the Berea grit. 

(3) Below this is a blackish slate, although its exact junction 
with the overlying Berea grit has not been observed. It may be 
separated from the Berea grit by a thin stratum of shale represent- 
ing the Bedford shale. The thickness of this black shale has not 
been made out. It is succeeded by (4) a considerable thickness 
of bluish or gray ihale seldom met with. In some marshy places 
an inflammable gas rises spontaneously, though it is not known 
to be the same as that which rises from the shale below the drift. 
The surface is clayey, and the soil needs artificial drainage. 

Thus in the eastern part of the county, where the sandstone 
beds lie nearly horizontal wherever exposed, there are short undula- 
tions in the natural surface of over three himdred feet, and that, 
too, without any exposure of the rock. It is altogether improb- 
able that the drift has that thickness. It is more reasonable to 
suppose that the rocks themselves suffered erosion, and embraced 
valleys running according to the direction of drainage before the 
deposit of the drift. 

The eastern half of the county is decidedly rolling, and even 
hilly; the western half is more level. In the latter section is 
found a considerable extent of swamp land which gives rise to three 
streams that grow to some importance further south, the east 
branch of the Whetstone, Alum creek, and the Big Belly or Big 
Walnut, as it is known further in its course. On the eastern side, 
the three branches of Owl Creek and one of the branches of the 
Mohican find their sources, but do not reach any importance within 
the limits of the county. 

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The upper parts of Alum creek and Big Belly have been en- 
larged by the County Commissioners, and made to do greater ser- 
vice as drains. The most of the drainage of the county is into 
the Scioto river. Its eastern portions are drained into the 
Muskingum, yet the Sandusky, which flows into Lake Erie, has some 
of its sources in the township of North Bloomfield, in the northern 
portion of the county. The streams though not large, are ample 
for the purposes of an agricultural community, and furnish motive 
power for the numerous flouring mills that exist in the county. 

The undulations in the rocky structures are usually very 
gentle, even imperceptible, through the drift sheet. Hence the 
general surface was originally nearly flat. The uneveness which 
now prevails in some parts of the county is mainly due to subse- 


quent causes, and can be referred to the effect of atmospheric 

The drift was at first deposited witli unc(iual thickness, what- 
ever may have been the conditions of the pre-existing surfaces. In 
the valley of those streams that How toward the east, in the eastern 
part of the county, there are unmistakable evidences of a previous 
erosion of the rock surface, but in the western part of the county, 
no such indications have been seen. 

Besides occasional irretrularitics in tlic surface of the bedded 

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rocks, the manner of the disposition of the drift, was such as to 
leave very noticable differences in its condition and thickness in 
diflFerent parts of the county. 

In the sandstone region, and especially where the Berea grit 
forms a line of junction with the underlying shale, the drift is 
coarse and strong and the surface broken. 

Frequent springs of ferriferous water issue from the hill- 
sides, which seem to be very gravelly. The channels of the streams 
are deeply cut into the bed rock — plainly beyond the power of the 
present volume of water — and the valleys are marked by large 

Such boulders are found in the valleys, in all parts of the 
county, but are much more noticeable in the sandstone district. 
Near South Woodbury in the creek bottom (lot 10) is a boulder 
of fine grained syenite, the extreme dimensions of which are nine 
feet by seven and one half feet, showing four and a half feet above 
the ground. In this boulder the horn blende predominates, and 
the feldspar is flesh colored, quartz being scarce, giving a rather 
dark color to the whole. 

In the western part of the county, however, where the surface 
is underlaid by shale or the black slate, the drift is more evenly 
spread, and the country is flat. The streams have (in very much 
the same manner, though not to the same extent) cut their channels 
into the bed rock, but they are fewer in number, and have a less 
average descent to the mile. 

The water of the wells and natural springs is apt to be 
sulphurous, aijd bubbles and jets of gas are very often seen exposed. 
This is followed by the Huron shale, a black slate which occurs 
in the western part of the county. 

Building Stone, Clays, Etc. 

Morrow county is well supplied with building 'stone of t^e 
best quality. The openings of the Berea grit at Iberia, Mt. 
Gilead and near Cardington are widely known and supply a great 
extent of territory with stone of an excellent quality. The grain 
of the Berea grit becomes finer in the central part of the state, 
while at the same time the heavy bedded portion becomes reduced. 

Gravel and sand are abundant in the eastern part of the 
county. For brick, tile and common pottery the clay seems well 
adapted. Salt was found at an early day in Morrow county, and 
although there were several wells drilled, it was never found in 

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paying quantities. Several deposits of bog ore are met with in the 
county. At Mt. Oilead there is a deposit of carbonate of iron 
on the rock bluffs of the creek, while other deposits of bog ore are 
found in the eastern part of the county. Oil and gas have both 
been found in Morrow county. 

Some good stone quarries have been worked in the county. 
Oood building stone has been found in abundance in the^ bluffs of 
the Whetstone near Mt. Gilead. Fine stone has also been found 
in the Quaker settlement. 

Drainage, Soil, Natural Wealth. 

The surface 'of the land is diversified; in some places level 
or but slightly rolling, in other places stiU more rolling, and in 
others considerably broken by bluffs and ravines. This is especial- 
ly the case on the Whetstone and Sam's creek, in the vicinity of 
Mt. Gilead. Nearly the whole of the land is fit for cultivation 
and for farming purposes. At the present day there is very little 
waste land in the county. 

The land generally in Morrow county has a natural drainage, 
and there is but little stagnant water, especially since the improve- 
ment of the country and the opening of the runs and swales; al- 
though almost aU the land is made much more productive by open 
ditches and underdraining. 

The productions most congenial to the soil, and the most 
easily and profitably raised, are grass, timothy and clover, hay and 
seeds, com, wheat, oats, rye and flax. The common fruits and 
vegetables are also easily grown. 

Springs are quite numerous; some of them strong enough to 
form runs of permanent water. There are but few soft-water 
springs. The water generally is hard, impregnated with lime and 
iron. The early settlers selected the lands that had springs, and 
generally built their cabins near them. Hence the springs are 
found on the lands first settled in the township. 

The original forests abounded with deer, wolves, raccoons, 
opossums, squirrels, ground hogs and wild turkeys. 

The pioneers found the land well timbered with beech, sugar- 
maple, white and red oak, white and yellow popular, black and 
white walnut, hickory, elm, cherry, basswood, sycamore, etc. 

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Omo, Good and True. 

To the foregoing we attach the following song waif, entitled : 
Ohio, Good and True. 

Brightly gleams a star of beauty, 
In <<01d Glory's'' field of blue. 
There it shines a glowing emblem 
Of Ohio, good and true; 
Mark her jewels! Mark her heroes! 
Office, shop, and field and glen. 
Promptly send a hundred thousand 
When the nation calls for men. 

O, thou state of happy childhood, 
Rippling brooks and fields of green, 
AU that nature hath she gives thee 
Richest fruits and skies serene. 
From thy hillsides, from thy yalleys, 
Loud the gladsome anthems ring 
Songs of birds, and songs of nature; 
Songs of joy and peace, we sing. 

We'll be true to dear Ohio, 
Stand for right against the wrong, 
Help to keep her name unsullied; 
Then float on, thou flag eternal! 
Loyal, faithful, noble, strong. 
Still Ohio's star will shine, 
For the Buckeye's fame and glory. 
Are forever linked with thine. 

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Mound Builders in Moerow County — Location op Mounds — 
Sacred to the Indians — The Original Ohio Man — Garden op 
Eden in Morrow County? — The Indians as a Race — Ohio, the 
Battle Ground — Near-by Indian Massacres — Indian Tales by 
Pioneers — Early Indian Trails. 

In Morrow, as well as in some other counties in Ohio, ar^ seen 
evidences of a prehistoric people whose origin and fate are un- 
known. We know of them only by the monuments they reared 
in the form of earth works, and as these are principally mounds, 
we call the people who made them, Mound Builders. The term is 
not a distinguishing one, for people the world over have been 
mound builders, more or less from generation to generation. 

In no other country are earth works more plainly divided into 
classes than here in America. In some places fortifications sug- 
gest the citadel of a tribe or people. Again, embankments, circular 
or square, separate or in combinations, enclosing perhaps one or 
more mounds, excite our curiosity but fail to satisfy it, and we ask : 
**Are these fading embankments the boundaries of sacred en- 
closures, the fortifications of a camp, or the foundations on which 
were built communal homes?*' 

Mound Builders in Morrow County. 

What connection, if any, existed between the Mound Builders 
and the Indians is yet unsolved. But it seems certain that many 
years before Columbus discovered America the Mound Builders 
had settlements in Morrow county, as ancient earthworks attest. 
That the people were not unacquainted with war is shown by their 
numerous fortified enclosures. These earthworks give us some 
knowledge of a people who lived here when European civilization 
was yet in the dawn. Some of the earthworks were geographically 
platted upon longitudinal lines and geometrical measurements, giv- 


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ing evidence that the people who planned, made and occupied these 
works were well advanced in mathematics. 

Whatever the facts may be in regard to the many theories 
advanced about the Mound Builders, the fact remains that Morrow 
county was the scene of many activities of this strange people, and 
traces of their occupation are abundant in many of its sections. 
During the centuries of Indian domination in this country, the 
ancient earthworks were left undisturbed. The Indians had no 
knowledge of a preceding race, and they were not vexed by in- 
quiring science as to the nature or origin of the mounds. 

Location op Mounds. 

The mounds in Morrow county are located as follows: There 
are three mounds near Chesterville. The earthwork, which was 
located near an old school house there was plowed down many 
years ago and scraped into a hole near it, from which it was un- 
doubtedly thrown up. When within about two feet of the level, a 
quantity of greasy muck was uncovered which had a strong smell, 
but no bones were discovered, and no relics were found. 

In 1829, when the hotel was built in Chesterville, a mound near 
by was made to furnish the material for the brick. In digging it 
away, a large human skeleton was found, but no measurements 
were made. It is related that the jaw-bone was found to fit easily 
over that of a citizen of the village, who was remarkable for his 
large jaw. The local physicians examined the cranium and found 
it proportionately large, with more teeth than the white race of 
today. The skeleton was taken to Mansfield, and has been lost 
sight of entirely. Some trinkets were found in the mound, but 
anything like an accurate description of them cannot be had. One 
article was something like a mortar, holding about a half pint, 
made of blue clay. This was kept in the bar room of the hotel 
as a curiosity, but has long since been lost sight of. Just west of 
the village is a small earthwork, surrounded with a trench. Upon 
this structure are growing trees of a large growth, which have 
evidently sprung up since the mound was made. Some investiga- 
tion has been made there, but with no result. Other mounds are 
found in the townships of Troy, Canaan and Washington. In the 
former township, a circular mound of about twenty-five feet in 
diameter is situated on section 7. No attempt has been made to 
learn of its contents. In Canaan township, there are two that were 
formerly connected by an embankment, and were evidently used 

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as a fortification, but the demands of the farm have greatly 
obliterated their outlines, and they are rapidly disappearing. In 
Washington, situated in the northeast comer, is a conical shaped 
mound, about twenty feet high, with a circular base covering up- 
ward of a quarter of an acre. Near it is a horseshoe-shaped forti- 
fication, some two and a half feet high, inclosing an area of about 
a quarter of an acre. 

In the southern part of Lincoln township is the remains of a 
mound of considerable interest. A cone about sixty feet in 
diameter was found in the center cf a circle of about one hundred 
and twenty feet in diameter. Messrs. T. C. Cunnard and A. 6. 
Emery at one time made some effort to investigate this relic, and 
employing workmen dug into the cone. In the center was found 
a circular wall, made of loosely laid freestone. On the outer 
side of this wall the dirt taken from the surrounding trench was 
thrown, and within the space was filled with a clay that was thought 
to be foreign to that locality. Considerable quantity of charcoal 
and ashes were found, but no relics or bones, save a fragment 
that was pronounced metal, but so badly disintegrated that it fell 
to powder on exposure to the air. The earth wall which encircled 
the mound, it was thought, contained more material than could be 
got from the trench at its foot, and an examination seemed to con- 
firm their theory that much cf the material had been brought to 
this place. On the surface of the mound a large ash-tree was found 
growing, its roots striking through the supporting wall in every 
direction. When cut down, some two hundred and forty con- 
centric rings were counted, indicating an ancient origin for the 
mound. The largest result from this investigation has been lost, 
from the fact that the judgment of experts has not been had upon 

It is hardly to be doubted that, with patient investigation, 
some valuable relics might be discovered in some of these mounds, 
which would add valuable information to the fund of information 
on this subject. These earthworks are on the territory where 
archaeologists have long thought there were no traces of that 
ancient people, and a stray relic might do something toward estab- 
lishing or refuting the various theories that have been entertained 
in regard to the Mound Builders. 

Mounds Sacred to the Indians. 

It is true that the Morrow county earthworks have never been 
fully explored, but dozens of mounds have been opened in other 

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parts of the state, and but very little information derived from the 
research ; therefore, we can exclaim with the old-time poet : 

Oh, Mound ! consecrated before 
The white man's foot e*er trod our shore, 
To battle's strife and valour's grave. 
Spare! oh, spare, the buried brave! 

A thousand winters passed away, 
And yet demolished not the clay, 
Which on yon hillock held in trust 
The quiet of the warrior's dust. 

The Indian came and went again ; 
He hunted through the lengthened plain; 
And from the mound he oft beheld 
The present silent battlefield. 

But did the Indian e'er presume, 
To violate that ancient tomb? 
Ah, no ! he had the soldier grace 
Which spares the soldier's resting place. 

It is alone for Christian hand 
To sever that sepulchral band. 
Which ever to the view is spread, 
To bind the living to the dead. 

The Original Ohio Man. 

For the past fifteen years, many expeditions and elaborate 
investigations in various parts of the world, have been made in 
search of possible or probable proof of the location of the cradle 
or birthplace of the human race. Prom reports made of such 
expeditions and investigations, the problem of how the Red 
Man got here (to America), and where he came from, are elaborate- 
ly treated of. A brief resume of the conclusions arrived at in 
these reports appeared recently in the ** Cosmopolitan Magazine." 
The result is, says the magazine writer, **that evidence shows that 
the first American was not an Asiatic emigrant, but that from the 
study of both ethnological and archaeological conditions in north- 
western America and northeastern Asia, it seems most probable 

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that man did not come from Asia, but that* he crossed over into 
Asia from America. We cannot even give a resume of the facts 
and reasons put forth by the distinguished scholars who for many 
years have given their time and thought to this intensely interesting 
question. Can only state that their conclusions are a reversal of 
the theory, so universally accepted heretofore that Asia was the 
birthplace of the race that later found its way into the American 
continent. Granted th^t the original American was native and 
not an importation, the logic is that barring the ice man, who may 
or may not have existed first, the Mound Builder was the first to 
put in an appearance, at least so far as any remaining evidences 

It is generally (onceeded that the Mound Builder, whether 
the ancestor of the Indian or whether of a distinct race, antedated 
the Indians so called. In other words, whoever he was and what- 
ever his antecedents were, he (the Mound Builder) was the ** oldest 
inhabitant," and may be called the original American. 

The Mound Builder's domain was largely in the territory now 
called Ohio, and some of their works, as stated, within the limits 
of Morrow county. 

Oarden op Eden in Morrow County f 

May not then Ohio, and possibly Morrow county, have been 
the Mound Builders' primitive place of birth, as well as his habitat? 
May not the original Adam and Eve have had their Eden along the 
banks of one of Ohio's rivers, rather than on the banks of the 
Euphrates ? 

The Rev. Landon West, a prominent and widely known minis- 
ter of the Baptist church, has given much study and thought to the 
Serpent Mound in Adams county, Ohio, and advances the theory 
that it marks the site of the Garden of Eden, and with this a num- 
ber of the ** higher critics," the Egyptologists and Biblical students, 
agree. They state that nowhere does the Bible claim that the 
Garden of Eden was in Asia, as has been generally believed. The 
Rev. Mr. West believes that the Serpent Mound is purely symboli- 
cal, and has no significance relative to the religion and worship of 
any race of men, but that it was intended to teach the fall of man « 
and the consequences of sin, in the Garden of Eden. 

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The Indians as a Race. 

Scientific research indicates that the Indians followed the 
Mound Builders of this section of the country and it was long 
after the first white settler had penetrated into the region now 
known as Ohio that the Indians left for hunting grounds further 

The Indians uniformly resisted all attempts to civilize them. 
They preferred to subsist by the chase» and it has been estimated 
that it would take fifty thousand acres of forest land to furnish 
game enough to support one Indian. With almost all the tribes 
the men furnished the game (meat) as their share of the provisions 
for the family. It was considered beneath the dignity of a 
^* brave'* to do any manual labor. The squaws had to plant the 
corn and cultivate it, cut the wood, carry water, do the cooking, 
and carry the luggage when on a march. The women did not 
murmur at this, but considered it a natural distribution of family 

Polygamy was quite general among the Indians. Every 
** brave*' had as many wives as he wished. In marriages the 
bride-to-be was not consulted, the suitor addressed himself directly 
to the parents of the young squaw he wished to marry, and her 
fate depended on the wish of her parents. The custom of dowry 
was the reverse from what it is today, for then the suitor made 
presents to the parents of the bride, instead of receiving a portion 
with her. 

Divorces were frequent, and where there were children the 
mother had to support them. The Indians looked upon women ah 
inferior and made them slaves. They were savages. With 
civilized Christian people it is different. The writer has therefore 
but little patience with a woman who says she is an infidel, for it 
is the religion of the Nazerene that has elevated her to the position 
of honor in which she is held today. The Indians are fatalists. They 
never pray, but they sometimes return thanks to the Great Spirit. 
Whatever of good or evil happens to them they receive with calm- 
ness, believing that the fates have so ordered it. The present tense 
is used, for the Indian is about the same today that he was a 
century ago. The opinions, traditions and institutions of his tribe 
are endeared to him by habit, feeling and authority ; and from early 
childhood he has been taught, that the Great Spirit would be 
offended by any change in the customs of his red children. 

Indians believe in a Great Spirit and in the immortality of the 

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soul. They look upon the future state as a material paradise — a 
happy hunting ground. They blend sorcery in their belief in the 
healing art and their priests are also physicians and jugglers. 
Their tribes seem to be held together by a kind of family ligament ; 
by the ties of blood, which in the infancy of society were stronger 
as other associations were weaker. 

Ohio the Battle Ground. 

Ohio was the battle ground where the Indians tried to stop the 
tide of civilization in its westward course across the American 
continent, but Morrow county was not the scene of any of the 
bloody conflicts. America has the unique distinction of having 
been settled by pioneers.. Other countries have been peopled by 
men moving in large bodies from one place to another. Whole 
tribes would move en masse and overpuo. or exterminate, the in- 
habitants and occupy their territory. But the pioneers came, 
singly, or in small groups, and became settlers. When the white 
man came the Indians had to leave, because the conflict between the 
civilized people and the savages was irrepressible. The white 
man possessed the country on the theory of the eternal fitness of 

Near-by Indian Massacres. 

The war of 1812, beyond exciting the apprehension of the 
few settlers in what is now Morrow county, made but little im- 
pression in this part of the state as the few settlers had been here 
but a short time and busy with their improvements, they had not 
had time to discuss the probabilities of war and imbibe the fears 
of the older settlements. The woods were full of Indians, but the 
prompt action of the government in removing them from Green- 
town and Jeromeville in Richland county, after the Seymour 
massacre and the Copus battle, put an end to the principal cause 
for alarm. 

The following brief resumes of these tragedies are taken 
from an historical pamphlet written by A. J. Baughman, the author 
of this work: In 1799 Frederick Zeimer came with his family 
from Germany to America and located first in Maryland, but later 
came to Ohio, and entered one half of section 27 in Washington 
township, Pickaway county, this state. He was a man of means, 
and after getting considerable land in that county, upon which he 
Vol. 1—2 

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established his married sons, he removed to Richland county with 
his wife, youngest son, Philip, and daughter Kate, and entered a 
quarter section of land in the Blackfork valley, where the. terrible 
massacre of himself, wife, daughter Kate and Martin Ruffner, a 
neighbor, occurred September 10, 1812. This is commonly called 
the Seymour massacre, ** Seymour'* being Americanized from 
**Zeimer,'' a German name of Swiss origin. On the evening of 
September 10th, a party of Indians called at the Zeimer cabin and 
asked for something to eat. Apprehensive of trouble, Philip 
Zeimer went to a neighbor's for assistance, and during his absence 
and while his sister Kate was getting the Indians' supper, the 
savages attacked the family and killed the four persons present. 
When Philip returned with some neighbors it was found that a 
bloody tragedy had been ena(*ted. Philip then entered the army, 
where he served during the remainder of the war. and doubtless 
had the satisfaction of seeing many a red skin bite the dust. This 
tragedy was made the subject of an historical romance in 1857, by 
the late Rev. J. F. ^IcCraw, and the book has passed through three 
editions and is still in demand. 

Immediately after the massacre of the Zeimer family, the 
settlers apprehensive of further outrages, w(»nt to block houses for 
protection. Among the number was the Rev. James Copus. accom- 
panied by his family. Copus lived a mile or two down the valley 
from the Zeimer place. After a few days in the block house, Mr. 
Copus concluded to return to his home, as he did not apprehend 
any further trouble from the Indians, believing them to be his 
friends, not yet having found out their treachery and baseness. 
Captain ]\rartin. the connnandant at th(* block house, advised 
against Mr. Copus returning to liis cabin, but his remonstrance was 
of no avail. Captain ^Martin then made a detail of nine soldiers 
from his small command at the B(»anis' mills block house, to accom- 
pany Coi)us and family to their home and remain with them several 
days as a protecting guai'd. On Sei)tember 15, 1812, the first 
morning after their arrival, a party of forty-five Indians attacked 
the cabin, killing IVIr. Copus and thre(^ of the soldiers, and wound- 
ing others. The Indians made their attack from the hill in front 
of the cabin and then advanced with demonical yells, and it seemed 
as though, 

"On the right, cm the left, above, below. 
Spring up at once the savage foe." 

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On the 15th of September, 1882, monuments were erected at 
the graves of those who had lost their lives at the Zeimer massacre 
and the Copus battle, seventy years after the tragedies had occur- 
"red. These monuments are situate in what is now Ashland county, 
a little south of the village of Mifflin, about twelve miles from Mans- 
field. The unveiling of these monuments was a great event and 
was witnessed by an audience of over twelve thousand people. 

These massacres made a strong impression on the few pioneer 
families in the northeastern part of the county, and although they 
returned to their cabins from the block houses as soon as they 
thought the immediate danger was passed, they did so with many 
misgivings. Not long after their return, however, the Indians 
killed and scalped Levi Jones, at Mansfield. This occurred almost 
in the very center of the village, near the present site of the City 
Mills. It was rumored that the Indians, aided by the British, 
were en route to murder the settlers. It was afterwards ascer- 
tained that quite a party of Indians were at that time in ambush 
near the present site of the Mansfield fair grounds. This again 
caused great alarm among the settlers, not only in Richland county, 
but in the adjacent county of Morrow, and hasty preparations were 
made to seek a place of greater security, and in a very short time 
they were on their way to Waterford. Here they met a number of 
families who had been brought together by the same apprehensions, 
and after consultation it was decided to build a block house. This 
was accomplished very soon, and the settlers prepared for an 
attack. But as there was no further cause for alarm, the settlers 
in a short time went back and forth to their several improvements, 
and taking supplies to their families at Waterford. After a short 
time they returned to their cabins, but as they retired at night it 
was with no great feeling of security, for they realized what a 
treacherous and wily foe they were braving. 

Indian Tales by Pioneers. 

The following Indian narratives are taken from tales told by 
the pioneers: Four Indians, at one time, called upon Mrs. Wait 
and asked for her husband. On seeing them approach, she had 
closed the door, and thus kept them at bay. Fearful that they 
meant evil to her husl)and, she directed them in an opposite direc- 
tion to where he was chopping a tree. They did not find Mr. 
Wait, but they went over to Cook's and forced his wife to comb 
their hair and feed them with a sj)oon. This seemed to satisfy 

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them, and they departed without further molestation. Among 
those of the Indians who made themselves especially distasteful to 
the whites, both during the war and afterward, was Tom Lyon, a 
chief in the Wyandot nation. On one occasion, he, with a party of 
braves, came prowling about the cabin of Jacob Stevens, who was 
away at Mount Vernon, and his wife, Nancy, was alone with an 
infant child. It would seem that the Indians had discovered this 
fact, and, failing to force the door, began to throw fire brands into 
the house, through the window. Mrs. Stevens had gone upstairs 
with her child, taking the rifle with her, but the fire brands 
put a new face upon affairs. She went quietly down stairs, 
and, calling her husband's name aloud, quietly crept upstairs, and 
putting on a heavy pair of boots, came rattling down again. She 
repeated this ruse, calling her husband's father, who was a stem 
old man, and held in great fear by the Indians, and the marauders, 
believing the old man there, took to their heels and fled. Mrs. 
Stevens was greatly annoyed by this band, headed by Lyon, after 
the war, as well as during those ** troublous times." She was in 
the habit of hiding her butter in the woods, where it would keep 
cool, but she was constantly annoyed to find it gone. The Indians 
learned to look upon this article as a great luxury, and had no 
trouble in finding the place where it was hid. They came in the 
night and made a thorough search, and, when successful, gave a 
peculiar yell that announced to the rest of the gang and the settlers, 
that they had discovered the object of their search. Sometimes 
they came to the cabin, and, finding Mrs. Stevens alone, would 
threaten her with their knives to make her tell where her butter 
was, but seldom with su(*cess. On one occasion she had gone out 
to where a rude spring house had been built, leaving her little one 
in the cabin ; on returning she found a large framed warrior in full 
dress of paint and feathers, but not a trace of her child. She 
jumped at the conclusion that the child had been stolen, but just 
then she saw his head i>oke out from under a bench, where he had 
gone to escape the Indian. 

After the restoration of peace, the Indians came among the 
settlements in large numbers in quest of game and trade. They 
early learned to love the cooking of the whites, and were eager to 
trade game, sugar and wild fruits for bread, smoked beef or 
vegetables. One party of Indians were attracted by some thrifty 
cucmnbers, and asked permission to pick some of them, which was 
at once granted. But to the entire surprise of the whites, they 

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noticed these children of nature placidly eating some of the largest 
and ripest of the fruit to be found on the vines. The green ones 
they would not touch, because they were not ripe. 

A favorite location for Indian camps was on the farm of 
Marquis Gardner, where there was a large camp. They built 
bark wigwams and dug holes in the ground in the center to put their 
fire in, and traces of these holes are yet to be found in their favorite 
place along the creek. The whites frequently hunted and shot at 
a mark with them, but it is related that they showed no greater 
skill than the white man. At an early date of the settlements 
here, there were occasionally some difficulties with the savages 
growing out of their propensities to pilfer, whi^h was sometimes 
carried to the extent of stealing horses. It is related that Edmund 
Buck one morning went out as soon as he rose in the morning, as 
was his custom, to listen for the bells on his horses. Not hearing 
the familiar sound, he concluded they had strayed away, and im- 
mediately after breakfast he started in search of them. It was 
some time before he got any trace of them, and he noticed, as he 
followed the trail across a low, wet spot, that there were moccasin 
tracks going the same way. He at once concluded that the Indians 
had taken them, and returning he armed, got two of his neighbors, 
and started in pursuit. Tracking the thieves was slow business, and 
the day was far gone before they started, but just after nightfall 
they came upon the Indians encamped near the Long Swamp in 
Harmony. A consultation was held, and it was decided to wait 
until morning before making a descent upon the camp. At day 
break, Mr. Buck, who had considerable at stake, proposed to go in 
and take his horses. His companions were rather disposed to give 
up the undertaking, but Buck told them that he intended to take 
his horses if he had to go alone. This decision brought the waver- 
ing ones to their senses, and they determined not to let him go 
alone. The Indians were taken by surprise, and, when Buck 
demanded his horses, they explained by signs that they found his 
horses galloping off, and added, **Me catch! me catch!'* The 
marauders had seventeen horses with them, most of which they had 
probably stolen. They were all spanceled with rawhide thongs, 
and the settlers put the Indians into considerable excitement when 
they proposed to cut them off their horses rather than untie them. 

The settlers were frequent visitors at the Indian camps, and 
were always ready to take a rough-and-tumble wrestle with the 
braves, or a trial of skill at the target ; but there was a part of their 
offered hospitality that they could not accept, i. e., their food. 

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They seemed to have no delicacy of taste, and cooked everything 
without cleaning or discrimination. A party of young men out 
hunting came on a wigwam as the meal was preparing. Some 
wood chucks barely skinned were cooking in the pot, with their feet 
sticking out in sight, to which were added the entrails of a freshly 
killed deer without any previous preparation, save a perfunctory 
shake. The Indian pressed the young men to partake of his dish, 
but they one after the other pleaded sickness, which was probably 
near the truth, and the hospitable red man was forced to enjoy his 
meal alone, after expressing his disgust. 

Mrs. Bartlett relates that two or three natives came to her 
father's cabin, aftd made known by signs that they wanted some 
meat. They soon learned that the settlers kept their smoked meat 
in the loft of their cabin, and, coming to Shur's, the spokesman of 
the party, pointing to the loft, took out his knife and made a 
flourish, by which he indicated the cutting of meat, but which Mrs. 
Shur mistook for a threat of violence. She was not a little alarmed, 
but, observing no demonstration that confirmed her fears, she 
parleyed with them until she caught their meaning and produced 
the desired article. They left instanter, but, not long after, Mrs. 
Shur observing an old brass kettle, which they had evidently left 
in payment for the meat, sent it back to their camp. The Indians 
were greatly taken back by the return of the consideration of their 
purchase, and lugubriously pointing down their throats, shook their 
heads to indicate **that circumstances over which they had no 
contror* prevented their trading back, and were greatly relieved to 
learn that a forcible surrender of the meat was not expected. With 
the growth of Chesterville as a trading point, the number of 
Indians that made long stays here increased, and many became 
quite familiarly known. Among these were Sunmondwot and his 
squaw, Tom Logan, reported to be one hundred years old, Dawdy, 
and Joe Williams, a half-breed, who was instrumental in piloting 
the army through the ** Black Swamp.'* These parties stayed 
months, camping in the southwest part of the township, and living 
in the most amicable relations with the settlers. David James, an 
old Welsh Baptist preacher, took a great interest in their spiritual 
welfare, and on Sunday would preach to them, getting them so in- 
terested in a few years, that their meetings attracted considerable 
attention. David Miller was another settler that seemed to have 
a special affinity for the Indians, and exhibited a wonderful con- 
trol over them. Previous to his coming to Chester, he had lived 
at Mount Vernon, where his cabin was the favorite resort for the 

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natives. But while thus having their confidence, he could not 
change their nature, as several of his experiences indicate. While 
living at Mount Vernon, a man by the name of Barton made his 
home with Miller. He had had some dealings with the Indians, 
and had in some way incurred the mortal enmity of one of the 
savages. Finding where Barton lived, he waylaid him, but, not 
being able to get near enough for his purpose, pursued him, 
brandishing his knife. Barton, unarmed, made for Miller's cabin, 
but could not gain on his pursuer sufficient distance to enable him 
to shut the door. He dashed through the cabin, the Indian in hot 
pursuit, following close upon his heels. Neither gained upon the 
other, and finally, after making the circuit several times through 
the house, they came to a struggle in the middle of the cabin. In 
the fight, the Indian lost his knife, and Mrs. Miller having sum 
moned assistance, the white man was released. 

The Indians did not become troublesome until the autumn of 
1812, when they began to appear in war paint and feathers. Small 
hostile bands were seen roaming the forest at various points, and 
reports were circulated through the settlements to beware and to 
seek safety in the forts. Although Rosecrans was aware of the 
proximity of danger, he had delayed going into safe quarters for 
some time. One morning, he heard a turkey gobble in the woods 
near his cabin, and, from the coarseness of the tone, judged that it 
must be a large one. It continued to gobble at irregular intervals, 
until the apprehension of Rosecrans was aroused. Thinking that 
it might be something far more dangerous than a turkey, he 
grasped his long rifle, and, with his knife in his belt, stole cautious- 
ly out of the cabin, on the opposite side from the turkey, instructing 
his wife to bar the door securely after him. He took a circuitous 
route, and crept forward with the utmost caution. In about twenty 
minutes the sharp report of his riflle was heard, and shortly after- 
ward Rosecrans came swiftly into the clearing, but with no turkey. 
He hurried into the cabin and told his wife to make immediate 
preparations to start for the fort. They hastily packed some cloth- 
ing, and, barring the door as best they could, started rapidly on 
foot toward the fort, the husband with his rifle in his hand, on the 
alert, leading the way. He told but few what he shot that morn- 
ing in the woods, and was usually reticent when the subject was 
broached. At the close of the war, Rosecrans did not return to 
his cabin, but settled in some other locality, and his clearing became 
overgrown with Weeds and undergrowth. 

The Whetstone river was always a favorite resort for the 

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Indians, and, for years after the conclusion of the war of 1812, 
they were accustomed to come in the spring from the Wyandot 
reservation to make sugar on the ** bottoms." Their methods were 
simple. The sap was caught in troughs made in this fashion: 
Going to the elm swamps, a section of bark was taken from the tree, 
about eighteen inches long, which was split into two parts so that 
each piece would make a trough; the ends of each were then 
clamped together with sticks and fastened with bark strings and 
the sides distended by a stick placed transversely, and, when dry, 
the trough was ready for use. The sap was gathered by squaws, 
each carrying two brass kettles swung on a yoke fitting the neck. 
The boiling down was attended to by the braves, who used for 
clarifying, deer's blood dried in such a shape as to resemble a plug 
of very black tobacco. It is said that some o f the very old sugar- 
trees, when cut into, still show the marks of the Indian tomahawk 
used in ** tapping.'* The Indians frequently came through these 
parts with ponies loaded with cranberries, gathered from the 
marshes which lay in Crawford county, on their way to the settle- 
ments in the eastern part of the state where they could sell the 

Early Indian Trails. 
The earliest trail found here by the whites was that followed 
by the Indians, which led from Mount Vernon to the Sandus&> 
plains. Near this, the first settlers found a road blazed ana 
chopped out so as to be accessible for wagons, which a pretty well 
authenticated tradition claims as a road chopped out by the troops 
of Anthony Wayne, in his campaign against the Indians in 1793-94. 
The larger part of this road has long since been vacated, but a 
short piece of it is still traveled on the hack route from Pulaskiville 
to Chesterville, where the road takes a diagonal direction. The 
road from the eastern settlements to Predericktown was the first 
laid out, and later was continued west to Mount Gilead. In 1820, 
the road which branches toward the southeast, off toward Carding- 
ton, and known as the Cardington road, was changed from a semi- 
private lane into a regular highway. 

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Ohio A State — Physical Aspects — First Settlements — 
Co.iL, Iron and Salt — Interior Commerce — Education and 
Charity — Future Development — The Ancestry op the Ohioan. 

One hundred years ago, the whole territory, from the Alle- 
ghany to the Rocky mountains was a wilderness,, inhabited only by 
wild beasts and Indians. The Jesuit and Moravian missionaries 
were the only white men who had penetrated the wilderness or 
beheld its mighty lakes and rivers. While the thirteen old col- 
onies were declaring their independence, the thirteen new states, 
which now lie in the western interior, had no existence and gave no 
sign of the future. The solitude of nature was unbroken by the 
steps of civilization. The wisest statesman had not contemplated 
the probabilfty of the coming states and the boldest patriot did 
not dream that this interior wilderness should soon contain a 
greater population than the thirteen old states, with all the added 
growth of one hundred years. Ten years after that, the old states 
had ceded their western lands to the general government, and the 
congress of the United States had passed the ordinance of 1785, 
for the survey of the public territory, and, in 1787, the celebrated 
ordinance which organized the Northwestern Territory, and dedi- 
cated it to freedom and intelligence. 

Ohio a State. 

Fifteen years after that, and more than a quarter of a century 
after the Declaration of Independence, the state of Ohio was ad- 
mitted into the Union, being the seventeenth which accepted the 
constitution of the United States. It has since grown up to be 
great, populous and prosperous under the influence of those ordi- 
nances. At her admittance, in 1803, the tide of emigration had 
begun to flow over the Alleghanies into the valley of the Missis- 
sippi and, although no steamboat, no railroad then existed, nor 


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even a stage coach helped the immigrant, yet the wooden **ark" 
on the Ohio, and the heavy wagon, slowly winding over the moun- 
tains, bore these tens of thousands to the wilds of Kentucky and the 
plains of Ohio. In the spring of 1788 — the first year of settlement 
— ^four thousand five hundred persons passed the mouth of the 
Muskingum in three months, and the tide continued to pour on for 
half a century in a widening stream, mingled with all the races of 
Europe and America, until now, in the hundredth year of America's 
independence, the five states of the Northwestern Territory, in 
the wilderness of 1776, contain ten millions of people, enjoying all 
the blessings which peace and prosperity, freedom and Christianity, 
can confer upon any people. Of these five states, bom under the 
ordinance of 1787, Ohio is the first, oldest and, in many things, 
the greatest. In some things it is the greatest state in the Union. 
Let us then, attempt, in the briefest terms, to draw an outline por- 
trait of this great and remarkable commonwealth. 

Physical Aspects. 

Let us observe its physical aspects. Ohio is just one-sixth 
part pf the Northwestern Territory — 40,000 square miles. It lies 
between Lake Erie and the Ohio river, having 200 miles of navigable 
waters, on the one side flowing into the Atlantic Ocean and on the 
other into the Gulf of Mexico. Through the lakes, its vessels touch 
on 6,000 miles of interior coast, and, through the Mississippi on 
36,000 miles of river coast; so that a citizen of Ohio may pursue 
his navigation through 42,000 miles, all in his own country, and all 
within navigable reach of his own state. He who has circum- 
navigated the globe, has gone but little more than half the distance 
which the citizen of Ohio finds within his natural reach in this vast 
interior. Looking upon the surface of this state, we find no moun- 
tains, no barren sands, no marshy wastes, no lava-covered plains, but 
one broad compact body of arable land, intersected with rivers and 
streams and running waters while the beautiful Ohio flows tran- 
quilly by its side. More than three times the surface of Belgium 
and one-third of the whole of Italy, it has more natural resources 
in proportion than either, and is capable of ultimately supporting 
a larger population than any equal surface in Europe. Looking 
from this great arable surface, where upon the very hills the grass 
and the forest trees now grow exuberant and abundant, we find that 
underneath this surface, and easily accessible, lie 10,000 square 
miles of coal, and 4,000 square miles of iron — coal and iron enough 

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to supply the basis of manufacture for a world ! All this vast de- 
posit of metal and fuel does not interrupt or take from that arable 
surface at all. There you may find in one place the same machine 
bringing up coal and salt water from below, while the wheat and com 
grow upon the surface above. The immense masses of coal, iron, 
salt and freestone deposited below have not in any way diminished 
the fertility and production of the soil. 

It has been said by some writer that the character of a people 
is shaped or modified by the character of the country in which they 
live. If the people of Switzerland have acquired a certain air of 
liberty and independence from the rugged mountains around which 
they live ; if the people of southern Italy, or beautiful France, have 
acquired a tone of ease and politeness from their mild and genial 
clime, so the people of Ohio, placed amidst such a wealth of nature, 
in the temperate zone, should show the best fruits of peaceful in- 
dustry and the best culture of Christian civilization. Have they 
done so? Have their own labor and arts and culture come up to 
the advantages of their natural situation? Let us examine this 
growth and their product. 

First Settlements. 

The first settlement of Ohio was made by a colony from New 
England, at the mouth of the Muskingum. It was literally a 
remnant of the officers of the Revolution. Of this colony no praise 
of the historian can be as competent, or as strong, as the language of 
Washington. He says in answer to inquiries addressed to him: 
**No colony in America was ever settled under such favorable au- 
spices as that which has just commenced at the Muskingum. In- 
formation, prosperity and strength will be its characteristics. I 
know many of the settlers personally, and there never were men 
better calculated to promote the welfare of such a community;" 
and he adds that **if he were a young man, he knows no country in 
which he would sooner settle than in this western region. * * This 
colony, left alone for a time made its own government and nailed 
its laws to a tree in the village, an early indication of that law- 
abiding and peaceful spirit which has since made Ohio a just and 
well-ordered community. The subsequent settlements on the 
Miami and Scioto were made by the citizens of New Jersey and 
Virginia and it is certainly remarkable that among all the early im- 
migration, there were no ignorant people. In the language ol 
Washington, they came with ** information," qualified to promote 
the welfare of the community. 

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Soon after the settlement on the Muskingum and the Miami, 
the great wave of migration flowed on to the plains and valleys of 
Ohio and Kentucky. Kentucky had been settled earlier but the 
main body of emigrants in subsequent years went into Ohio, in- 
fluenced partly by the great ordinance of 1787, securing freedom 
and schools forever, and partly by the greater security of titles 
under the survey and guarantee of the United States government. 
Soon the new state grew up, with a rapidity which, until then, was 
unknown in the history of civilization. On the Muskingum, where 
the buffalo had roamed; on the Scioto, where the Shawnees had 
built their towns; on the Miami, where the great chiefs of the 
Miamis had reigned ; on the plains of Sandusky, yet red with the 
blood of the white man ; on the Maumee, where Wa3aie, by the vic- 
tory of the ** Fallen Timbers,'* had broken the power of the Indian 
confederacy — the emigrants from the old States and from Europe 
came in to cultivate the fields, to build up towns, and to rear the in- 
stitutions of Christian civilization, until the single state of Ohio is 
greater in numbers, wealth, and education, than was the whole 
American Union when the Declaration of Independence was made. 

We are speaking of a state which began its career more than a 
quarter of a century after the Declaration of Independence. 
Now, it may be asked, what is the real cause of this extraordinary 
result, which, without saying anything invidious of other states, we 
may safely say has never been surpassed in any country ? We have 
already stated two of the advantages possessed by Ohio. The first 
is that it is a compact, unbroken body of arable land, surrounded 
and intersected by water-courses, equal to all the demands of com- 
merce and navigation. Next, that it was secured forever to free- 
dom and intelligence by the ordinance of 1787. The intelligence 
of its future people was secured by immense grants of public lands 
for the purpose of education ; but neither the blessings of nature, 
nor the wisdom of laws, could obtain such results without the con- 
tinuous labor of an intelligent people. Such it had, and we have 
only to take the testimony of Washington, already quoted, and the 
statistical results I have given, to prove that no people has exhibited 
more steady industry, nor has any people directed their labor with 
more intelligence. 

Coal, Iron and Salt. 

After the agricultural capacity and production of a country, 
its most important physical feature is its mineral products; its ca- 

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pacity for coal and iron, the two great elements of material civili- 
zation. If we were to take away from Great Britain her capacity 
to produce coal in such vast quantities, we should reduce her to a 
third-rate position, no longer numbered among the great nations of 
the earth. Coal has smelted her iron, run her steam engines, and 
is the basis of her manufactures. But when we compare the coal 
fields of Great Britain with those of this country, they are insignifi- 
cant. The coal fields of all Europe are small compared with those 
of the central United States. The coal district of Durham and 
Northumberland in England, is only 880 square miles. There are 
other districts of smaller extent, making in the whole probably one- 
half the extent of that in Ohio. The English coal-beds are repre- 
sented as more important, in reference to extent, on account of 
their thickness. There is a small coal district in Lancashire, 
where the workable coal-beds are in all 150 feet in thickness. But 
this involves as is well known, the necessity of going to immense 
depths and incurring immense expense. On the other hand, the 
workable coal-beds of Ohio are near the surface and some of them 
require no excavating, except that of the horizontal lead from the 
mine to the river or the railroad. In one county of Ohio there 
are three beds of twelve, six and four feet each, within fifty feet of 
the surface. At some of the mines having the best coal, the lead 
from the mines is nearly horizontal, and just high enough to dump 
the coal into the railroad cars. These coals are of all qualities, 
from that adapted to the domestic fire to the very best quality 
for smelting or manufacturing iron. Recollecting these facte, let 
us try to get an idea of the coal district of Ohio. The bituminous 
coal region descending the western slopes of the Alleghanies, occu- 
pies large portions of western Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Ohio, 
Kentucky and Tennessee. I suppose that this coal field is not 
less than fifty thousand square miles, exclusive of western Maryland 
and the southern terminations of that field in Georgia and Alabama. 
Of this vast field of coal, exceeding anything found in Europe, 
about one-fifth part lies in Ohio. Professor Mather, in his report 
on the geology of the state says: **The coal-measures within Ohio 
occupy a space of about one hundred and eighty miles in length by 
eighty in breadth at the widest part, with an area of about ten 
thousand square miles, extending along the Ohio from Trumbull 
county in the north to near the mouth of the Scioto in the south. 
The regularity in the dip, and the moderate inclination of the strata, 
afford facilities to the mines not known to those of most other 
countries, especially Great Britain, where the strata in which the 

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coal is imbedded have been broken and thrown out of place since its 
deposit, occasioning many slips and faults, and causing much labor 
and expense in again recovering the bed. In Ohio there is very 
little difficulty of this kind, the faults being small and seldom 

Now, taking into consideration these geological facts, let us 
look at the extent of the Ohio coal field. It occupies, wholly or in 
part, -thirty-six counties, including, geographically, 14,000 square 
miles; but leaving out fractions, and reducing the Ohio coal field 
within its narrowest limits, it is 10,000 square miles in extent, lies 
near the surface, and has on an average twenty feet thickness of 
workable coal-beds. Let us compare this with the coal mines of 
Durham and Northumberland (England), the largest and best coal 
mines there. That coal district is estimated at 850 square miles, 
twelve feet thick, and is calculated to contain 9,000,000,000, tons of 
coal. The coal field of Ohio is twelve times larger and one-third 
thicker. Estimated by that standard, the coal field of Ohio con- 
tains 180,000,000,000 tons of coal. Marketed at only $2 per ton, 
this coal is worth $360,000,000,000, or, in other words, ten times as 
much as the whole valuation of the United States at the present time. 
But we need not undertake to estimate either its quantity or value 
It is enough to say that it is a quantity which we can scarcely im- 
agine, which is tenfold that of England, and which is enough to 
supply the entire continent for ages to come. 

After coal, iron is, beyond doubt the most valuable mineral 
product of a state. As the material of manufacture, it is the 
most important. What are called the ** precious metals" are not to 
be compared with it as an element of industry or profit But since 
no manufactures can be successfully carried on without fuel, coal 
becomes the first material element of the arts. Iron is unquestion- 
ably the next. Ohio has an iron district extending from the mouth 
of the Scioto river to some point north of the Mahoning river, in 
Trumbull county. The whole length is nearly two hundred miles, 
and the breadth twenty miles, making, as near as we can ascertain, 
4,000 square miles. The iron in this district is of various qualities, 
and is manufactured largely into bars and castings. In this iron 
district are one hundred furnaces, forty-four rolling-mills, and 
fifteen rail-mills, being the largest number of either in any state in 
the Union, except only Pennsylvania. 

Although only the seventeenth state in its admission, I find 
that, by the census statistics of 1870, it is the third state in the 
production of iron and iron manufactures. Already, and within 

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the life of one man, this state begins to show what must in future 
time be the vast results of coal and iron. The production and 
manufacture of iron in Ohio have increased so rapidly, and the 
basis for increase is so great, that we may not doubt that Ohio will 
continue to be the greatest producer of iron and iron fabrics, except 
only Pennsylvania. At Cincinnati, the iron manufacture of the 
Ohio valley is concentrating, and at Cleveland the ores of Lake 
Superior are being smelted. 

After coal and iron," we may place salt among the necessaries 
of life. In connection with the coal region west of the Alleghan- 
ies, there lies in Pennsylvania, West Virginia and Ohio, a large 
space of country underlaid by the salt rock, which already pro- 
duces immense amounts of salt. Of this, Ohio has its full propor- 
tion. In a large section of the southeastern portion of the state, 
salt is produced without any known limitation. At Pomeroy and 
other points, the salt rock lies about one thousand feet below the 
surface, but salt water is brought easily to the surface by the 
steam engine. There, the salt rock, the coal seam, and the noble 
sandstone lie in successive strata, while the green corn and the yel- 
low wheat bloom on the surface above. There is no definite limit 
to the underlying salt rock of Ohio, and, therefore, the production 
will be proportioned only to the extent of the demand. 

Interior Commerce. 

Looking now to the commerce of the state, we have said there 
are six hundred miles of coast line, which embraces some of the 
principal internal ports of the Ohio and the lakes, such as Cincin- 
nati, Cleveland, Toledo and Portsmouth, but whose commerce is 
most wholly inland. Of course, no comparison can be made with 
the foreign commerce of the ocean ports. On the other hand, it is 
well known that the inland trade of the country far exceeds that 
of its foreign commerce, and that the largest part of this interior 
trade is carried on its rivers and lakes. The materials for the 
vast consumption of the interior must be conveyed in its vessels, 
whether of sail or stream, adapted to these waters. Let us take, 
then, the ship building, the navigation, and the exchange trades 
of Ohio as elements in determining the position of this state in 
reference to the commerce of the country. At the ports of Cleve- 
land, Toledo, Sandusky and Cincinnati, there have been built one 
thousand sail and steam vessels in the last twenty years, making an 
average of fifty each year. The number of sail, steam and all 

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kinds of vessels in -Ohio is eleven hundred and ninety, which is 
equal to the number in all the other states in the Ohio valley and the 
upper Mississippi. When we look to the navigable points to which 
these vessels are destined, we find them on all this vast coast line, 
which extends from the Gulf of Mexico to the Yellowstone, and 
from Duluth to the St. Lawrence. 

Looking again to see the extent of this vast interior trade 
which is handled by Ohio alone, we find that the imports and ex- 
ports of the principal articles of Cincinnati, amount in value to 
$500,000,000; and when we look at the great trade of Cleveland 
and Toledo, we shall find that the annual trade of Ohio exceeds 
$700,000,000. The lines of railroad which connect with its ports, 
are more than four thousand miles in length, or rather more than 
one mile in length to each ten square miles of surface. This 
great amount of railroads is engaged not merely in transporting 
to the Atlantic and thence to Europe, the immense surplus grain 
and meat in Ohio, but in carrying the largest part of that greater 
surplus, which exists in the states west of Ohio, the granary of the 
west. Ohio holds the gateway of every railroad north of the Ohio, 
from the Mississippi to the Atlantic, and hence it is that the great 
transit lines of the country pass through Ohio. 

EnrcATioN and Charity. 

Let us now turn from the pn)gr(\ss of the arts to the progress 
of ideas; from material to intellectual development. It is said 
that a. state consists of men, and history shows that no art or science, 
wealth or power, will compensate for the want of moral or intellect- 
unl stability in the minds of a nation. TL^nce, it is admitted that 
the strength nnd perpetuity of our i-epublic nnist consist in the 
intelligence and morality of the people. A republic can last oidy 
wlien the peoi)le are enlightened. This was an axiom with the 
early le<;islators of this country. Hence it was that when Virginia, 
Connecticut and the original coloniJ^s ctnled to the general govern- 
ment that vast and then unknown wilderness which lay west of the 
Alleghanies, in the valleys of the Ohio and ^Hssissippi, they took 
care that its future inhnliitants should be an educated people. The 
('(mstitution nas not formed when the cel(4)rated ordinance of 1787 
was passed. 

That ordinance provided that. "Reliuion, morality, and knowl- 
(Mlge beinu" necessary to irood Movcinnient and the happiness of 
mankind, schools and the means of education shall be forever en- 

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couraged;*' and by the ordinance of 1785 for the survey of public 
lands in the Northwestern Territory, section 16 in each township, 
that is, one thirty-sixth part, was reserved for the maintenance of 
public schools in said townships. As the state of Ohio contained 
a little more than twenty-five millions of acres, this, together with 
two special grants of three townships to universities, amounted to 
the dedication of 740,000 acres of land to the maintenance of schools 
and colleges. It was a splendid endowment, but it was many years 
before it became available. It was sixteen years after the passage 
of this ordinance (in 1803), when Ohio entered the Union, and 
legislation upon this grant became possible. The constitution of 
the state pursued the language of the ordinance, and declared that 
''schools and the means of education shall forever be encouraged 
by legislative provision.*' The governors of Ohio, in successive 
messages, urged attention to this subject upon the people ; but the 
thinness of settlement, making it impassible, except in few districts, 
to collect youth in sufficient numbers, and impossible to sell or lease 
lands to advantage, caused the delay of efficient school system for 
many years. In 1825, however, a general law establishing a school 
system, and levying a tax for its support, was passed. 

This was again enlarged and increased by new legislation in 
1836 and 1846. From that time to this, Ohio has had a broad, 
liberal and efficient system of public instruction. As the school- 
able age extends to twenty-one years, and as there are very few 
youth in school after fifteen years of acre, it follows that the 70 per 
cent of schoolable youths enrolled in the public schools must com- 
prehend nearly the whole number between four and fifteen years. 
It is important to observe this fact, because it has been inferred 
that, as the whole number of youth between f\\e and twenty-one 
have not been enrolled, therefore they are not educated. This is 
a mistake; nearly all over fifteen years of age have been in the 
public schools, and all the native youth of the state, and all foreign 
bom, young enough, have had the benefit of the public schools. 
In fact, everj^ youth in Ohio, under twenty-one years of age, may 
have the benefit of a public education ; and, since the system of 
graded and high schools has been adopted, may obtain a common 
knowledge from the alphabet to the classics. 

Let us now turn to the moral aspects of the people of Ohio. 
No human society is found without its poor and dependent classes, 
whether made so by the defects of nature, by acts of Providence, 
or by the accidents of fortune. Since no society is exempt from 
these classes, it must be judged not so much by the fact of their 
Vol. 1—3 

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existence, as by the manner in which it treats them. In the civil- 
ized nations of antiquity, such as Greece and Rome, hospitals, in- 
firmaries, orphan homes, and asylums for the infirm, were unknown. 
These are the creations of Christianity, and that must be esteemed 
practically the most Christian state which most practices this 
Christian beneficence. In Ohio, as in all the states of this country, 
and of all Christian countries, there is a large number of the infirm 
and dependent classes ; but, although Ohio is the third state in popu- 
lation, she is only the fourteenth in the proportion of dependent 
classes. The more important point, however, was, how does she 
treat themt Is there wanting any of all the varied institutions of 
benevolence? How does she compare with other states and coun- 
tries in this respect? It is believed that no state or country can 
present a larger proportion of all these institutions which the bene- 
volence of the wise and good have suggested for the alleviation of 
suffering and misfortune, than the state of Ohio. With 3,500 of 
the insane within her borders, she has five great lun^itic asylums, 
capable of accommodating them all. She has asylums for the deaf 
and dumb, the idiotic, and the blind. She has the best hospitals in 
the country. She has schools of reform and houses of refuge. She 
has ** homes'* for the boys and girls, to the number of 800, who 
are children of soldiers. She has penitentiaries and jails, orphan 
asylums and infirmaries. In every county there is an infirmary, 
and in every public institution, except the penitentiary, there is a 
school. So that the state has used every human means to relieve 
the suffering, to instruct the ignorant, and to reform the criminal. 
There are in the state 80,000 who come under all the various forms 
of the infirm, the poor, the sick and the criminal, who, in a greater 
or less degree, make the dependent class. For these the state has 
made every provision which humanity or justice or intelligence can 
require. A young state, developed in the wilderness, she chal- 
lenges, without any invidious comparison, both Europe and Amer- 
ica, to show her superior in the development of humanity, mani- 
fested in the benefaction of public institutions. 

Intimately connected with public morals and with charitable 
institutions, is the religion of a people. The people of the United 
States are a Christian people. The people of Ohio have mani- 
fested their zeal by the erection of churches, Sunday schools, and 
of religious institutions. 

We have seen that above and beyond all this material and in- 
tellectual development, Ohio has provided a vast benefaction of 
asylums, hospitals, and infirmaries, and special schools for the sup- 

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port and instruction of the dependent classes. There is not within 
all her borders a single one of the deaf, dumb, and blind, of the 
poor, sick and insane, not an orphan or a vagrant, who is not pro- 
vided for by the broad and generous liberality of the state and her 
people. A charity which the classic ages knew nothing of, a benefi- 
cience which the splendid hierarchies and aristocracies of Europe 
cannot equal, has been exhibited in this young state. 

The church and the schoolhouse rose beside the green fields 
and the morning bells rang forth to cheerful children going to 
school, and to a Christian people going to the church of Qod. 

Future Development. 

Let us now look at the possibilities of Ohio in the future 
development of the American Republican Republic. The two most 
populous parts of Europe, because the most food-producing, are 
the Netherlands and Italy or, more precisely Belgium and ancient 
Lombardy; to the present time, their population is, in round num- 
bers, three hundred to the square mile. The density of population 
in England proper is about the same. We may assume therefore, 
that three hundred to the square mile is in round numbers, the limit 
of comfortable subsistence under modern civilization. It is true 
that modern improvements in agricultural machinery and fertili- 
zation have greatly increased the capacity of production, on a given 
amount of land, with a given amount of labor. It is true, also, that 
the old countries of Europe do not possess an equal amount of arable 
land with Ohio in proportion to the same surface. It would seem, 
therefore, that the density of population in Ohio might exceed that 
of any part of Europe. On the other hand, it may be said with 
truth that the American people will not become so dense as in 
Europe while they have new lands in the west to occupy. This is 
true ; but lands such as those in the valley of the Ohio are now be- 
coming scarce in the west, and we think that, with her great capa- 
city for the production of grain on one hand, and of illimitable 
quantities of coal and iron to manufacture with on the other, that 
Ohio will, at no remote period, reach nearly the density of Belgium, 
which will give her 10,000,000 of people. This seems extravagant, 
but the tide of migration, which flowed so fast to the west, is begin- 
ning to ebb, while the manufactures of the interior offer greater 

With population comes wealth, the material for education, the 
development of the arts, advance in all the material elements of 

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civilization, and the still grander advancements in the strength and 
elevation of the human mind, conquering to itself new realms of 
material and intellectual power, acquiring in the future what we 
have seen in the past, a wealth of resources unknown and un- 
dreamed of when, a hundred years ago, the fathers of the republic 
declared their independence. I know how easy it is to treat this 
statement with easy incredulity, but statistics are a certain science ; 
the elements of civilization are now measured, and we know the 
progress of the human race as we know that of a cultivated plant. 
We know the resources of the country, its food-producing capacity, 
its art processes, its power of education, and the undefined and 
illimitable power of the human mind for new inventions and un- 
imagined progress. With this knowledge, it is not difficult nor 
unsafe to say that the future will produce more, and in a far 
greater ratio, than the past. The pictured scenes of the prophets 
have already been more than fulfilled, and the visions of beauty 
and glory, which their imagination failed fully to describe, will be 
more than realized in' the bloom of that garden which republican 
America will present to the eyes of astonished mankind. Long before 
another century shall have passed by, the single state of Ohio will 
present fourfold the population with which the thirteen States 
began their independence ; more wealth than the entire Union now 
has ; greater universities than any now in the country, and a develop- 
ment of arts and manufacture which the world now knows nothing 
of. You have seen more than that since the constitution was 
adopted, and what right have you to say the future shall not equal 
the pagtt 

I have aimed, in this address, to give an exact picture of what 
Ohio is, not more for the sake of Ohio than as a representation of 
the products which the American republic has given to the world. 
A state which began long after the Declaration of Independence, 
in the then unknown wilderness of North America, presents to-day 
the fairest example of what a republican government with Christian 
civilization can do — Address of E. Z>. Mansfield, LL, D. 

The Ancestry op the Ohio an. 

A. M. Courtenay, D. D. in an address at Zanesville, gave an 
interesting account of the ancestry of the Ohioan, from which, in 
part, this resume is taken. At a notable assembly in one of Ohio's 
universities, the Reverend Bishop paid tribute to the greatness of 
the state, which he ascribed to its New England origin. This he 

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did without qualification as a compliment, in a confidence as naive 
and undoubtedly as emphatic. No axiom could be carved in 
harder outline. He evidently believed that Ohio was, in the major 
part, peopled from New England, and that if there were among 
its settlers a few stragglers from less favored regions, they were 
obscure, insignificant and soon dominated by the persuasive Yankee 

We have also been told by others that Ohio was settled by 
Pennsylvanians — ** Pennsylvania Dutch,'* in local vernacular. The 
latter claim is not so generally held as is the former. We have 
been accustomed to hear and read assertions from our Down-East 
brethren to the effect that everything good and great in our civili- 
zation comes from Plymouth Rock. 

Dr. Courtenay did not question the potency of Puritan ideas, 
or the vigor or moral value of the pilgrims. The contribution by 
New England to the growth of the American republic is a fact so 
far beyond dispute that her sons supererogate in constant 

We all cheerfully admit that our Yankee brother has enriched 
the natural life with every good element except modesty. Yet he 
had no option on all the virtues and valors. 

A few first things may be here stated and considered : the first 
legislative assembly of white men on the American continent was 
at Jamestown, Virginia ; the first ordinance of religious liberty was 
in Maryland; the first declaration of independence was made at 
Mecklenburg, in the Carolinas; the first tea thrown overboard was 
from the ** Peggy Stewart," in Annapolis harbor; the first steam- 
boat floated on the Potomac, and the first railroad was at Baltimore. 
Of course, this only means that each section of the country may 
have an Oliver to the others' Roland. In the case of Ohio, one 
may enter a bill of exceptions, to-wit that the marvelous develop- 
ment of this most t3T)ical of American states is due not alone, nor 
even chiefly, to its New England blood, but to that mingling of vi- 
tal currents which has made strong the heart of the commonwealth. 

After the Indians had suffered defeat at the battle of Fallen 
Timbers, in 1794, they never rallied, and Ohio was thus left com- 
paratively free for the settlement of the white man, and thus the 
new Canaan which had long lured the tribes of our Israel, and as 
an exceedingly good land was open in part to settlement, yet the 
white man was withheld for some years later from entering and 
possessing it by fear of the **sons of Anak." When however, 
the sword of the Lord and of General Wayne hewed the way, 

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population poured into the land like floods, gathering to and radiat- 
ing from different centers. 

Despite, however, minor differences, which entered into the 
settlement of the state, Ohio has attained social solidarity, and uni- 
formity of educational system, of legal procedure, of political 
aspiration, through the weaving process of ceaseless interchange of 
business, literary and religious interests. This has tended to the 
obliteration of individuality in the sections, but marks of the 
original variations distinguish each: for example. Southern Ohio 
from Northern, as clearly as the New England of today from those 
commonwealths known formerly as the ** border states." 

It is the mingling of these diverse elements into a new com- 
pound which has enriched Ohio. And it is to be noted that here 
first occurred the blend of native blood, which has since continued 
throughout the west. Up to the close of the eighteenth century 
the colonies on the Atlantic coast were separate. Their people 
mingled little. They were diverse as the English, Scotch, Dutch 
and Irish. But from all of them poured streams of people into 
that fair land which lies between Lake Erie and the Ohio river, 
and the children of the Puritan and Cavalier, Hollander and 
Huguenot, Teuton and Scotch-Irish, married and begot a new race. . 
No one section can claim monopoly interest in Ohio's great- 
ness. This is the more apparent when we examine the scroll of 
her famous men. It will be found that they have arisen from all 
quarters and conditions. Of the thirty-three governors of Ohio, 
up to 1890, twelve came from the south, twelve from New England, 
tliree from Pennsylvania and six were born in Ohio of Scotch- 
Irish ancestry. Further, it cannot be established that any section 
produced the great men of any particular profession or pursuit, 
which disproves Howell's generalization that the ** south gave Ohio 
perhaps her foremost place in war and politics ; but her enlighten- 
ment, in other things, came from the north.'' 

Rawlinson has claimed that **it is admitted by ethnologists that 
the mingled races are superior to the pure ones." This is perhaps 
true, with the qualification that the law acts within the limits of 
a similar origin, as in the case of the Greeks, the Romans, the 
British, and, above all, the Americans. Thus Tennyson sings 
** Saxon, and Norman and Dane are we" and he might have added, 
Celt, and Gaul, French, and Huguenot and German. One of our 
own poets recited, on the nation's century, these elements of our 
new type, Scottish thrift, Irish humor, German steadfastness, 
Scandinavian patience and English moral worth. 

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A writer has put the case thus: ** Southern men of the old 
regime were not given to the writing of books** and when the man 
of New England strove forward, pen in hand, and nominated him- 
self custodian of our national archives, and began to compile the 
record, nobody seriously contested the office. Thus it happened 
that New England got handsome treatment in our national histor- 
ies. She deserved good treatment. Her record is one of glory. 
No patriotic American would detract from her merit, but her 
history is not the history of the whole country, and it may be added 
that her point of view is not the only vision for estimate. 

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Controversy Over New Counties — Division op the North- 
west Territory — Counties op the Northwest Territory — 
Original State Counties. 

By J. F, Laning. 

**It is probable that the people who read this article will all 
know that the state of Ohio was not always divided into the 
number of counties there now are, and that to evolve the present 
map a long period of time and many mutations of county outlines 
were necessary. But few people, however, know the extent of 
the evolution that has been going on, in bringing Ohio counties 
within their present environments. Prom the erection of the first 
county, in 1788, the number has been made to grow each year, 
by cutting down the size of those previously formed, until, by the 
limits of the constitution of 1851, requiring each of them to con- 
tain four hundred square miles, it is scarcely possible to now find 
a locality where the existing counties could let territory enough 
go to form a new one. 

**The importance of the county as a political unit vflries in 
diflPerent parts of the United States. In New England it takes 
a secondary rank, that of the township being first. In the 
southern states the position is reversed, the county, or parish 
as it is called, being the leading agency for local government. 
In the state of Ohio, as also in the other western states, the county 
and the township each has its special features in the frame of 
government, and they do not vary much in their importance. 
The structure of government here existing is of such a character, 
that it may be appropriately called a mixed or dual system, as 
it properly has a double unit in the township and county, for each 
of these divisions has its primary functions to perform, and neither 
outranks the other to any great extent. Each is a unit in making 
up the united whole represented collectively in the state govern- 


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**A8 it is possible that there may be some who, in this day of 
our fully formed state and perfected plan of government, may 
not be aware that the soil of Ohio was once a part of a territory 
of the United States, as Alaska, Utah and Oklahoma are now 
territories,* it is proper to refer to the fact, that at one time it was 
in an unorganized civil condition, and that, later, its first chief 
magistrate was a territorial governor, appointed by the author- 
ities at Washington, as the governors of western territories are 
now selected. The country embracing what are now the states 
of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan and Wisconsin, first came 
to be known as a part of our nation, under the name of the North- 
west Territory, and provision for its government was made by 
congress, through a law known as the Ordinance of 1787. Ar- 
thur St. Clair was appointed as the first governor of the territory, 
and through his action the first counties were established. 

** Historically speaking, county government here . came into 
existence before that of townships. Counties were organized for 
the purpose of establishing court districts, and county areas were 
defined about as soon as the work of governing the territory began. 
The first law for this domain was for the purpose of regulating 
the militia, and the second for organizing the courts. Those 
providing for the officers and affairs of townships came later. 

**In their original creation and formation, county and town- 
ship divisions were independent of each other, the townships not 
being required to first exist as a basic factor in forming the coun- 
ties, nor the county to be, as it now appears, the aggregation of 
a number of pre-existing townships. County lines were not, at 
first, concurrent with township lines, and it was often necessary 
for the county area to be made up without regard to the confines 
of townships, because, in some cases, counties were created before 
the township surveys had been commenced. The Ordinance of 
1787 was preceded by what was known as the Ordinance of 1785, 
sometimes called the Land ordinance. This made provision for 
the survey of the western lands, and their division into town- 
ships. This however, was for the purpose of getting them into 
farms, and making them ready for market and occupancy, aaa 
not for government. The Ordinance of 1785 applied only to 
government lands, and made provision that they should be sur- 
veyed into townships six miles square, but no rule was ever en- 
acted for laying out the tracts disposed of by the government to 
land companies. Their proprietors cut them up into farms to 


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suit their own liking, and into sections of various size and form. 
The United States thus lost control over the manner of running 
township lines, and what is now regarded as our primary civil 
division was not laid out with a view of its becoming a factor in 
a higher county area, or a unit in a county organism. 

*'St. Clair was authorized, by the Ordinance of 1787, to lay out 
the territory into counties and townships, but there is no record 
of his ever having interfered with the freedom of land owners to 
form townships. Counties, however, were never allowed to 
emerge in the irregular manner that townships did. Their larger 
functions, and their nearer relation to the central government 
of the state, made it necessary for the ruling power to assume 
control of their erection, and alteration, when required, and from 
the earliest period of our civil existence, counties have been 
brought into existence by the will of the government, executed 
through its executive or legislative department. In the progress 
of our state from an ungoverned wilderness to a fully organized 
and practically self-governed commonwealth, the edict of the rul- 
ing power has always directed the course and length of county 

**With these remarks concerning the nature and historical 
relation of townships and counties, we now proceed to give some- 
thing of the details of the evolution of the early Ohio counties. 

**The Ordinance of 1787 prescribing the manner that the 
Northwest Territory should be governed, provided that for the 
execution of process, civil and criminal, the governor shall make 
proper divisions thereof; and he shall proceed from time to time, 
as circumstances may require, to lay out the parts- of the district 
in which the Indian titles have been extinguished, into counties 
and townships, subject however, to such alterations as may there- 
after be made by the legislature. 

**St. Clair was appointed governor of the territory, October 5, 
1787, and arrived at Marietta, July 9, 1788. His first act toward 
carrjdng out the provisions of the ordinance, as to the establish- 
ment of local government, was to erect the county of Wadiington. 
He issued an order defining its boundaries, July 27, 1788. 

**The next county formed by St. Clair was Hamilton. His 
edict brought it into existence January 2, 1790. Its boundaries 
were as follows: * Beginning on the bank of the Ohio river, at the 
confluence of the Little Miami, and down the said Ohio river to 
the mouth of the Big Miami, and up said Miami to the standing 
stone forks or branch of said river, and thence with a line to be 

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drawn due east, to the Little Miami, and down said Little Miami 
to the place of beginning.' On February 11, 1792, Governor St. 
Clair issued a proclamation enlarging Hamilton county. 

**0n the 20th of June, 1790, St. Clair set off the county of 

** There was a wide stretch of country on the north part of 
the territory that was yet outside of any of the organized counties. 
On the 15th day of August, 1796, Wayne county was organized. 

**In order to establish more counties, as the existing ones 
embraced all of the territory, it was now necessary to make a di- 
vision of some of those that had already been erected. The first 
separation to be made was for the purpose of creating Adams 
county. Hamilton county was large, and could well be divided. 
So, July 10, 1797, a county called Adams was taken off its east 
side. This county was named in honor of President Adams. Con- 
cerning its county seat, Howe, in his Historical Collections, says: 
*The first court in this county was held in Manchester. Winthrop 
Sargent, the secretary of the territory, acting in the absence of the 
governor, appointed commissioners, who located the county seat at 
an out of the way place, a few miles above the mouth of Brush 
creek, which they called Adamsville. The locality was soon named, 
in derision, Scant. At the next session of the court its members 
became divided, and part sat at Adamsville, and part Manchester. 
The governor, on his return to the territory, finding the people 
in great confusion, and much bickering between them, removed the 
seat of justice to the mouth of Brush creek, where the first court 
was held in 1798. Here a town was laid out, by Noble Grimes, 
under the name of Washington. A large court house was built, 
with a jail in the lower story, and the governor appointed two more 
of the Scant party judges, which gave them a majority. In 1800, 
Charles William Byrd, secretary of the territory, in the absence of 
the governor, appointed two more of the Manchester party judges, 
which balanced the parties, and the contest was maintained until 
West Union became the county seat.' 

**The next county to be divided was that of Washington. In 
1786 the Seven Ranges had been surveyed and July 29, 1797, a 
portion of the northern part of the pioneer county was eliminated, 
and made into the county of Jefferson. The county received its 
name from President Jefferson. Some idea of its original size 
may be known from the fact that, when established, it included 
within its boundaries what are now the cities of Cleveland, Akron, 
Canton, Warren, Steubenville, and Youngstown. Its county seat 
has always been at Steubenville. 

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**The next act in the work of dividing the territory into coun- 
ties, was changing the boundaries of the counties of Hamilton, 
Wayne and Knox. In 1795, General Wayne had made a treaty 
with the Indians at Greenville, by which the line of the lands of 
the United States had been extended from Loramie's westward 
to Fort Recovery, and thence southward to the mouth of the 
Kentucky river. The boundary of Hamilton county was extended 
westward, June 22, 1798, to make it correspond with this change 
in the boundary of the government territory. 

''Ross next came into the family of Ohio counties. Nathaniel 
Massie, a surveyor in the employ of Virginia, had laid out the 
town of Manchester, in 1790, and induced people to emigrate 
to it. Massie had become a large land owner, and circulated 
glowing descriptions of the country along the Scioto, with the 
hope of inducing settlements. Robert J. Finley, and a Presby- 
terian congregation from Kentucky, were attracted, and a set- 
tlement was made at the mouth of Paint creek. Chillicothe was 
laid out in August, 1796, by Colonel Massie. The opening of 
Zane's Trace, soon afterwards, diverted much of the westward 
travel, which before this time had been in boats down the Ohio, and 
brought it overland through this region. Other settlements 
sprung up, and with the increase in settlers, demands were put 
forward for a division of Adams county. St. Clair recognized 
the need of the new county, and, August 20, 1798, issued a pro- 
clamation for it, in which the boundaries were fixed. 

Controversy Over New Counties. 

**This list of nine counties comprised what, had been erected 
when, in pursuance of the proclamation from St. Clair, a terri- 
torial legislature was elected, in December, 1788. This procla- 
mation was in obedience to the requirements of the Ordinance of 
1787, as follows: *So soon as there shall be five thousand free 
male inhabitants, of full age, in the district, upon giving proof 
thereof to the governor, they shall receive authority, with time and 
place, to elect representatives from their counties or townships, to 
represent them in the General Assembly; provided that for every 
five hundred free male inhabitants there shall be one representative, 
and so on progressively with the number of free male inhabitants, 
shall the right of representation increase, until the number of 
representatives shall amount to twenty-five, after which the num- 
ber and proportion of representatives shall be regulated by the 

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legislature; provided, that no person be eligible or qualified to 
act as a representative, unless he shall have been a citizen of one 
of the United States three years, and be a resident in the district, 
or unless he shall have resided in the district three years, and in 
either case shall likewise hold in his own right, in fee simple, 
two hundred acres of land within the same; provided also, that 
a freehold in fifty acres of land in the district, having been a cit- 
izen in one of the states, and being resident in the district, or the 
like freehold and two years' residence in the district, shall be 
necessary to qualify the man as an elector of a representative. ' 

**Some idea of the population of the territory, at that time, may 
be formed from the representation the different counties obtained 
in the territorial legislature. Washington had two, Hamilton 
seven, Ross four, Adams two, Wayne three, and St. Clair, Ran- 
dolph, Knox and Jefferson one each. New Connecticut was a 
part of the territory, governed under the laws of Connecticut, 
and would have been entitled to a representation, but had none, 
because, as St. Clair said, he did not know of population enough 
in the district to entitle it to a member. 

**The legislature met at the appointed place, February 4, 1799. 
Before this time the people of several localities in the territory 
had been clamorous for the erection of new counties, but their 
desires had been refused by St. Clair. The territorial legislature 
having met, the matter now came before that body, and was a 
disturbing element between the executive and the general as- 
sembly. Several acts were passed creating new counties, or 
changing the boundaries of those already existing. The legis- 
lature insisted that, after the governor had laid out the country 
into counties and townships, as he had already done, it was (com- 
petent for them to pass laws, altering, dividing, and multiplying 
them at their pleasure, to be submitted to him for his approba- 
tion; that when the territory had been divided into counties by 
the governor, his exclusive power was exhausted, and any altera- 
tions thereafter required, were to be made by the legislature, with 
his assent. But St. Clair would not assent to any laws changing 
the boundaries of counties, or erecting new ones. Six acts of 
the kind, passed at this session, were vetoed by him. The governor 
made a speech to the legislature, on the day of its adjournment, in 
which he said: 

" 'I am truly sensible, gentlemen, of the inconveniences that follow 
from a great extension being given to counties; they cannot, however, be 

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constructed while the settlements are otherwise, and the inconveniences are 
not lessened, but rather increased by being made very small, with respect 
to the number of inhabitants. The expenses which necessarily attend the 
establishment of counties fall light when divided amongst a number, but be- 
come a heavy burden when they must be borne by a few, and the inconven- 
ience of attending the courts as jurors and witnesses, which are sometimes 
complained of, are increased nearly in the same ratio as the counties are 
multiplied within the same bounds. There is yet another reason, gentle- 
men, why those acts were not assented to. It appears to me that the 
erecting of new counties is the proper business of the executive. It is, 
indeed, provided that the boundaries of counties may be altered by the legis- 
lature; but that is quite a different thing from originally establishing them. 
They must exist before they can be altered, and the provision is expressed 
that the governor shall proceed from time to time, as it may become necessary 
to lay them out. While I shall ever most studiously avoid encroaching on 
any of the rights of the legislature, you will naturally expect, gentlemen, 
that I should guard, with equal care, those of the executive.' 

** Another reason given by St. Clair for his dissent to the bills 
for erecting new counties, was, as he said, that in some of them 
the present number of inhabitants could not support a county, 
as it was not probable that the names of every man living within 
the proposed boundary exceeded a hundred. St. Clair's biog- 
rapher, in the St. Clair Papers, advances another reason for his 
conservatism. He says: *The greed which characterized the 
transactions in land, actuated those who were speculators, to seek 
to control the establishment of county towns. They hoped to 
increase the value of their lands, as the public improvements in 
the way of buildings and roads, and superior advantages incidental 
to a county seat, would attract the better class of settlers to such 
neighborhood.' An illustration of this afforded in the case of 
the strife in the county of Adams, to which reference has been 

**It is quite likely that the true secret of St. Clair's unwilling- 
ness to erect new counties, was, that if a large number of them 
were represented in the legislature, the chance of his exercising 
much political influence over the body would be diminished. 

Division op the Northwest Territory. 

**The next movement in the evolution of the territorial divis- 
ions of the Northwest Territory, was the act of congress dated 
May 7, 1800. This provided for the separation of the western 
part of the territory, and calling it the Indiana territory. The 
division was to be at a line beginning on the Ohio opposite the 

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mouth of the Kentucky river; thence northerly to Fort Recov- 
ery; and thence north to an intersection of the territorial line 
between the United States and Canada. This line divided the 
lower Michigan peninsula into two nearly equal parts, but it did 
not remain in force for any considerable time. The eastern divi- 
sion, thus created, was to remain under the existing government, 
and the western division to be organized under a similar one. 

**It was also provided in the act, that when the eastern part 
should be formed into a state, the western boundary line should 
be changed, and begin at the mouth of the Great Miami river, 
and run thence due north to the Canada line. A division of the 
territory into states had been contemplated in the Ordinance of 
1787, and this provision for changing the western boundary, 
made the act coincide with the terms of the ordinance upon the 
subject. Its requirements were: * There shall be formed in the 
said territory, not less than three, nor more than five states; and 
the boundaries of the states, • • • shall become fixed and estab- 

**The census of 1800 revealed the fact that the eastern division 
of the territory had a population of forty-two thousand, and al- 
though this was less than the number set in the ordinance, to 
entitle it to admission to the Union, the people were ambitious to 
form a state government, and made application to congress for 
the privilege. Much scheming was indulged in at the time, be- 
tween the adherents of the Federalist and the Anti-Federalist 
parties, each desiring to get the political advantage of the other 
in the formation of the new state. Each desired to have the 
boundaries coincide with their political majority. St. Clair was 
a Federalist and was working for a state that would vote for his 
party. He advocated that one be made from the territory east 
of a line running up the Scioto to the southwest comer of New 
Connecticut, as, in this district, a majority of the voters sup- 
ported the Federal party. But in the boundaries, as they were 
fixed in the Ordinance of 1787, not including the county of Wayne, 
there was a majority in favor of the Anti-Federalists. Congress 
was then an Anti-Federalist body, and the ordinance boundaries 
were left intact. 

The State Formed. 

** April 30, 1802, an enabling act was passed authorizing a 
constitutional convention, to form a state, from which the follow- 
ing extracts pertinent to this subject are taken : * The inhabitants 

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of the eastern division of the territory northwest of the river Ohio, 
be, and they are hereby authorized to form for themselves a con- 
stitution and state government, and to assume such name as they 
shall deem proper; 

'' *That the said state shall consist of all the territory included 
within the following boundaries, to- wit: Bounded on the east by 
the Pennsylvania line; on the south by the Ohio river, to the 
mouth of the Great Miami river; on the west by the line drawn 
due north from the mouth of the Great Miami aforesaid; and on 
the north by an east and west line drawn through the southerly 
extreme of Lake Michigan, running east, after intersecting the 
due north line aforesaid, from the mouth of the Great Miami, 
until it shall intersect said Lake Erie, or the territorial line, and 
thence, with the same, through Lake Erie, to the Pennsylvania 
line aforesaid; 

'' *That all that part of the territory of the United States north 
west of the river Ohio, heretofore included in the eastern division 
of said territory, and not included within the boundary herein 
prescribed for the said state, is hereby attached to, and made a 
part of the Indiana territory. 

'' *That all male citizens of the United States, who shall arrive 
at full age, and reside within the said territory at least one year 
previous to the day of election, • • • be, and they are hereby 
authorized to choose representatives to form a convention, who 
shall be apportioned among the several counties within the eastern 
division aforesaid, in a ratio of one representative to every twelve 
hundred inhabitants of each county • • • that is to say,— 
from the county of Trumbull two representatives, from the county 
of Jefferson seven, two of the seven to be elected within what is 
now known by the county of Belmont, taken from Jefferson and 
Washington counties; from the county of Washington four rep- 
resentatives; from the county of Rx)ss seven representatives- 
two of the seven to be elected in what is now known by Fairfield 
county, taken from Ross and Washington counties; from the 
county of Adams three representatives ; from the county of Ham- 
ilton twelve representatives— two of the twelve to be elected in 
what is now known by Clermont county, taken entirely from Ham- 
ilton county; and the elections for the representatives aforesaid, 
shall take place on the second Tuesday of October next, the time 
fixed by law * * * for elected representatives to the general 
assembly. ' 

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Counties op the Northwest Territory. 

**At the time of the organization of the Northwest Territory 
the state of Connecticut had laid claim to that part of it lying 
north of the forty-first parallel of north latitude. In 1786 the 
legislature of that state ceded all of this claim to the United States, 
except a strip one hundred and twenty miles in length lying next 
west of the Pennsylvania line. This became known as the Western 
Reserve of Connecticut, and was often called New Connecticut, as 
that state continued to enact laws for its government, and exercise 
jurisdiction within it, as she did at home. In May, 1800, her legis- 
lature renounced jurisdiction to this reserve, and conveyed the 
same to the United States. It then became in order for St. Clair, 
the territorial governor, to create a county government for it. 
Before this, it had been parts of the counties of Jefferson and 
Wayne. On July 10, 1800, St. Clair placed all of the reserve in 
the county of Trumbull. The new county embraced all of the 
territory north of the forty-first parallel, lying within a distance 
of 120 miles west of the Pennsylvania line. It was named in 
honor of Governor Trumbull, of Connecticut, who was the execu- 
tive of that state at the time the cession was made. The county 
seat was located at Warren. 

**The next county which St. Clair organized was Clermont. 
The date of his proclamation for the purpose was December 6, 
1800. It was taken from the county of Hamilton. The county 
seat was located at Batavia. The origin of the name of the 
county has not been preserved, but the presumption is that it 
was derived from Clermont in Prance. 

**0n December 9, 1800, but three days after the organization 
of Clermont county, St. Clair issued a proclamation for the organi- 
zation of Fairfield county. It was taken from the counties of 
Washington and Ross, about one-half from each. St. Clair gave 
it the name of Fairfield, from the beauty of its fair lands. The 
county seat was located at Lancaster. 

** Belmont county was formed by St. Clair, September 7, 1801. 
It was made up of the northern part of Washington and the 
southern part of Jefferson county. Belmont is derived from 
two French words signifying a fine mountain. The surface is 
very hilly and the land very picturesque. St. Clairsville, the 
county seat, derives its name from Gk)vemor St. Clair. 

**This was the last county to be formed by the proclamation 

Vol. 1—4 

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(one op the authors op the state constitution.) 

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of the territorial governor. Subsequent to this, under the new 
state government, counties were formed, and their boundaries 
changed, by act of the state legislature. 

Original State Counties. 

**This completes the evolution of Ohio counties to the time 
the state was formed. The convention which met November 1, 
1802, to frame the first state constitution was composed of thirty- 
five members, apportioned to the counties appearing on the above 
map, as follows: Adams three, Belmont two, Clermont two, Fair- 
field two, Hamilton ten, Jefferson five, Ross five, Trumbull two, 
and Washington four. The northwestern part of the state, by 
the treaty of Greenville, August 3, 1795, had been allotted to the 
Indian tribes, as a reservation, and was unsettled by the whites. 
The seat of government of the county of Wayne was at Detroit, 
and when Ohio was being formed, as the greater part of that 
county would be in Indiana territory, it was given no represen- 
tation in the convention. 

** These counties have been divided and disintegrated, until 
from the nine organized counties and the Indian reservation that 
came to the state when formed, the number has grown to eighty- 
eight. When this article was begun it was the intention to go to 
the end, and thus evolve the present county map of the state, but 
the time allotted has been too brief to allow it, and we stop at this 
convenient point, hoping to be able to present the others in some 
subsequent report." 

The foregoing chapter was given in volume five of the Ohio 
State Archaeological and Historical Society publication, in 1897, 
and is given here by special permission of the Hon. E. 0. Randall, 
secretary of the state society. 

We now turn to Morrow county, the erection and organization 
of which came later, a full account of which is given in another 

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Morrow County Opponents — Rival Claims at Columbus — 
Morrow's Final Campaign — Minority Report on New Counties 
— How the Gilead Claim Won — County's Creative Act — First 
Year op Infancy — Political Record — Official Representatives 
op the County — Morrow County Infirmary. 

From various sources the following account of the erection of 
Morrow county has been gleaned. 

The organization of Marion county, in 1824, and the establish- 
ment of the county seat at Marion, gave birth to the project to erect 
a new county out of the territory which is now known as Morrow. 
Mount Gilead was laid out in the same year, and formed a nucleus 
about which gathered the discontent engendered by the location of 
the seat of justice at Marion. Some of the more radical ones said 
that a new county would be formed to accommodate the large popu- 
lation which was situated in the outlying comers of the four coun- 
ties, but it was some twenty-one years before this project bore the 
fruit of fact, and then not without a struggle that consumed the 
energies of the whole community, the time for years of its best 
citizens, and not an inconsiderable sum of money for that time. 

The early history of this struggle is but imperfectly known. 
The project awakened at the very start a determined opposition, 
and the operations of the active partisans in this movement were 
necessarily known to but a few of the leading spirits of the time. 
These have long since passed away, and we have vague traditions 
from which to glean information in regard to this interesting 
event. From all the information at our command, it appears 
that the early efforts were confined principally to gathering peti- 
tions setting forth the case of the petitioners, and asking the legis- 
lature for the obvious relief. Unfortunately for the early suc- 
cess of the project, there were a number of conflicting interests 
to be conciliated, some of which eventually commanded nearly 
as great strength as the Gilead claim. 


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Morrow County Opponents. 

It was proposed by the original movers in this project to erect 
a county out of the outlying portions of Marion, Richland, Knox 
and Delaware counties, with Mt. Gilead as the county seat. The 
movement was strongly opposed by the Richland county people, 
save the few to be especially favored by the change, and the erec- 
tion, in 1846, of Ashland, which took a large portion of its territory 
from Richland, did not make this opposition any the less deter- 
mined. To this was added, about this time, the opposition of the 
conflicting claims of Chester and Bennington. The necessity for 
the erection of a new county on this territory was now generally 
conceded, and the contest turned on the question of the location 
of the county seat. 

The Gilead claim, as w^as know^n in lobby parlance, called for 
the erection of a county to be bounded by a line beginning at the 
northeast corner of section 1, in Tully township, Crawford count}^ 
thence east with a slight variation, taking the larger part of 
Bloomfield township ; then turning south on the section line of Troy 
township, near its northern boundary, it diverged from a straight 
line to take in the whole of Perry, Franklin, Chester and Bloom- 
field; thence west, taking the w^hole of Bennington, Peru, a little 
of the northern part of Oxford (Delaware county) and all of 
Westfield; then, deflecting to the east, including only the town- 
ships of Morven, Canaan and one half of Tully. This left Mt. 
Gilead the central point and the obvious county seat. 

The Chester claim proposed to erect a county out of the terri- 
tory bounded by a line beginning in the southeast corner of Tully 
township (Crawford county) passing due east to a point about a 
mile east of the west line of Jefferson, dividing Washington and 
cutting a little portion off the southern part of Bloomfield and 
Troy; thence south, taking about a mile off of the western side 
of Jefferson (Richland county) passing around the whole of 
Middleberry (Knox county) and taking in the west half of Wayne, 
Liberty and Milford (Knox county) ; thence west on the southern 
line of Milford, Ilillier (Knox county) and Porter (Delaware 
county) the line followed the western boundary of the last named 
township to Peru ; then passing, so as to take in the whole of that 
township, it ran due north to the boundary line, deflecting to the 
east to the eastern boundary of Morven and Canaan to the place of 
beginning, leaving Chcsterville the obvious place for the county 

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The Bennington claim made Marengo the central point, and 
ran its lines about it, taking territory from Knox, Licking, Dela- 
ware and Marion. It was era of county making, and the number 
of projects of this nature pressed upon the attention of legislators 
by hired lobbyists is astonishing. The number which more or less 
antagonized the interests of a county to be formed on the territory 
now known as Morrow reached as high as nine at one time. 

At that time, the names of Walhonding, Bennington, Chester, 
Ontario, Center, Taylor, National and Johnston, were the names 
of aspiring counties, not one of which ever crowned a successful 
issue, though some of the counties they introduced were established. 

Rival Claims at Columbus. 

The state of affairs at Columbus at this time is well expressed 
by a letter from one of the lobbyists to his principals. He writes : 
**The committee on new counties has not yet reported, and we have 
all been waiting anxiously, expecting a report every morning this 
week, without coming to any definite conclusion as to who would 
get the report. I tell you, gentlemen, there are a great many ups 
and downs in this brown town, and about three downs to one up; 
for there are so many conflicting interests here on the subject of 
new counties, and so much jealousy existing, that if you get a mem- 
ber favorably impressed some one, for fear your tale will interfere 
with his interests, will go and tell him that it is all false ; and the 
claim that has the least prospect of success has the most friends 
among the lobbyists/' This was as early as January 14, 1846, 
and it was not until February 24, 1848, that these alternations of 
hope and fear were put to rest by the erection of Morrow county. 

The session of 1845-6 was about the first that the different 
claims were represented by lobbyists. During this session, Gilead 
was represented by Dr. Geller, John Young, Christopher Lindsay 
and S. T. Gunnard. Chester delegated her interests to W. Hance, 
E. B. Kinsel, Wm. Shur, Enoch and David Miles, and Bennington 
was represented by Thomas Freeman, a Mr. Moorehouse and 
Hiram Randolph. These men were oii the ground as early as the 
candidates for legislative offices, and did not retire until the last 
struggle of the session. 

To understand the contest between these claims it must be 
remembered that according to the laws upon the subject no county 
could be formed containing less than four hundred S(iuare miles, 
and no countv could be reduced below this constitutional minimum 

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The problem then was to map out a county that would answer these 
two requirements and receive the support of the majority of the 
people living within the territory thus included. It will be ob- 
served that in a spirited contest, these requirements furnished 
plenty of work for the partisans of the diflferent claims. Com- 
mittees were formed to solicit signatures to petitions or remon- 
strances, to secure subscriptions for expenses of the lobbyists, and 
to keep close watch and counteract the eflforts of the committees 
for other claims. An opponent of the Ontario or Gilead claim 
writes to his principals concerning the operations of the friends 
of that claim : * * I do not think there can be one solitary exception ; 
they have got their own signers ; they have every one of ours whom 
they could torture, tease or beg into submission. They have a great 
many gigners who have signed our petitions. They must have 
nineteen hundred or two thousand petitioners in all, and some three 
or f-our hundred memorialists from Marion, Delaware and Craw- 
ford counties. I think they have traveled land and water to make 
proselytes, and verily they had made them.'' 

The session of 1845-6 passed without prejudice to either of 
the claims. By the illness of the two Whig senators the Demo- 
crats had a majority in that branch of the legislature and, being 
opposed to the erection of new counties, the matter made but little 
stir save among the anxious lobbyists. In the following session 
the forces were early on hand. The Gilead claim had been put in 
the hands of a conmiittee during the previous s^sion, but not acted 
upon, and early in this session Chester submitted its claim, with 
a good prospect of seeing the matter brought to a vote. But they 
were all doomed to disappointment by the death of Mr. Horr, the 
representative from Marion and Delaware, which deferred all con- 
siderations of county claims taking territory from this district. 
The governor appointed a new election to fill the vacancy, and 
Messrs. Eaton and Reynolds were nominated. This election was of 
vital importance to the new county lobbyists and one writes: **M 
has seen Eaton and he signified that he would not be in favor of 
new counties. Now, my boys, ^o into Harmony and get them to 
vote for Eaton." It is hardly necessary to add that he was 

The Bennington claim was introduced late in the session and 
although it gained no prominence in the fears of the lobbyists, or 
discussions of the committees, it served to balk the hopes of other 
contestants. During the previous session the Gilead claim was 
decidedly in the lead, at the present, the prospect had changed, 

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sending Chester to the front, and its supporters had strong hopes 
of bringing it to a favorable vote when Eaton took his seat. But 
Bennington was thrust forward and disturbed all their well-laid 
plans. The bill to erect this county was about to be brought to a 
vote, but it was indefinitely postponed, January 29, 1847; and, 
though strenuous efforts were made on the part of its friends to 
resuscitate it by a vote to reconsider, it was effectually laid out. 
Gilead came before the house, and at the request of its friends 
was referred to a select committee, and Chester, after passing 
two readings successfully, was postponed by the request of its 
friends to the first Monday in December, 1847. 

Thus another winter of anxiety had passed and the county 
of Morrow was no nearer completion than at the beginning of the 
session. One thing had been gained; the members had become 
disgusted with the whole subject and were in the mood to finish 
the business one way or another, if it ever came before them 

Morrow's Final Campaign. 

The final campaign opened for them in December, 1847. The 
lobbyists were in full force and early on the ground. A letter 
dated December 8, 1847, from William Hance, at Columbus, to 
the Chester committee, gives the outlook at the beginning of the 
session as follows: ** Judging from the present appearance and 
circumstances, the contest will be between Chester and Gilead, and 
in it Oilead has an advantage. The chairman of the committee 
in the house is believed to be a friend to that claim. The two 
Democrats, Smith of Hamilton and Coe, of Sandusky, voted for it 
last year; hence they may have a majority report in their favor, 
which will be an advantage to them, as the dereliction of Gilead 
seems not to be thought of only when we mention it, and many 
members appear anxious to settle it in some way. On the other 
hand, we have Mr. Parks of Lorain, and Mr. Taylor of Franklin, 
on the committee, from whom we expect anything but a report 
either favorable to Bennington or Gilead. The chairman, Mr. 
Hurdisty, is from Carroll, and appears to be in the keeping of Mr. 
Watt, who has been engaged here for Gilead, for two or three 
years past, and is from Carroll county. In the senate the com- 
mittee is composed of King, Horton and Beaver, King is a Demo- 
crat and is chairman ; the other two are Whigs. Horton was last 
year in the house and voted for an indefinite postponment of both 

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Bennington and Gilead, and I think was favorable for Chester." 

It became generally understood that this session would bring 
the matter to an issue, and most strenuous efforts were made on all 
hands to place their claims in the most favorable light. The 
Gilead claim had changed in name from Ontario to Gilead, and 
then to Marshall, to conciliate the various prejudices. 

Chester had secured the services of a man that had successful- 
ly engineered Ashland's interest, and the lobbyists were everywhere 
strongly re-inforced. One of the Chester lobbyists writes: **It is 
doubtless the fact that more lobbyists are employed at this time in 
Columbus, than ever before since the formation of the state." 

With these preparations made, there was nothing left but to 
hope for the best, with an anxiety that few, who have not had the 
experience, can well comprehend. It is almost distressing at this 
late date to read these letters from the lobbyists to their friends 
at home, informing them of the progress of affairs. Letters were 
written twice a week and they present a picture of shifting 
shadows, where the scene changes in a breath, with the alterna- 
tions of hope and despair. 

On December 13, 1847, the house committee is informed that 
Gilead at least, if not Bennington, is moving heaven and earth to 
accomplish her purpose, having all the doorkeepers and clerks in 
both branches, and many others employed in her behalf. Not- 
withstanding this array of opposition the writer has great confi- 
dence that the Chester claim is likely to succeed. He adds that 
there is a strong repugnance with the Whigs to support Benning- 
ton and, also, to a considerable extent against Gilead. In all 
that should be looked at as requisite in making a new county — such 
as remoteness from old county seats, contiguity of territory to 
the new county seat as compared with the old ones, compactness 
of territory, and consequent accommodations for the inhabitants 
taken into the new county — Chester was represented to have a 
much better claim than either Bennington or Gilead. **We have 
the direct expression of a number of members of a preference for 
Chester," concludes the letter. **We are satisfied beyond doubt 
that at least one member of each committee is decidedly in our 
favor, and have no reason to doubt the friendship of one other mem- 
ber of each committee, with strong hopes that the other Whig and 
Democrat will go for us on the other committee." 

A few weeks later comes the intelligence: **Walhonding 
(another new county project) is playing the deuce with all our 
new county projects and whilst she cannot be made herself, will 

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do much toward keeping others from being made." In another 
letter of about the same date, the same writer says: **We thought 
we had two of the senate committee great, and were disposed to 
push our claim with them, but the chairman declined calling the 
committee together until all the petitions from the conflicting claims 
were in. We then turned our attention to the house, where we 
felt pretty sure of two members of the committee, but today, there 
seems to be an undercurrent at work, which, I fear, renders it 
uncertain whether we shall have a single one in the senate, and 
but one on the house committee. If I am correct in my suspicion 
relative to the committees, it is all owing to the influence of the 
foreign friends of Walhonding. ' ' 

A letter of December 23, 1847, brings news of a reaction. It 
says: *'A majority of the committees has reported Gilead. Johns- 
town is gone by the board — scarcely a grease spot left. National 
and Cumberland reported. The committee goes on rapidly this 
winter, disposing of five claims in one sitting. Today a bill was 
reported by the committee for the erection of Gilead. Chester, 
of course, was reported against by the majority, but we have two 
fast friends (Park and Taylor) who will make a minority report. 
The majority is one Whig and two Democrats ; the minority is two 
Whigs. We have high hopes yet; we have now 1,660 petitions, 
all told. Gilead has only 1,259 legal ones within the territory, 
and 280 out of the territory, with 77 illegal ones. We expect the 
minority report will tear the report of the majority all to pieces. 
Bennington ; once proud and lofty Bennington ! How are the mighty 
fallen! Poor fellow! (referring to the fellow who headed that 
claim). He sold his birthright for a mess of pottage.*' 

Notwithstanding the favorable action in favor of the Gilead 
claim, there was a very strong feeling on the part of all that it 
was likely to be finally defeated. The Whigs manifested con- 
siderable opposition to it on the ground that it would strengthen 
tiieir adversaries, and unless the Democrats could be induced to 
forego their party opposition to all new counties, there was, indeed, 
no hope for its success. The Chester adherents strongly urged 
that the Whigs of the western part of Knox county were the only 
ones that had increased their majority, and that they should be 
encouraged. All this was not without its eflfect, and the prospects 
of Chester, though not ostensibly so bright as Gilead, were in 
reality much more hopeful. 

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Minority Report on New Counties. 

On December 27, 1847, the minority of the house committee 
on new counties presented the grounds of its dissent from the 
finding of the majority. The report of the majority we have not 
been able to secure, but, since that of the minority, as a matter of 
necessity, goes over the same ground, we shall trespass upon the 
patience of the reader so far as to give this paper, trusting that the 
importance of preserving a document of such historical value may 
be found a sufficient warrant for its introduction here. 

Mr. Park from the minority of the standing committee on new 
counties, made the following report: 

''The minority of the committee on new counties, dissenting from the 
majority in their recommendation of the Gilead and the rejection of the 
Chester claim — ^both claims occupying to a considerable extent the same 
territory — submit their views. 

''The minority cannot consent to all the general principles laid down by 
the majority in regard to the erection of new counties, as they do not feel 
in duty bound, constitutionally or otherwise, to erect new counties, unless 
the general good requires it, and that by so doing the rights of others are 
not impaired. And they are not willing, by any act of theirs, that censure 
should be cast upon any preceding legislature for not granting new county 
claims, which they believe were not meritorious. 

"Many considerations should be brought into view in deciding upon 
the merits of any new county that it might be proper to erect, which it is 
the duty of such legislature to carefully weigh before such questions are 
settled. For instance, in the very case now before the committee there 
are remonstrances from Knox county against any division of the same, 
because of that county having, by an overwhelming majority, incurred a 
heavy responsibility for the construction of a railroad, which responsibility 
it is supposed will devolve upon that portion of the people who may remain 
in that county. 

"The minority believe that if said result would necessarily follow 
dismemberment, it would be an act of injustice which this minority could 
not sanction. But, whether those who might thus be severed from Knox 
would be legally released from their pr<^rtionate share of debt thus in- 
curred, the minority do not feel competent to decide. 

"There are also many reasons of a general nature which have an im- 
portant bearing against the making of new counties, and which ought to 
have their proper influence in the decision of a question of this kind, but 
which the minority do not deem necessary now to enumerate. 

"It is perhaps true, as asserted by the report of the majority, that 
Gilead is an old applicant, but in view of all the facts of the case this should 
weaken, rather than strengthen, its claim to the favorable consideration of 
the legislature, as, had it possessed ordinary merit, with the advanUges 
it had employed— having been before the legislature without competitors 
and having had representatives from its own territory ^ho were especially 

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charged with its interests — it ought long since to have been erected into a 
county. But it would appear that past legislatures, which have evinced a 
favorable disposition toward the erection of new counties, have never been 
impressed with the advantages of this claim; and the undersigned confess 
that they are unable, after a full investigation of all the facts touching it, 
to dissent from the conclusion arrived at by the previous legislatures. One 
reason, as we learn, for these repeated failures, is the fact that during the 
time above referred to the citizens residing in the territory taken by Mt. 
Oilead from the counties of Knox and Richland, have been constantly opposed 
to being thus cut off from their connection with those counties, and attached 
to one which is, as they assert, directly hostile to their interests and 
advantages. Those citizens are not entirely opposed to the erection of a 
new county of which they might form a part, but they object to being 
taken into a county which would render their situation worse than it is 
now, and hence, they have now united with those whom they heretofore 
opposed, and favor the erection of a new county of Chester, a county ii. 
which they enjoy equal advantages with their western neighbors. 

''The undersigned are of the opinion that the advantages to accrue to 
the citizens of a new county would be more equally distributed by the 
erection of Chester than by the erection of Gilead. But, before giving 
their reasons for this opinion, they would state that they are both personally 
acquainted with the territory, out of which it is proposed to make one or 
the other of these new counties, and can therefore, speak with more con- 

"The minority will first notice the fact that the general business of 
that region tends northeasterly to Mansfield, Fredericktown and Mount 
Vernon. The first named place being the termination of the railroad which 
is rapidly progressing toward the latter places, and to which points the 
people are drawn, as well as for a market for their agricultural products 
as for the purpose of milling, and of furnishing themselves with what their 
wants require, in either the mechanical or mercantile line, and to these 
points, from a large portion of the country in view, the business must not 
only continue to flow, but must very much increase, especially on the com- 
pletion of the railroad to Fredericktown and Mount Vernon. 

"it is almost needless to say that the people of any county are best 
accommodated by having their civil and judicial business transacted where 
their mercantile and other business concentrates. Gilead, as the location 
indicates, cannot afford such accomodations. These facts will show that 
the people of the territory embraced in Chester, or that ought to be em- 
braced in any new county in that region, will be better accommodated at 
Chesterville, as the county seat, than at Gilead. 

"But it is not alone on arguments such as these that the minority 
rest their views of the propriety of erecting Chester instead of Gilead. 

"It will be perceived that the proposed county of Gilead requires so 
much territory from Marion as to reduce that county below its constitutional 
area — a fact not noted in the report of the majority. As the constitution 
of the state declares that no new county shall be established by general 
assembly which shall reduce the county or counties or either of them from 
which it shall be taken to less extent than 400 square miles— a declaration to 
which no two constructions can be given— the minority of the committee, in 
common with others, are of the opinion that it would be doing violence to that 

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instrument to erect Gilead, or any other new county which does so reduce 
an existing county. Aside from this constitutional view of the matter, 
the expediency of thus reducing a county below its constitutional area and 
attaching fragments of territory taken from its neighbor to restore what was 
thus lost, may be seriously questioned. Upon this point the minority do 
not deem it necessary to enlarge. 

"But, however this may be, it is objection which can be easily obviated 
by the erection of Chester, as there is contiguous territory enough in the 
counties of Delaware, Marion, Richland and Knox to make a new county, 
without cutting Marion down below 400 square miles. Then why resort 
to a doubtful measure, when the means are not only ample for avoiding 
it, but the people interested might at the time be accomodated much bettei 

*'When to all this is added, what the minority believe is a fact, that the 
territory detached from Union and attached to Marion county reduces Union 
below its constitutional area, there no longer remains a doubt with the 
minority that Gilead cannot — ought not — to be made. 

**But there is another fact which should not be over looked, in compar- 
ing the merits of the two claims, and which, as the minority thinks, places 
beyond controversy the question as to which of them ought to be made. 

** According to what the minority believe to be a correct estimate, there 
are about thirty-six square miles in Chester, which is nearer the county 
seatH of the counties in which said territory now lies, than it will be in 
Chester if that county is erected. This seems to be a sufficient amount of 
territory to he thus incommoded by the making of any new county, but in 
Cilead there are within its advertised bounds seventy-eight square miles of 
territory similarly situated. To this may be also added six miles in the 
parts proposed to be attached to Marion, making a total of eighty-four 
square miles incommoded on account of increajsed distance from the county 
seats. This is equal to one-fifth of the whole territory embraced within 
the bounds of Gilead. And when to this is added the fact that many of 
those who may be brought nearer to the new, than they are now to the old 
county seat, but would nevertheless be incommoded by having to transact 
their civil and judicial business in one direction, and their other busi^^ess in 
anotlier, there will probably be two-fifths of the population of Gilead who 
would feel themselves injured by the erection of said county. 

**The minority also deem it proper in conclusion to notice a few points 
made by the majority in their report. 

''In alluding to the petitions the majority say that they are from 
citizens of Richland, Crawford, Marion, Delaware and Knox. The minority 
upon examination find petitions from Richland, Marion, Delaware and Knox, 
but none from Crawford. This may be by some regarded as a matter of 
small moment. Be it so; but in all things, especially official matters, 
everything however unintentional, calculated to deceive, should be carefully 

**The majority also say, 'that there is in the counties from which the 
proposed county is to be taken an abundance of territory out of which to 
erect a new county, without reducing either of the counties from which 
territory is taken below the constitutional amount.' The minority not 
having seen the bill reported by the majority for the erection of Gilead, do 

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not of course, know its provisions; but judging from the terms of the 
petition, it cannot be doubted that provision is therein made for attaching 
to Marion territory for the purpose of restoring it to its constitutional area. 

"The majority further say, that in making Gilead, there is left in the 
county of Richland, four hundred and eighty square miles; in the county of 
Delaware four hundred and sixty-six square miles; in the county of Knox 
five hundred and twenty-four square miles; but, most singularly, omit to 
tell how much is left in the county of Marion, which it will be borne in 
mind, is reduced below the constitutional limits. 

"The minority will next notice the comparison made by the majority 
of the number of petitioners with the number of voters in the territory 
embraced by Gilead. The report says that the number of voters amounts 
to about three thousand — a large majority of w^hich number have petitioned 
for the erection of the proposed new county. 

"The minority have made a hasty estimate of the number of votes 
polled at the gubernatorial election in 1844, and find that they amount to 
about three thousand five hundred. It is well known that more or less 
voters in all elections do not attend the polls. These, added to the natural 
increase since that time, would doubtless swell the number to nearly or 
quite four thousand. The minority have also carefully counted all the peti- 
tioners for Gilead, and find that the number of those within the bounds of 
that claim amounts to one thousand four hundred and thirty-six, being only 
a little more than one third of the estimated number of voters in said 

"In addition to the foregoing petitioners, the minority find of those 
out of the Gilead territory, ninety-four in Marion county and one hundred 
and eighty six in Delaware county, making in all two hundred and eighty. 
To such petitions, however, coming from persons not residing in territory 
included in the new county, the minority attach but little weight — know- 
ing as they do, how readily many persons sign petitions for objects in 
which they have little or no interest. 

"The majority say further in their report that they have 'taken into 
consideration the various other claims which conflict with this (Gilead) and 
find that the largest number of legal petitioners are in its favor.'* 

The minority have also been attentive to this matter, but have ar- 
rived at a different result. The petitioners which the minority think should 
have any influence in the case, being those only who are within the territory 
of the proposed county of Gilead, amount as before stated, to one thousand 
four hundred and thirty-six, while those for Chester, number one thousand 
six hundred and thirty-five, all of whom are within the territory, and all 
are strictly legal. 



This attack was followed up by the presentation of a bill to 
erect the county of Chester, and both bills passed successfully to the 
third reading in the house. In the meanwhile Gilead had nar- 

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rowly escaped utter defeat, and was saved from a hostile vote 
only by recommitting it to the committee. On the other hand the 
lobbyist of that claim had, after an unsuccessful attempt to buy 
out Chester for $1,000, purchased the aid of the Bennington champ- 
ions — Freeman for cash, and Randolph for a promise of office in 
the new county and, thus re-inforced, were making up in shrewd 
management what they were losing in popularity. A letter from 
Dr. Hance early in January, 1848, gives the status of the rival 
claims as follows: 

"Just before adjournment, the new county committee reported back the 
Gilead bill, with some amendments, when Mr. Blake onoved its recommittment 
to a committee of one, which finally resulted in recommitting it to a com- 
mittee of three, to-wit— Blake, McWright and Cotton. A division being 
called for, thirty-seven members arose in favor of its recommittment, being 
a majority of the whole house, two at least of the enemies of Gilead being 
absent, who, had they been present, would have voted for recommittment. 
This vote I think, decided the vote of Gilead. The Gilead folks feel a good 
deal excited about the result of this vote. 

''Well I wish they were worse crippled than they are; though I think 
they will be killed when they come up again. Since the report of the com- 
mittee, 170 petitions have been presented for Gilead. These I examined 
tonight, and find 57 of them from Harmony, 89 from Marlborough and 24 from 
Marion township. At the time of the report, Gilead had 1,436 petitioners, to 
which add the 57 from Harmony (being the only ones within the territory), 
and they haVe 1,493, while we have now here, 1,851, being 358 more than 
they have within the territory. They had at the time of the report 280 
out of the territory, to which add the above 113 and it makes 393, being in 
all, in and out of the territory, 1,886. Add to the number in the territory 
what we have out of the territory (being about 60), and we have 1,911, being 
25 more than they have.'* 

On the fourth of January the Gilead claim was reported back 
to the committee of the whole house, and was indefinitely postponed. 
On the following day this vote was reconsidered and the bill recom- 
mitted, and by one of those freaks of fortune **that no man can 
find out" the fortunes of Gilead began to pick up. A letter from 
the lobby at Columbus states January 5,1848: **I have no doubt 
that the Walhonding demonstration has made friends for Gilead 
among the Democrats, and this indirectly injures Chester. A 
wonderful change has certainly been made among the Democrats in 
regard to new counties. Heretofore, they have, as a party, been 
opposed, but the vote for Gilead shows a diflferent feeling. On the 
vote to indefinitely postpone Gilead, there was for it 26 Whigs and 
8 Democrats; against it, 21 Democrats and 12 Whigs." 

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Not to go into further tedious details, the excellent manage- 
ment of the Gilead claim was exhibited by its passing one day, in 
the absence of some of its enemies, by a majority of one, and going 
into the senate. To recover the ground lost, the Chester managers 
had a new bill introduced in the upper house, and proposed to 
contest every foot of ground. Here Gilead found it necessary to 
rely more upon the skill of its management than upon its friends 
in the senate. As late as the 21st of February, it was indefinitely 
postponed by a vote of 17 to 15, a vote that would have been the 
death of any ordinary project. But the lobby influence was in- 
defatigable, and the bill was resuscitated and passed February 
24, 1848. It is difficult to determine whether its friends or its 
foes were the most surprised by this denouement, and just how it 
was done has long been a puzzle. One vote was gained by chang- 
ing the name of the proposed county. A senator from Morrow in 
the southern part of the state, who had been instructed to vote 
against Marshall county, said that if the Gilead people would 
change the name to Morrow, after the ex-governor of that name, 
he could vote for it. This was accordingly done, But after 
waiting in vain for a favorable opportunity to catch their oppo- 
nents napping, they devised a plan by which they hoped to receive 
a favorable vote. The day came when the absence of a single 
adverse vote would give the Gilead claim a clear field. Senator 
Olds of Pickaway, who was very fond of a game of cards, was in- 
veigled into a back room by the Gilead retainer and got so inter- 
ested in a game that he forgot his interests at the capitol. To 
make his absence from the senate certain, George N. Clark, who 
was one of the Gilead lobby at that time, skipped up to the door 
and locked it, the key being on the outside by a previous arrange- 
ment. When the bill was presented the opposition at once sought 
for the missing member, but without avail, and Morrow county was 
erected by barely enough votes to insure success. This was done 
in the afternoon, and as soon as possible thereafter, George N. 
Clark mounted Dr. Geller's horse to carry the news to Mount 

He reached Sunbury about midnight, where he stopped to rest 
until morning. The people here were favorable to the Gilead claim, 
the cannon was brought out, fires were lighted and an impromptu 
jollification was held. The next morning, Clark came on to Wood- 
bury, where he lived. Here the cannon was brought into requisi- 
Vol. 1—5 

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don and, after tiring themselves out, they turned in and escorted 
the messenger to Mount Gilead. The news had preceeded him 
along the road and, as the procession passed, it gained accessories, 
so that in spite of the almost impassable mud, the cannon and a 
large concourse of people came bringing the news to the new county 
seat. That night the little town went wild in excitement. The 
cannon boomed, fires blazed and the crowds yelled themselves 
hoarse, while all the oratorical talent of the place was placed undei 
tribute to add to the general cheer. The rejoicing was of a gen- 
erous character, and the exultation was not so much over the defeat 
of their opponents, as that the hope so long deferred had at last 
been realized. The Chester people, while regretting the defeat of 
their own measure, could, and did, heartily join in the general 
congratulation on the erection of the new county of Morrow. 

County's Creative Act. 

The bill as passed provided: ''That so much of the counties of Marion, 
Delaware, Knox and Richland, as are embraced within the boundaries herein 
after described, be and the same are hereby erected into a separate and 
distinct county, which shall be known by the name of Morrow, and the seat 
of justice within and for said county shall be and is hereby fixed and es- 
tablished at Mount Oilead, to-wit: Beginning at the southwest comer of 
Tully township, in Marion county; thence east on the township line to the 
southeast corner of said township; thence north on the township line to the 
northeast corner of said township; thence north one mile; thence east on the 
nearest line of lots to the northeast comer of Section 9, in Troy township, 
Richland county; thence south on the nearest line of lots with the eastern 
boundary lines of Franklin, Chester, and Bloomfleld townships, in Knox 
county, to the southeast corner of said township of Bloomfield; thence west 
with the south line of Bloomfield township, Knox county and Bennington and 
Peru township, Delaware county, to the southwest comer of said township of 
Peru; thence north four miles; thence west along the nearest line of lots to 
the west line of Oxford township, Delaware county; thence north along the 
township line to the Greenville treaty line; thence easterly along Greenville 
tiBfity line to the southwest comer of Morven township, Marion county; 
th::ice north along the west line of said Morven and Canaan townships, 
Marion county, to the place of beginning — and also attaching to the county 
of Marion so much of the county of Delaware as is contained in the fol- 
lowing boundaries, to-wit: Beginning on the Greenville Treaty line at the 
northeast corner of Marlborough township, Delaware county; thence south 
along the line between Marlborough and Westfield townships, DeUware 
county, to the southwest comer of said Westfield township; thence west in 
a straight line to the boundary between Union and Delaware counties; thence 
north on said boundary line to the Greenville treaty line." 

''Section 2. Provides that suits and prosecution pending in those portions 

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of the several counties set off to Morrow or Marion previous to the 1st of 
March, 1848, shall be prosecuted to the final judgment and execution in 
the same manner as if the county of Morrow had not been erected, and that 
all officers should so act until the first Monday in March, 1848. 

"Section 3. Provides that all justices of the peace, constables and other 
officers in those parts of the counties set off to Morrow and Marion counties 
shall continue to discharge their duties until their term of service expires 
and their successors are elected. 

** Section 4. That all writs and legal processes issued in the territory re- 
cently erected, the county of Morrow, shall be styled of Morrow county after 
the 1st day of March, 1848. 

"Section 5. That the legal voters residing within the limits of the county 
of Morrow shall, on the first Monday of April, 1848, assemble in their re- 
spective townships, at the usual places of holding election, and proceed to 
elect the different county officers (except sheriff and coroner who shall be 
elected according to the 39th section of an act regulating elections, passed 
February 18, 1831), in the manner perecribed regulating elections, who shall 
hol4 their offices until the next annual election and until their successors 
are chosen and qualified. 

"Section 6. Provided that Morrow county shall be attached to the 
Second Judicial circuit of the court of common pleas. 

"Section 7. That no tax shall be levied upon the property either real 
or personal, of the citizens of Morrow county, for the erection of a court- 
house and jail within and for said county, until the sum of $7,000 shall have 
been subscribed and paid to or expended by the county commissioners, as 
donations from the citizens of said county, for the erection of public build- 
ings; provided, that if said sum of $7,000 shall not be subscribed and paid 
within two years from and after the passage of this act, it shall be the 
duty of the commissioners of the said county of Morrow, within twenty 
days after the expiration of said term of two years, to give notice of such 
fact in some newspaper of general circulation in said county, and the 
qualified electors of said county may, at the annual spring election then en- 
suing, determine by ballot the location of the seat of justice for said county, 
and that place having in its favor a majority of all the ballots cast such 
election shall thereafter be established as the seat of justice for the said 
county of Morrow. 

"Section 8. Nothing in this act sKall be so construed as to exonerate 
that portion of Knox county. Hereby included in the county of Morrow, from 
any liability on account of any railroad subscription heretofore made by 
the said county of Knox, but their due proportion of said subscription shall 
be levied upon all property within said territory, and collected by the 
treasurer of Morrow county, and be by him paid over to the treasurer of 
Knox county, or such other officer or person as may be authorized by law 
to receive the same. 

"Section 9. And it is hereby made the duty of the auditor of Knox 
county, on or before the 15th day of June in each year, as long as the 
above tax shall be claimed, to furnish the auditor of Morrow county with 
the rate per centum of the tax levied in Knox county for the purpose above 
named; and upon receipt of said rate, the said auditor of Morrow county 
shall add such rate to all the property, personal and real, within the above 

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named territory detached from Knox county, according to the value of 
said property as entered upon his duplicate.'' 


JOSEPH S. HAWKINS, Speaker House of Representatives. 

CHARLES B. GODDARD, President of Senate. 
February 24, 1848. 

It is a curious study to review the history of this struggle for 
a new county — to' note the thousand and one influences that 
eflfected the general issue, to measure the power of the contestants, 
and mark the means used to accomplish their purposes. The con- 
test was substantially between the Chester and Gilead claims. 
Bennington, though supported by sufficient funds, and adroitly 
managed by Freeman, Randolph and Morehouse, was intrinsically 
weak, and ignominiously collapsed when closely scrutinized. 
Gilead, evidently had the largest purse, and expended, from first 
to last, not far from $15,000. She had the largest force in the 
lobby, maintaining during the last session of the contest, six hired 
lobbyists, besides eight of her own citizens. The support of 
the Gilead claim was steady, and the burden, divided among a 
comparatively large number, was more easily borne. Money when 
necessary was readily secured, one or two persons contributing as 
high as $1,000, and some considerable more. 

Chester spent much less money for the very satisfactory 
reason that there was less to spend. The burden of the contest fell 
upon a few individuals; remittances to the lobby were made in 
sums of $15 to $e50, and, during the crisis of the contest, it was 
only by the indomitable courage of the managers of the claim at 
Columbus, that Chester was kept before the legislature. At no 
time, did the number of their lobbyists exceed ten, and frequently, 
because of sickness or other causes, their number was reduced to a 
single representative. While their opponents dispensed a lavish 
hospitality, they were obliged to scan their outlays with the closest 
economy to pay their board at $2.50 and $3.00 per week. In the 
matter of communications with the home committees at Chesterville 
and Mt. Gilead, during the season when the mud was almost im- 
passable, the lobby at Columbus was often put to their wits' end. 

The mail went out twice a week, but was often delayed for 
days at a time. Here, the Gilead people, who had horses in waiting 
could accomplish what the Chester people were obliged to forego, 
or take advantage of such opportunities aflforded through a chance 

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visitor at the capitol. Other things being equal, these facts must 
have told strongly in favor of the Gilead claim, but it must be 
conceded that the Chester lobby handled their case with admirable 
tact, and were finally defeated by other than diplomatic means. 
Chester undoubtedly had the strongest prima face showing, and 
commanded the strongest vote in both houses of the legislature, but 
it failed, till late in the contest, to get an able champion in the 
house. On the other hand, Gilead, though having less friends 
among the members of the legislature, had an able manager in the 
house, who was eflBciently supported by the shrewdness of the lobby, 
and, in the event, this secured the victory. 

First Year op Infancy. 

Morrow county having been legally created, it took little time 
to put her simple governmental machinery in motion. A few of 
the happenings which occurred during the first year of her official 
existence are gleaned from perusal of the old court house records. 
The story of the county's first year of infancy is thus told by the 
Morrow County Register, of February 19, 1908 : 

'*Many interesting facts are to be noted by a careful perusal 
of the older records on file in the courthouse. The commissioner's 
first book was opened April 10, 1848, and the initial record appear- 
ing therein is as follows, showing the first scratch of a pen ever 
made in portraying historical business transactions: 'Proceedings 
of the commissioners of Morrow county, Ohio, at their first session 
begun and held at the town of Mt. Gilead, Ohio, on the tenth day 
of April, 1848. Present: Wm. Hanna and John Doty.' On 
May 8, 1848, John Creigh took oath of office as a commissioner. 
The name of Hiram F. Randolph is signed, he being the first 
auditor. Succeeding sessions were devoted to arranging settle- 
ments with otiier counties from which Morrow was taken. 

"The county building was a frame structure and stood where 
the present temple of justice now gracefully towers. There were 
no provisions for a court room and to provide such acconunoda- 
tions the commissioners acted by arranging with the trustees of 
the Baptist meeting house for renting the building for the term of 
time that the county wishes to occupy it for the purpose of hold- 
ing court. The trustees further agreed to furnish two rooms suit- 
able for petit and grand juries. On June 5th, of the first year, 
the commissioners ordered that in case the citizens of Morrow 
county shall furnish timber of a suitable size, shingles, and all the 

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lumber necessary for the construction of an ordinary wooden jail 
and shall furnish the ground for, and build a jail twenty feet square 
with two cells separated by a log partition, a sum of money not 
exceeding $20 is hereby oppropriated to furnish nails, iron, glass 
and necessaries to finish said jail; to be expended by auditor of 
said county when he is satisfied the citizens have performed the 
work above mentioned. 

* * This building was erected, and after serving its purpose until 
the construction of a better building, it was torn down and until 
some years ago its walls were used for side walk purposes on one of 
the streets in Mt. Gilead. To prevent prisoners cutting through 
the walls the planks were further strengthened by driving them full 
of nails. Such boards lasted a long time as sidewalks. 

**In June, 1848, the commissioners levied a poll tax on practic- 
ing attorneys and physicians, and they continued this method of 
taxation for several years. The tax was regulated according to the 
estimated income to the professional man and the amounts collected 
as shown by the records ranged from one to three dollars for each 
doctor and lawyer. There were forty-five physicians and the same 
number of lawyers in the county at that time. 

**The first examination made as to the condition of county 
funds was made June 5, 1848, and the report filed was a follows: 
*This day the commissioners examined the books and vouchers of 
the treasurer of Morrow county and the following is the settle- 
ment had with said treasurer for the year ending June 6, 1848: 
To amount of horse license $50; to amount of fines in state cases 
$200; to amount of Morrow county's proportion in the treasury of 
Marion county $350.77 ; total $402.77. By county orders redeemed 
$103.62; by treasurer's fee on $402.77, $20.13; total $123.75. 
Balance in treasury, $297.02.' 

**The first marriage record ever kept in Morrow county is an 
interesting little relic. It is little in several ways. The book is 
small, it has but few pages and the paper is not of the heavy and 
durable quality as is now put into record books. Little, old and 
badly worn, it presents a queer appearance in contrast to the big, 
heavy volume now used. The first license to be granted in Morrow 
county was issued as follows : 'License issued March 22, 1848 — ^Wm. 
McDonald and Sarah Ann Peterson.' That's all there was to it. 
A return was made after the ceremony had been performed and 
read : * I certify that Wm. McDonald and Sarah Ann Peterson were 
joined in marriage by me on the 30th day March, A. D. 1848 — B. H. 
Pearson, B. M.' The capital letters after the signature indicate 

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that the parson was a Baptist minister. As the foregoing shows, 
the earlier records were kept in a very simple way." 

Morrow County Politically. 

The first election of any political importance after the organiza- 
tion of Morrow county, was the presidential election of 1848, when 
General Taylor and the Hon. Lewis Cass were the candidates for 
president. Morrow county gave a large Democratic majority, and 
four years later when General Franklin Pierce and Gen. Winfield 
Scott were the candidates, Morrow county cast its vote for Gen. 
Pierce. Before the next presidential campaign came around a new 
party — the Know-Nothing party — carried the county, and the dis- 
solution of the Whig party followed and the Republican party came 
into existence, and has dominated the politics of the county more or 
less ever since. Occasionally a Democrat gets elected to a county 
oflSce, but such occasions are so few and far between that Morrow 
county may be considered normally Republican. 

Official Representatives op the County. 

Senators of the Seventeenth district : — John T. Creigh, 1854-§ , 
and David Miles 1858-60; Twenty-eighth district — David Miles, 
1862-64; John H. Benson, 1878-80; Wm. G. Beebe, 1892-4; John 
M. Thompson, 1908-10; H. S. Prophet, 1876-82; Allen Levering, 
1884-6; and William M. yilliams, 1900-2. 

Representatives: — George N. Clark, 1852-4; Thos. S. Bunkery 
1856-8; Joseph Gunsaulus, 1862-6; Jeremiah M. Dunn, 1868-70; 
Thos. B. Duncan, 1874-8; James Carlisle, 1880-4; George Kreis, 
1886-1890; John J. Gurley, 1854-6; David Rees, 1858-62; John H. 
Rhodes, 1866^; Albert 11. Brown, 1870-4; Allen Levering 1878-80; 
Bnos W. Miles, 1884-6; Wm. S. PhiUips, 1890-2; Hugh G. Rogers, 
1894-6; Henry H. Harlan, 1906-8; Louis K. Powell, 1898-1900; and 
Walter W. Vaughn, 1908 to the present. 

Auditors :— Hiram F. Randolph, 1848-51 ;Geo. S. Bruce, 1851- 
55; John Shunk, 1855-9 ; Jeremiah Shunk, 1863-5; W. Smith Irwin, 
1859-63; Geo. W. Clark, 1865-9; Asa M. Breese, 1869-75,; Simon 
Rosenthal, 1875-80; B. D. Buxton, 1880-6; John J. Gurley, 1886-7; 
Christian Gruber, 1887-90; A. A. Whitney, 1890-6; C. D. Smiley, 
1896-1902 ; W. C. McParland, 1902-8 ; and Clifton Sipe, since 1908. 

Treasurers :—Wm. Geller, 1849-53; Ross Burns, 1851; Smith 

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Thomas, 1851-1855-9; S. M. Hewitt, 1853-5; George Granger, 1859- 
60; John C. Godman, 1860-1, 1863-4; W. Smith Irwin, 1864-5; Wm. 
W. MeCracken, 1865-9 ; Chas. C. Wheeler, 1869-73 ; James G. Miles, 
1873-7; John G. Russell, 1877-81; S. W. Trowbridge, 1881-5; David 
V. Wherry, 1885-9; A. W. James, 1889-93; J. M. Moody, 1893-7; 
M. M. Iden, 1897-1901; Albert Gardner 1901-5; Willis E. Hart- 
pence, 1905-9 ; and J. D. Pate, 1909 to date. 

County Recorders : — Samuel Poland, 1848-51 ; Mathew Roben, 
1851-4; Silas Holt, 1854-61; Elmer C. Chase, 1861-70; Daniel D. 
Booher, 1870-6; C. L. Van Brimer, 1882-8; John B. Gatchell, 1876- 
82; S. R. Rawhauser, 1888-94; Fletcher A. Dewitt, 1894-1900; Geo. 
J. Young, 1900-6; Clayton James, 1906-11; and N. 0. Melott, 1911 
up to the present. 

Surveyors : — John Leonard, 1848-51 ;Wm. Dowling, 1851-3 ; 
Jos. Hathaway, 1853; Laren Gray, 1853-6; Thos. Sharp, 1856-7; 
John T. Buck, 1857-70, 1873-82; 0. L. R. French, 1870-3, 1891-6; 
B. J. Ashley, 1882-8 ; Wm. C. Dennison, 1888-91 ; Thad. E. Buck, 
1896 ; David Underwood, and Chas. M. Wolford, 1911. 

Coroners: — John Blair, 1854-6; Isaac Leonard, 1856-9; Wm. 
Spratts, 1859-61 ; R. C. Bacon, 1861-3 ; B. T. Vail, 1863-7 ; Reuben 
Hulse, 1867-71; Thos. N. Hickman, 1871-3; S. J. Oliver, 1873-7; 
Stephen Brown, 1877-81 ; J. L. Williams, 1881-7 ; A. D. James, 1887- 
9 ; C. C. Dunham, 1889-93 ; R. C. Spear, 1893-7 ; J. H. Jackson, 1897- 
9 ; E. C. Sherman, 1889-1905 ; R. L. Pierce, 1905-9 ; George H. Pugh ; 
1909-11 ; and W. D. Maccabee, 1911 to the present. 

Commissioners: — ^William Hanna, 1848-9; Byron Beers, 1849- 
52; John T. Creigh, 1848-50; John Doty, 1848-51; Dan Mitchell, 
1850-53 ; Marquis Gardner, 1853-4 ; Stephen Casey, 1852-5 ; Alexan- 
der Gray, 1853-6; John Shurr, 1854-7; James M. Mitchell, 1855-61; 
Josiah Horr, 1856-9 ; Joseph Watson, 1857-60 ; Levi Reichelderfer, 
1859-60; Marcus Phillips, 1860-6; D. S. Talmage, 1860-7; James 
Pugh, 1860-5; Washington Strong, 1865-71; Benj. Phillips, 1866-9; 
Jos. Conway, 1867-70; John Snyder, 1869-72; Marcus Phillips, 
1870-3 ; Lewis Queen, 1871-4 ; M. B. Brooke, 1872-5 ; Geo. W. flersh- 
ner, 1873-7 ; John T. Quay, 1874-78 Jesse B. Herrod, 1875-9 ; Wm. 
Brooke, 1877-83; George W. Hershner, 1878-81; J. C. Swetland, 
1879-85; W. G. Brenizer, 1881-4; James Atkinson, 1883-6; Jacob L. 
Miller, 1884-7; P. A. Welch, 1885-8; A. A. Crawford, 1886-9; John 
McNeal, 1887-93; A. B. Kees, 1889-92; Geo. W. Hershner, 1891-94; 
Jesse B. Culver, 1892-8 ; Geo. T. Barnes, 1893-9 ; S. A. Richardson, 
1894-1900; John HoflF, 1898-1904; D. S. Hopkins, 1899-1905; Hai 

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rison Kinneman, 1900-6; S. T. Poland, 1904-10; Henry P. Ault, 
1905-8 ; Washington Ramey, 1906-9; S. P. Stull, 1905-8; Lafe Gates, 
1908; and Henry Lepp, 1908, (present incumbent). 

Infirmary Directors: — James McKibben, 1871-2; Mason Bliss, 
1871-3; James M. Briggs, 1871-4; James M. Vaughn, 1872-8; Wm. 
Green, 1878-9; Wm. B. Wilson, 1874-7; E. C. Ilaskins, 1877-83; 
Hiram Payne, 1878-81; Neeley Noble, 1879-85; Jesse Shaw, 1883-9 
B. J. Potts, 1881-7; James Turner, 1885-91; L. S. Dudley, 1887-93; 
Y. P. Barry, 1889-92 ; J. D. Armstrong, 1891-7 ; Jacob Eckert, 1892- 
8; C. W. McCracken, 1893-9; Tarlton Peck, 1897-1900; Geo. Cham- 
bers, 1898-1901; Geo. H. Hale, 1899-1905; Claude Thompson, 1900- 
6; S. S. Hull, 1901-7; J. C. Thomas, 1903-9; G. W. Brown, 1905-11; 
L. D. Harding, 1907-10; D. H. Oborn, 1909, (in office) ; J. D. Arm- 
strong and B. E. G<K)drich, 1911. 

Infirmary Superintendents: — George N. Clark, 1871-4; G. E. 
Miller, August, 1874-March, 1885, twelve years ; A. B. Lersch, 1885 ; 
Sylvester Rhodebeck, 1900-5; Geo. W. Eccles, 1905-10; B. F. 
Thuma, 1910; and Newton Rule, 1911. 

Morrow .County Infirmary 

On March 10, 1870, W. Smith Irwin and wife conveyed to 
the county commissioners of Morrow county for the consideration 
of $12,000, two hundred and one acres of land, known since as the 
Infirmary farm ; fifty more acres were later bought, making a total 
of two hundred and fifty-one acres. When bought this farm was 
justly called the **poor farm." Skillful superintendents who were 
practical farmers, have brought it up to a more productive state, 
and good crops are now raised thereon. 

The first directors elected in the fall of 1870, were James Mc- 
Kibbin for one year, Mason Bliss for two years, and James M. 
Briggs for three years. Their successors are given in the roster of 
county oflScers. 

The first superintendent was George N. Clark who, because of 
his wife's death, did not serve two years. The second was Gilbert 
Elwood Miller, and he continued as such nearly thirteen years. He 
was an experienced farmer, and **made good." The next was 
H. V. Lersch, who was succeeded by Sylvester Rhodebeck, George 
Eccles, B. F. Thuma and (the present superintendent) Newton 
Rule; all experienced farmers and competent superintendents. 
The number of residents now present at the infirmary is only twenty. 

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Change Since Pioneer Days — Men and Women Together — 
Old Roads — Immigration From 1830 to 1848 — Tales op Pioneers 
— Ross N. Mateer, Mt. Gilead Pioneer — The Remarkable Rine- 
HART Family — **From First to Last'' (by Mrs. Martha M. 
Harlan) — Indians and A Scalping Knife — First White Set- 
tlers — The Legislative Struggles — Progress — ''In the Long 
Ago'' (By Capt. L. N. Cunard) — Mt. Gilead in February, 1848 
— ^Mt. Gilead 's Day op Days — The Boys op Morrow County — 
First Newspapers — Exciting Financial Episode — Godpather op 
Mt. Gilead — ^A Memory Prodigy — ^Mrs. Smith DeMuth's 

It is an interesting study to trace a country's history from 
its beginning and follow society in its formative state and note 
its material developments and scientific achievements. It took 
George Washington eight days to journey from Washington to 
New York to be inaugurated president of the United States. The 
same distance can now be traveled in less than eight hours. 

The pioneer period is an epoch of the past. Although Morrow 
was not a pioneer county, its first settlers have nearly all passed 
away. It may have been diflScult for some of them to accept and 
become reconciled to the changes that were brought about in their 
day and generation — at the change that has stamped its seal upon 
the wilderness whose winding paths they had known so well and 
had so often trodden. Many of the early settlers lived to see 
Morrow county lay off its primeval wildness and the beauty and 
grandeur of the forest until the land bloomed like unto the garden 
of the gods. 

The pioneer times are frequently spoken of as **the good old 
days." An old gentleman sentimentally referring to those days, 
had his remarks taken too seriously by a bystander, who under- 
stood him as wishing for a return of the things and conditions of 
the past. The bystander said: ** Times change. Don't let us 
fall behind the procession, rather let us be thankful for the better 


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conditions of our day and generation. ' * He further said that the 
luxuries and comforts of today make us lack nothing. Would 
you go back to the period when the family surrounded the pot of 
mush and helped themselves from it, a morsel at a time? 

Before Morrow had an organization as a county, we had our 
second war with Great Britain, and the question has been asked, 
**Did that war advance or retard the settlement of the country ?" 
those have read history to but little purpose who have not learned 
that war advances civilization. The fighting instincts of human 
nature have brought about more important results than have any 
other one force. 

Homer, the earliest of the great poets, began his Hiad by in- 
voking the muse to sing of martial exploits, and expressed his 
faith in war as a means of progress. The spirit then displayed was 
not materially different from that which the patriots of colonial 
times manifested, which culminated in the War of the Revolution 
and the achievement of American independence. The same im- 
pelling tendency was seen in the heroic events of the war of 1812. 
and also in our war with Mexico, as well as in our recent ci^dl 
strife. The records of the **dull, piping times of peace*' do not 
show the advance of civilization as do the annals of war. 

How beautiful has been the result of the labors of the settlers. 
But that golden era of the first settlement has passed away and 
taken in its wake the old men and women whose like we shall 
never seen again. But we rejoice to know that the glory of one 
age is not dimmed by the age succeeding it. 

Changes Since Pioneer Days. 

To give more fully the changes that have taken place : The 
spinning-wheel of the pioneer days is now known only as a relic in a 
museum, or an antique ornament in a parlor. The loom is no 
longer used in private houses ; the piano has taken its place. The 
low price of stockings has banished knitting, except for ornamental 
purposes. Water is forced into our houses, through pipes and is 
carried out by gravity; while gas, manufactured or natural, as 
a fuel, heats our houses from cellar to attic, which makes the 
keeping of a fire a small matter. In cities or towns bakers re- 
lieve the housekeeper of bread-making, and thus at every point the 
burdens of life are less strenuous and more bearable. 

The work of the farmer which was so laborious in pioneer 
times is daily becoming lighter and can now be comparatively easy 

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if he profits by the advancements made in that pursuit. Now ma- 
chinery does the hardest part of the work. The machines sow, 
cultivate, cut, bind, thresh, winnow and carry the grain. They 
cut, rake, load, mow and dry the hay. They husk, shell and clean 
the com. They cut and split the wood. They do all the hardest 
of the work. 

Men and Women Together. 

The first settlers found Morrow county thickly covered with 
a heavy growth of timber, and the land shielded from the rays of 
the sun by dense forest foliage. To erect a home here, and put 
the land in a state of cultivation, taxed the powers of the pioneers 
to their utmost. It was for a while a struggle for subsistence and 
everything they did was in the way of improvement. This was 
practically true for twenty years. An average of five years was 
consumed before the frontier farmer could be relied upon to fur- 
nish the support for himself and family, without game and wild 
fruit and buying com from his neighbors. After the erection 
of a cabin, from five to ten acres of timber was felled and the trees 
cut into suitable lengths for rolling into piles for burning. 

And an aflfectionate veneration should be manifested for the 
pioneer women who shrank from no dangers, shunned no hard- 
ships, endured great privations, and in their homes cultivated 
social and domestic virtues. These strong and brave mothers, 
who toiled by their husbands' sides in life's hot noon, and went 
hand in hand with them down the dusky slope of the evening of 
an eventful, busy life, have like their companions, folded their 
arms to rest. 

And the men clad in linsey-woolsey or tow pants and home- 
made linen shirts laid broad and deep the foundations of social, 
moral, industrious and religious life, which have been preserved 
by their descendants as a priceless inheritance. 

A just meed of praise should be given the pioneer preachers, 
who amid all difficulties, dangers and hardships, ministered to the 
early settlers of Morrow county, and materially aided in laying 
the moral sentiments which have broadened and deepened with 
the advancing years. It was a labor of love to them, and they 
endured privations that few of today know anything about. The 
oratory and eloquence of these preachers made many converts, and 
much could be writteen favorable about them, many of whom were 
scholarly men. They appealed to the holiest and most sacred im- 

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pulses of the heart and wove the loveliness of their teachings into 
the lives of their hearers. 

Old Roads. 

The old State road, passing northeast and southwest through 
Sparta, was laid out a number of years before the war of 1812. 
Its course was from Mansfield, via Frederiektown and Sunbury, 
to Columbus. The second road was the Mount Vernon and Dela- 
ware road, laid out about 1811. In 1814, the New Haven and 
Johnstown road, passing north and south through Bloomfield, was 
projected. In 1816, the Quakers in Chester township cut out a 
road through Bloomfield to a small settlement near Mount Liberty. 

Previous to 1825, nearly all the roads we^e merely blazed. 
The State road from Delaware to Mansfield was surveyed in 1812, 
but had been established some time previous. This was followed 
by one in 1817, beginning at the Indian boundary line at what is 
now called Shaw Town, and extending south so as to intersect the 
former at what is now **Bartlett's Corners.'* The first bridge 
was the one across the Whetstone, near Westfield, built of poles, in 
1835, and was followed by one two miles further north ; each has 
been superseded by several in the meantime, and now there is a 
substantial covered frame structure at each of these points. The 
State road was a mail route from Delaware to Mansfield as far back 
as 1820. 

Immigration From 1830 to 1848. 

From 1830 to the formation of Morrow county in 1848, 
immigration came into the new county more rapidly and nearly all 
the vacant land was soon taken. Some of the old settlers sold out 
to the newcomers, and farms were opened and put under cultiva- 
tion, new and better buildings erected, the roads improved and 
new ones laid out and opened, bridges and mills built, and the 
whole county improved in many respects. In the early settlement 
the country presented a new and wild appearance. The deep and 
thick woods abounded with underbrush and rank vegetation and 
wild game. Game was early in great abundance, as were also 
wolves and bears. 

The formation of Ohio as a state had opened up a vast amount 
of land to the enterprising pioneer. The reports concerning the 
beauty and resources of the country, and the fertility of its soil, 

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thus brought to the attention of those who began to feel crowded 
in the older communities, stimulated their natural curiosity, and 
gave rise to a wide-spread emigration movement, which was then 
called the **Ohio fever." The **new purchase'' added a fresh 
impetus to this movement, the eflPects of which seemed to have be- 
come universal. Songs descriptive of the pleasures and advantages 
to be found in Ohio were sung at the entertainments of the young. 
The chorus of one of these songs was: 

"We'll all together go 

Where plenty pleasures flow 

And settle on the banks of the pleasant Ohio." 

The roads consisted of trails, through mud and in some places 
underbrushed, and in others only blazed — with no bridges cross- 
ways. In passing from one neighborhood to another, or from one 
settlement to another, persons were guided by the blazed trees. 

Log Cabins and Taverns. 

The buildings were rude log cabins in the very early settlement 
of the county. They were generally fourteen by sixteen feet, cov- 
ered with clapboards held on by the weight-poles placed on each 
tier, a ridge pole in the center. The floors were made of pun- 
cheon, split out of logs, and roughly hewn with a broad-ax. The 
windows were square or long holes, made by sawing through one 
or two of the logs; slats were nailed across, and the orifice made 
into a window by covering it with paper, which was pasted over. 
The chamber or **loft*' was reached by a ladder from the outside, 
or if the family could spare the room for it the ladder was placed 
inside, or if necessary the upper floor was reached by a stout row 
of pegs being driven into the wall, which could be climbed with 
agility. The fireplace occupied the greater part of one end of the 
cabin. Sometimes it had ** wings'' that came in reach of the hand. 
In the more modem cabins jams were built on the hearth. The 
trammel and hooks were found among the well-to-do families, as 
time progressed ; previous to this, the lug-pole across the inside of 
the chimney, answered for a trammel. A chain was sus- 
pended from it, and hooks were attached, and from this hung the 
mush pot or teakettle. If a chain was not available a wooden 
hook was within the reach of the humblest and poorest. When a 
meal was not in preparation, and the hook was endangered by the 

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fire, it was pushed to one end of the lugpole for safety. Iron was 
very scarce in those days. Instances are related where one poi 
served at a meal to boil water in for mint tea or crust coffee, to bake 
the bread, boil the potatoes and cook the meat. By good manage- 
ment this could be accomplished. Johnny cake was made by mix- 
ing the com meal up with warm water ; adding a pinch of salt and 
a trifle of lard and working all into a thick dough; spreading it 
on a clean board; patting it into shape, and standing it slanting 
before the fire, propped into the right position by placing a flat- 
iron behind it. When baked this made a delicious cake, sweet 
and fresh, with the stamp of a mother's dear, unselfish, loving 
fingers plainly detected in the crisp crust. There was little in 
the way of ornaments in the homes of the pioneers. Very few 
families had clocks. They guessed the hour of noon, or ascertained 
it by the creeping of the sunlight up to the **noon mark" drawn 
upon the floor. The furniture of a cabin was usually a few chairs, 
a plain table and a bedstead. The bedsteads were made by poles 
being crossed and stuck into the wall at one end and resting on Y 
sticks at the other end. A little later came the ** trundle-bed 
which was low and was pushed beneath the other bed when not in 
use. There were no carpets upon these cabin floors, and a set of 
dishes usually consisted of six plates and six cups and saucers, 
and happy was the housewife who possessed these luxuries, for 
many families had only a few pewter plates which they had brought 
with them. The cooking utensils were a teakettle, an iron pot 
and a skillet. They grew gourds and hard shell squashes, from 
which they made bowls and dippers. Salt had to be brought from 
the east in the very early settlement, and later, when a road was 
opened from the lake and the supply often became exhausted, and 
its scarcity was a great privation to the pioneers. 

** Johnny cake" was the principal form of bread for breakfast, 
and pone for dinner, with wild game, hominy and honey, while the 
standard dish for supper was mush and milk Log-rollings, house- 
raisings and wood-choppings were big occasions then, and dinners 
of pot-pie were served. Com huskings were also great events, 
and nearly all the pioneer gatherings would wind up with a dance 
after supper, in which all present joined. In the absence of a 
fiddler, the music was furnished by some one whistling or blowing 
upon a leaf. 

For lighting purposes there was the **lard lamp" and later 
the ** tallow dip." The bible and an almanac, with perchance a 

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book or two brought with them from their former home, often 
constituted the reading matter of a family. If the fire went out 
upon the hearth it was rekindled by striking flint, or by a coal from 
a neighbor's hearth, which gave rise to the old saying, ''Did you 
come for fire?" 

The cabin homes of old Morrow, 

Some still are left today, 
In shady nooks by winding brooks. 

And on the great highway. 

The spinning wheels of the pioneer period, what few there are 
left, are cherished as heirlooms by their fortunate possessors. 
There was the large wheel for wool and the small one for flax. 
The hum of the spinning wheel and the reel was the piano music 
of the pioneer home ; and, when echoed by the loom with its quick- 
moving shuttle, furnished the cloth and linen so useful in those 
early times when calico was a dollar a yard and money was very 

In the early days a tavern was a prominent factor in a com- 
munity, and they were interspersed here and there along the roads 
leading to the lake. It was a place where every traveler who 
came along sought rest and refreshments for himself and his tired 
horse. Taverns were also the stopping places of the freight 
wagons and stage coaches, and the arrival and departure of these 
were great events in the life of the early communities. These 
taverns had large fireplaces, which in winter were kept well filled 
with wood, and they were of sufficient capacity to heat and light 
the house. There was no market for wood in those days of clear- 
ing the forests, and the only cost of fuel was the cutting of the 
wood. Around these great fireplaces the travelers gathered, and 
their conversation gave the settlers glimpses of other parts of the 
country, of which they knew little, and at bedtime the weary so- 
journers would spread their blankets near the blazing fire and retire 
to rest and sleep. But the tavern with its old fashioned life has 
gone with the stage. 

Neighbors were very friendly and sociable in the early settle- 
ment of what is now Gilead township, running together and eating 
together without any ceremony. Social gatherings and bees and 
frolics were common for special purposes and on particular occas- 
ions. The mode of living was coarse and plain — eating com 
bread, potatoes, cabbage, pumpkins and turnips, wild hog, deer, 

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ground hog, raccoon, squirrels, wild turkey and pheasants. The 
wearing apparel was home made — manufactured by the women 
mostly from flax for summer, and from flax and cotton, and wool 
and cotton for winter. Wool was scarce; for it was difficult to 
keep sheep on account of the wolves. Shoes and moccasins were 
made of the tanned skins of ground hogs; and men's clothes were 
frequently made of dressed deer skin and caps of coon skin. The 
primitive cabin was in many cases built without nails or glass or 
any article of hardware. An ax, **frow," saw and auger were the 
only tools necessary to build a cabin. The component parts were 
round and straight logs, clapboards, eave-bearers, weight poles. 


split sticks and mud for the chimney and for chinking and daubing, 
a spacious fireplace to take in a big back-log, puncheon floor, ladder 
for the loft, greased paper for the windows, a door made of clap- 
boards and an open porch with various useful articles hanging 
round. After awhile some progress was made in building better 
houses, in the use of nails, glass, hewed logs, shingles, boards, lime, 
stone and brick. The great idea and aim of a new settler was to 
make a clearing for the raising of some crops to support the family. 
This one thing must be done — the heavy forests of timber must, 
by some means, be cleared away, and this was a Herculean task; 
Vol. 1—6 

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but by patient, persevering labor it was done; the openings were 
made by the ax, handspike and fire, and by means of the maul and 
wedge the cleared spot was fenced in. 

Walker Lyon and family came all the way from Connecticut, 
to what is now South Bloomfield township in one wagon drawn by 
two yoke of oxen with a horse, ridden by one of the party, on the 
lead. They were forty days on the road, and, when their destina- 
tion was reached, freezing cold weather had set in. It was too 
cold to mix mortar, so the chinks in their hastily erected cabin 
were filled with moss gathered from far and near in the woods. 
One of the first settlers brought with him an ash board, which was 
honored with the central place in the only door of his cabin, and, 
when neighbors were present, this was pointed to with infinite 
pride, by the owner. Augustus and Giles Swetland came two years 
in advance of their father and the balance of his family. They 
erected a small log cabin, and began to clear the land their father 
had previously purchased. 

The abundance of game in Chester township, while at first a 
great advantage to the settlement, soon proved not an inconsider- 
able burden, and hunting became necessary for defense against 
their depredations. Wolves were found especially troublesome, 
and the utmost care had to be taken to guard against their con- 
stant attacks. Mr. Shur was for some time unable to provide a 
door to his cabin, and used a blanket as a temporary barrier. This 
proved insufficient to keep the wolves at bay, and he was obliged to 
build fires before his door to feel at all secure. Stock of all kinds 
was in more or less danger. Henry George brought a few sheep 
into the settlement, and built a high pen to guard them at night, 
but his care was unavailing. Although they were guarded by day 
and folded at night, the wolves finally took them all. They would 
steal upon the flock in the daytime, within fifty feet of the house, 
and make away with one of the sheep. Yearling cattle were fre- 
quently destroyed by falling in with a pack of these voracious 
animals, and even grown animals and horses were sometimes 
attacked, and more or less injured by them. Soon after the com- 
ing of the Shur family, a cow was killed by these animals near his 
cabin, and was partly eaten when discovered. 

One of the greatest inconveniences from which Morrow county 
settlers suffered was the want of mills, especially for grinding com 
and wheat. The first thought of the pioneer, after building a 
cabin, was to clear a piece of ground and put in a crop of corn, 
which, owing to its stumpy condition, must needs be cultivated 

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almost entirely with a hoe. The first fruit of this was ''roasting- 
ears," and a little later, as the grains hardened, they were reduced 
to meal by a grater. Next, the hominy block was called into use. 
This consisted of a piece of wood, usually beech, about three feet 
iong and eighteen inches in diameter, on the end of which was laid 
a bed of coals, and when this was charred sufficiently it was scraped 
and the same thing was repeated until a concave excavation was 
secured. Into this the com was poured, and, with a hand pestle, the 
work of making meal and hominy was accomplished. An im- 
provement on this was a sweep, not unlike the well sweep even now 
sometimes seen, into one end of which an upright piece was mor- 
tised, and into the end of this an iron piece was inserted, and this 
contrivance was usually operated by two persons. Prom the Indian 
meal was made **pone,*' which was baked in an iron oven on the 
hearth; ** Johnny-cake," baked on a board, or ** hoe-cake," in which 
dough was wrapped in leaves and baked in ashes. 

Mr. Patton raised a pair of steers from the cows he brought 
with him to Morrow county — waiting till they were grown — employ- 
ing his time in clearing his land and fencing it. His cabin was 
built near a spring, and at one time his wife went after a pail of 
water, was lost in the woods, and, after wandering round for some 
time, was at length led home by the cries of her infant child. 
Later, Joseph Patton and his sisters were left by their father to 
finish hoeing a patch of com. This kept them busily employed 
till after dark, when at length they were started by the howling of 
wolves not far away, which was responded to by two other packs 
of those savage beasts in opposite directions. They heard the 
tramping of their feet, and not unf requently saw their eyes glisten- 
ing through the dark — their incessant bowlings making the woods 
hideous the while. Their father heard those frightful howls, 
rushed into his cabin, seized his gun, and hastened out to the rescue 
of his children thus exposed to danger, firing as he went. He was 
just in time. They were hardly rescued — had hardly reached a 
place of safety — ere they heard the wolves howling their disap- 

On another occasion, when Joseph Patton and his father were 
working in the woods, they saw, not far away, a huge drove of wild 
hogs approaching. They had only time to climb into some trees 
when the swine scentefl them, and rushed madly to their place of 
refuge. They tore the bark oflf these trees with their tusks, and 
tore down all the bushes and saplings in the near vicinity, appar- 
ently maddened with disappointment in not securing their prey. 

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David Anderson failed to get his cows up cue niji^ht, and went 
in search of them the next morning, when he found them mired in 
a swamp, where they had furnished a midnight repast for the 
wolves. Many others lost stock under similar circumstances. 
Children returning late from school were chased by them. 

Deer, wild turkeys and wolves were every-day sights. Small 
herds of deer, scared by wolves, would come out of the woods, leap 
the fences and go scampering across the clearings. Often the 
settler, upon rising in the morning, would find a herd pasturing on 
his wheat field. Feeraing to love the rich herbage. In herds of 
six or eight, they were often seen sporting in the woods, leaping 
back and forth over fallen trees like children on a play ground. 
There were many brackish springs scattered about, which the deer 
frequented, and which were often watched by the hunter during 
the night. 

The winter of 1812-13 was severe on deer, however, contribut- 
ing largely to drive them out of the county. A heavy fall of 
snow came early in the winter, and successive thaws and freezings 
had formed a crust of considerable thickness. The deer found it 
difficult to obtain a living, and were so poor that they were unfit 
to eat, and their skins were too poor for tanning. This fact did 
not prevent their being a tempting bait for the wolves^ which killed 
hundreds of them that winter. The light footed wolf found the 
crust an excellent path, while the deer, in its frantic efforts to 
escape from the ferocious pack, broke through at every step, lacerat- 
ing its legs, and finally wearied out, falling an easy prey to its 

Ross N. Mateer, Mt. GiiiEAo Pioneer. 

Ross N. Mateer, who was the first child baptized in the Presby- 
terian church of Mt. Gilead, spent his entire life of seventy-nine 
years in Morrow county, with the exception of a few years preced- 
ing his death at Toledo, Ohio on the 26th of September, 1910. His 
remains were taken to his native place and buried at River Cliff. 
The deceased was bom in the little village of Whetstone, Marion 
county, Ohio, August 31, 1831. The name of the village was 
changed to that of Mt. Gilead by an act of the legislature in 1833, 
when the subject of this sketch was two years old. He was a son 
of Wm. N. and Elizabeth Porter Mateer, who came from Adams 
county, Pennsylvania, to Mt. Gilead in 1830. Many of the early 
settlers were from Pennsylvania. His father was one of the first 

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school teachers in Mt. Qilead. His father and mother were charter 
members of the Presbjrterian church organized in Mt. Qilead, No- 
vember 2, 1831. The house where this church was organized is 
still standing and in good repair, occupied by Mrs. Heck. The 
subject of this sketch was born in a cabin house that stood just east 
of Mrs. Heck's; it stood on the ground where Arthur Mann now 
lives. Ten days after the organization of this churr»h at a meeting 
three infants were baptized, the first of whom was R. N. Mateer. 
He united with the church on examination at the age of eighteen 
years, under the ministry of Rev. James Brown, who was a native 
of Scotland, but received his education in this country. He died 
while serving this church ; his remains have been resting for many 
years in the old graveyard. R. N. Mateer was a member of this 
church almost a lifetime. He was one of the deacons for years 
before his removal to Toledo. His father moved on the farm two 
and one half miles east of Mt. Gilead where the late John Mateer 's 
family now lives. He died soon after, leaving the mother with 
a family of four children, John P., Ross N., Matilda (wife of J. W. 
Cook) and a half brother, James McMuUin. They have now all 
passed away. Being deprived of his father at the early age of six 
years he endured the hardships incident to farm life in the then 
new country. His boyhood was spent in such conditions as 
characterized the early settlers in those frontier times, with limited 
educational and religious privileges. He worked on the farm 
until about sixteen years of age and attended the district school as 
he had opportunity. When seventeen years old the news came 
to Mt. Gilead that the bill erecting Morrow county passed the 
legislature on February 24, 1848. The news was brought on 
horseback from Columbus to Mt. Qilead. Morrow county is the 
youngest county in the state. He attended the celebration and 
barbecue. The old Presbyterian church that stood in the old 
graveyard in the southeast part of town, was selected as the place 
for the free dinner, where a whole ox was roasted. There were 
loads of eatables and many partook of the hospitality of the 
people. In politics he was a Republican, and for many years be- 
fore his removal to Toledo was the oldest native in the place. 
When nineteen years of age he went to Delaware county, near Old 
Eden, to work for John Black at wagon making. While living 
here he married Mary Redman, April 14, 1853. Her married 
life was short; she died, leaving one child, Florence E., who died 
November 17, 1862. On September 4, 1856, he married Emeline 
Breese ; to this union were bom six children : Charles, died in in- 

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fancy; Gertrude E., wife of Rev. Will C. ACles, died Jan. 15, 1892. 
Four children are still living: Mary E., wife of Q. W. Fluckey; 
Lemuel R., of Girard, 0., Margaret B. and Ralph V. They all, 
except Lemuel, live in Toledo. In 1860 he bought a farm which is 
part of the farm where the Morrow county infirmary is now. He 
was living there when the Civil war broke out. In August, 1862, 
he enlisted in Company E, One Hundred and Twenty-first 0. V. I. 
While the regiment was at Franklin, Tennessee, he was taken sick 
with typhoid pneumonia, which very nearly cost him his life, from 
the effects of which he has suffered all his life. In June, 1863, he 
was honorably discharged. Soon after returning home he sold 
his farm, not being able to work it, and moved to Mt. Gilead. He 
secured one of the Star mail routes, running from Mt. Gilead to 
Johnsville, which he followed for sixteen years. Afterwards he 
went in the meat market with his brother-in-law, L. H. Breese, 
which business he followed for twenty years. About seven and a 
half years ago they moved to Toledo, where Mr. Breese still resides. 

The Remarkable Rinehart Family. 

The following from the Mt OUead Sentinel of December 26, 
1907, is still pertinent and furnishes a remarkable instance of 
family fecundity and longevity : It does not fall to the lot of many 
mothers to rear to manhood and womanhood a family of fifteen 
children, and in her old age to have all but two of them living 
so near to their birthplace and to her life-long home as to be in a 
position to render her the care and attention which is one of the 
debts youth owes to age. Such, however, is the happy experience 
of Mrs. Margaretta Rinehart, widow of Michael Rinehart, who 
resides near Williamsport, Congress township in this county. Only 
once did the sorrow of losing a child come into the life of Mrs. 
Rinehart, her first born son having been taken by death in 
his infancy. Of the fifteen other children bom to Mrs. Rinehart, 
all are living, twelve of these residing in Morrow county in the 
immediate vicinity of the home farm, one daughter living in Galion, 
another daughter in Jewel county, Kansas, and a son in San Fran- 
cisco, California. 

Almost thirty-three years ago the entire family, for the father 
was then living, had their pictures taken, the photograph having 
been made by E. J. Potter, of Mansfield. The taking of the picture 
of a family group is not unusual and many people follow the prac- 
tice of having a group picture taken at regular intervals, but it is 

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the rule, rather than the exception, that in the later pictures there 
is a* gradual dwindling of numbers, even where the family is much 
smaller than in the present instance. Ten years ago the Rhinehart 
family, still with the -fifteen children, again went to the Potter 
studio and posed for another picture. In this picture the father 
was absent, he having died in 1880. But even with thia break in 
the family the incident was considered unusual in view of the fact 
that all fifteen of the children had passed safely through the inter- 
val of more than twenty years, and were so situated as to be able to 
get together for the making of another group picture. But un- 
usual as this may have been considered, Mr. Potter was still itiore 
surprised a short time ago when an aged lady and fifteen younger 
men and women again came into his studio and informed him that 
they wanted to have another group picture taken. It was the 
same Mrs. Rinehart, who had again gathered her flock together and 
brought them to the photographer who had taken the picture of 
thirty-three years ago. 

In the fall of 1910 was held a reunion of the family at the 
old homestead which was taken up by the grandfather of these 
children when he came to Ohio from Pennsylvania in 1836. Mrs. 
Rinehart has fifty-eight grandchildren and eight great-grand- 

The late Michael B. Rhinehart, the father of these fifteen chil- 
dren, was born in York county, Pennsylvania, April 11, 1824, and 
came to Ohio with his parents at the age of twelve years, his father 
locating in Perry township, Morrow county, on a farm three miles 
east of Williamsport. Mrs. Rinehart, whose maiden name was 
Margaretta Elizabeth Baker was bom in Franklin county, Penn- 
sylvania, July 13, 1834, and came to Ohio at the age of three years, 
her parents locating on a farm a mile and a half southeast of North 
Woodbury. She was united in marriage to Mr. Rinehart, June 13, 
1852. All of the children were born on the old Rinehart home- 
stead, the oldest of the fifteen, a daughter, having been bom 
August 22, 1854. All of the children are married except one son, 
Jacob, who is also the only son who does not reside in Morrow 
county, he being located in San Francisco. 

Of the fifteen children nine are sons, they being Levi, George, 
Charles, Amos, Silas, Adam, Jacob, Arthur, and John. The six 
daughters are: Mrs. Almeda Fringer, of Jewel county, Kansas; 
Mrs. Ella Dukeman, of Galion ; Mrs. Louisa Corwin, Mrs. Caroline 
Stull, Mrs. Susanne Grogg and Mrs. Sarah Feigley, of Morrow 

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Paper by Mrs. Martha Mosher Harlan, read before the Twen- 
tieth Century Club of Mt. CHlead. 

We have read that **the earliest history of Morrow county, in 
common with that of the state, is veiled in mystery, and what share 
it had in the prehistoric times can only be guessed.*' It is gener- 
ally believed that Morrow county was the scene of the busy activi- 
ties of the Mound Builders. The traces of their occupation are 
abundant in all sections of the county. During the centuries when 
the Indians had dominion in this country the mounds of the Mound 
Builders were left undisturbed. They had no tradition of a 
preceding race, and, unvexed by the goading of inquiring science, 
left these relics of a curious people undisturbed until the white man 
wrought the mighty change. Three of these works have been found 
at, or near, Chesterville. A mound located near the old school- 
house was plowed down in 1837, and scraped into a hole from which 
it was undoubtedly thrown. In 1839, when the hotel was built 
in Chesterville, a mound near by furnished the material for the 
brick. In digging it away, a large human skelton was found. Some 
trinkets were also found in the mound, but no accurate description 
of them can be had. Other mounds are found in the townships of 
Troy, Canaan, Washington and Lincoln, which many believe con- 
tain valuable relics if investigated.. 

Indians and A Scalping Knife. 

Historians fail to tell us when the Indians first came to Mor- 
row county. There is no record of there ever being an Indian 
village in this county. It was a rich hunting ground, and the 
Indians had resorted here from the earliest recollections, but had 
found a home in the surrounding counties. They continued to 
come here in quest of game to be found in the woods as late as 1819. 
A hunting party for some years kept a permanent camp in Lincoln 
township, the members coming and going as their fancy moved 
them. My father has a ** scalping knife'' in his possession that 
belonged to his grandfather, Asa Mosher, one of the first settlers 
in this part of the county. Tradition says that Tom Lyon, a 
Delaware Indian chief, traded the knife to Asa Mosher for two 
bushels of meal, and assured him that it had ** scalped heaps of 
white men." 

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First White Settlers. 

It is believed that the first white settler in this county was 
Evan Holt, who came to Chester in 1807. Cyrus Benedict settled 
in Peru township in 1809. The Shaw settlement in Westfield 
township dates back to 1808. Cardington, then known as Morven 
township, was not settled until 1821, and the first settlement in 
Gilead township was in 1817. My great-grandfather, Asa Mosher, 
came from Granville, Washington county, New York, in 1816, to 
look up a location and selected a large tract of land south of where 
Mt. Gilead now stands, and in 1818 he moved his family from New 
York and settled on that part of section 14, Gilead township, lying 
west of the Quakerdom road. From family records and deeds, 
we learn that Jonathan Wood, my great-great-grandfather on the 
other side of my father's family, came from Plattsburg, Clinton 
county. New York in 1816, and first settled in Peru township in 
the Qui&er settlement near Cyrus Benedict. But when Asa 
Mosher moved here, in 1818, the Jonathan Wood family concluded 
to settle near them, and those two families, with the family of 
Peleg Rogers, also from New York, entered all the land of section 
14, and laid the foundation of another Quaker settlement. A few 
years later Asa Mosher 's son married Jonathan Wood's grand- 
daughter and became my grandfather and grandmother. A por- 
tion of the land entered by Asa Mosher and Jonathan Wood has 
been owned by their descendants ever since. 

Asa Mosher built the first grist mill and saw mill in this part 
of the county; the mill was built in 1819 on the spot where Uncle 
Gideon Mosher 's bam is now located near the covered bridge be- 
tween Mt. Gilead and Cardington. This mill was built before 
the land was surveyed and opened for settlement, but after the 
survey in 1822 Asa Mosher secured the deed and patent for the 
land from the government. 

Friendsborough was the first village or town to be laid out in 
the township. It was surveyed and laid out in town lots by 
Colonel Kilboum, in 1822, near the Asa Mosher mill. The town 
was never built up, as Asa Mosher owned the larger share of the 
land, and bought the other lots to make a farm for his son Robert, 
my grandfather, whom he wanted to live near enough to run the 
mill. For a number of years the township elections were held at 
or near the Mosher mill. It is now believed that Friendsborough 
would have been the county seat of Morrow county had it been 
built up, for, being centrally located between Cardington and Mt. 

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Gilead, it would probably have united the power and population 
of both the rival villages. 

The Legislative Struggle. 

The history of the bitter fight in the legislature among the eon- 
tending factions over the formation of the new county afterwards 
called Morrow, and the work of the lobbyists at that time, reads 
very much like the columns of our daily papers of today, and we 
cannot but wonder if those **good old times'' we hear so much 
about really were so much better than the present time. 

The organization of Marion county, in 1824, and the establish- 
ment of the county seat at Marion, was the first cause of the project 
to erect a new county out of the territory which is now known as 
Morrow county. Mt. Gilead was laid out in the same year, and 
formed a nucleus about which the discontent with the location of 
the seat of justice gathered. Some of the more radical ones said 
at once that a new county would be formed to accommodate the 
large population which was situated in the outlying comers of 
the four counties (Marion, Knox, Richland and Delaware), but it 
was some twenty-one years before this project bore the fruit of 
the fact, and then not without a struggle that consumed the energies 
of the whole community, the time for years of its best citizens, and 
not inconsiderable sum of money for that time. 

The early history of this struggle is but imperfectly known 
and we have but vague traditions from which to glean information 
in regard to this interesting event. It appears that the early 
efforts to form the county were confined principally to gathering 
petitions, setting forth the case of the petitioners, and asking the 
legislature for the obvious relief. Unfortunately for the early 
success of the project, there were a number of conflicting interests 
to be conciliated. The movement to erect a county out of the out- 
lying portions of Marion, Knox, Richland and Delaware counties, 
with Mt. Gilead as the county seat, was strongly opposed by several 
factions. The Richland county people, save the few to be espec- 
ially favored by the change, were strongly opposed to giving up so 
much of their territory. The necessity for the erection of a new 
county was generally conceded and the contest turned on the ques- 
tion of the location of the county seat. The Chester claim proposed 
to erect a county, with Chesterville near the central point for the 
count seat. The Bennington claim made Marengo the central 
point, and ran its lines about it, taking territory from Knox, Lick- 

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ing, Delaware and Marion counties. The Gilead, Chester and 
Bennington ** claims" had their hired lobbyists to press their 
claims upon the attention of legislators during the sessions of the 
legislature. History tells us that *'on December 13, 1847, the 
house committees is informed that Gilead, at least, if not Benning- 
ton, is moving heaven and earth to accomplish her purpose, having 
all the doorkeepers and clerks in both branches, and many others 
employed in her behalf." The above was evidently written by a 
** Chester lobbyist." Bennington finally withdrew from the con- 
test in favor of Gilead, and for several weeks it was hard to tell 
which would win, Chester or Gilead. It became generally under- 
stood that the session of the legislature of 1848 would bring the 
matter to an issue, and most strenuous efforts were made on all 
hands to place their claims in the most favorable light. The 
Gilead claim had changed in name from Ontario to Gilead, and then 
to Marshall, to conciliate the various prejudices. It is said that 
a senator from the town of Morrow, Warren county, in the southern 
part of the state, who had been instructed to vote against Marshall 
county, said that if the Gilead people would change the name to 
Morrow, after the ex-governor of that name, he could vot for it. 
This was accordingly done and one more vote was gained for Gilead. 
The bill was finally passed February 24, 1848, ai^d Morrow county 
was erected by barely enough votes to insure success. 


The infant county has been of slow growth, in regard to popu- 
lation, for since 1860 each census has given Morrow county about 
one thousand less population than the preceding one. In 1850 
and 1860 our population was over 20,000; in 1880 a little over 
19,000; in 1890, 18,120; and in 1900, 17,879. The reason for 
the decrease is supposed to be because of the unpopularity of large 
families of children, and we are supposed to make up in quality 
what we lack in quantity; for, as a county, we are proud of our 
record as history makers. Our schools and churches are among 
the best, and in most of the reform movements Morrow county takes 
a leading part. 

The story of the ** underground railway" and the anti-slavery 
movement generally, is interwoven in the history of our county, 
and with our record in the temperance cause we are all familiar. 

Is it any wonder that the ''makers" of Morrow county look 
upon the work of their hands and pronounce it ''good?" 

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Contributed by Captain L. M. Cunard. 

Sixty-three years ! How long it would appear looking forward, 
yet liow short the time seems which has been measured off and 
tumbled into eternity since Morrow county was erected. The 
writer was then a boy of thirteen years old: he now has grand- 
children thirty years old. 

Let some one — any one who may read these lines — ^make a list 
of the men now living in Gilead township, who voted at the elec- 
tion for county officials on the first Monday of April, 1848. **Our 
fathers, where are they ? ' * They sleep. If I mistake not. Morrow 
is the state's baby county, though Ashland and Vinton are less than 
a half dozen years her seniors. 

The bill erecting Morrow county finally passed the legislature 
February 24, 1848. On the following day Grovernor William Bebb 
appointed Richard House, E. B. Kinsell and S. T. Cunard associate 
judges, and affixing Ohio's seal to their commissions as such, gave 
Morrow county her initial send off. In April following, William 
Geller was elected treasurer, H. P. Randolph auditor, W. S. 
Clements clerk, and William Hanna, J. T. Creigh and John Doty 
county commissioners. At the general election following in 
October the same officials were reelected, with Ross Bums as sheriff 
and William Dolin county surveyor. 

Mt. Gilead in February, 1848. 

Perhaps nothing would more interest the present generation 
of our county's inhabitants than some reminiscences of the excit- 
ing events which occurred in the village of Mt. Gilead at the time 
of which I write, February 24 to 28, 1848. At that date the pop- 
ulation of Mt. Gilead was less than 550 souls. There were three 
hotels in the village: The '*Our Hotel," kept by David Patterson, 
on the southeast corner of the south public square; the **Van 
Amim" hotel, kept by a Mr. Van Arnim, which stood on the west 
side of the south square, north of Marion street, and the **Palo 
Alto House," kept by Lovel B. Harris, which stood where the 
Kandy Kitchen now stands. Trimble's store. House's store and 
James Shaw's store were all on Main street. Rigdon's blacksmith 
shop stood on the spot now occupied by the W. & M. hardware 
store. E. R. Falley had a harness shop in one of the rooms in the 

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building now owned by M. S. Merritt, where the big watch is, the 
second story of which, as it stands now, then being on a level with 
Main street; also Colwell's drug store and tin shop, C. K. Lind- 
sey's dry goods store and William Graves' harness shop. Back on 
East Marion street were Charles Breese's blacksmith and wagon 
shop, Addlesperger's cooper shop, and Cooper & Sackett's old wool 
carding machine. C. K. Lindsey was postmaster. 

The news of the passage of the bill was brought to South Wood- 
bury from Columbus by the late Geo. N. Clark, he arriving on 
horseback about 10 a. m. the 25th. He immediately dispatched a 
messenger to Mt. Gilead with the news, on a fresh horse. 

This messenger, a young Mr. Davidson, overtook the late Dr. 
Pennock some three miles north of South Woodbury, and the doctor, 
in the exuberance of his joy, started his horse on a gallop for the 
new county seat, arriving in advance of Clark's messenger by near- 
ly half an hour. 

There was a weekly mail between Mt. Gilead and Columbus; 
a **star route" between Mt. Gilead and what is now Old Eden, over 
which a **mail boy" rode with the **mai] bags" on Friday of each 
week; post oflRces at Wood's corners in Lincoln township. South 
Woodbury and StantOntown in Peru township ; from Eden to Dela- 
ware the mail was carried on the stage which run from Sunbury 
to Columbus. 

Mt. Gilead 's '^Day op Days." 

Immediately preparations were begun for a big celebration and 
barbecue. The old Presbyterian (hurch, which stood beside the 
'* grave yard" just east of Dr. Tucker's, was selected as the place 
for the **free dinner." John Weaver furnished a fat steer, which 
was roasted for the occasion. There were wagon loads of **grub" 
given by the farmers living around Mt. Gilead, whose farms were 
advanced in value 200 per cent, by being suddenly placed so near 
a prospective city. The work of preparing the banquet and high 
jingo jollification was so systematized that not a jar or miscarriage 
occurred. On the day of the jubilee at least two thousand voters 
from the surrounding townships partook of the town's hospitality. 
The late Charles Bird was *' carver-in-chief." He had a com 
knife two feet long and ground very sharp for the occasion. He 
was assisted by Elzy Barton, Henry Snyder, and many others 
whose names I cannot just now recall. I think that Elias Cooper 
was *' chief ox roaster." That was the day of days for Mt. Gilead, 

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and a pen description of the wild rejoicing of its hardy citizens on 
that day could not be given. 

The ** lobby" was honored by being placed in a wagon ar- 
ranged for the occasion, drawn by four horses, driven by Harry 
Rigour. This wagon was followed by another four-in-hand driven 
by Jim Colwell containing the **New County Glee Club." 

The ** lobby" consisted of William Geller, David Watt, Sam 
Kelley, C. K. Lindsey, S. T. Cunard, A. M. Fisher, an attorney. 
Dr. Mc Wright, who was Marion county's representative in the 
legislature, and others whose names I do not now recall. These 
were the gentlemen who managed the Columbus end of the business. 
At the Mt. Qilead end were the men who attended to the **ways 
and means" business, among whom were J. S. Trimble, Richard 
House, D. S. Talmage, Smith Thomas, David Patterson, Saul Geller, 
Charles Bird, Henry Snyder, Joe Rigour, Charles Breese, and a 
score or more of others, who held meetings every night in the week 
for the purpose of devising ways and means to raise the ** sinews 
of war." 

This was the ** lobby," and its support, the glee club, consisted 
of Wm. Donaldson, Jos. Rigour, Ethan Van Arnim, Bob Murdick, 
Jas. Colwell, David Patterson, John Giles, Ely Steltz, John Lind- 
sey, Anthony Raymopd and Wash McCall. 

The Boys op Morrow County. 

I can remember but a very few couplets of the songs the glee 
club sang that day. It is to be regretted that they are lost to 
posterity; I think there were three, however. Here is the firsi 
stanza of one: 

Gome, friends, rejoice with us today; 
We beat our foes all far away, 
And took their scalps without any bounty. 
For we are the boys of Morrow county. 

Another stanza was as follows: 

There's Cunard, Fisher, Watt and Brown, 
We'll give them all three cheers around; 
And Lord forgive us if we slight 
Young Morrow's champion, Doc. Mc Wright. 

It was understood at the time that William Donaldson was the 

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the song writer for the occasion. Those songs were sung and re- 
sung, over and over, in every part of the village by that wagon 
load of Aft. Gilead's stalwart young men, and. while they were sing- 
ing Geo. N. Clark's Woodbury cannon was belching forth the tid- 
ing of great joy from the spot where Mr. Boyle's house now stands. 
The jam of humanity over at the old Presbyterian church where the 
barbecue was in progress from noon till three o'clock was simply 
indescribable. However, everybody was finally fed, and not near 
all the provisions consumed. One remarkable thing about that 
gathering was that no person was in the least angered during the 
day. Everybody was hilarious and remained in a good humor. 
One commendable thing about that jubilee was that there were no 
speeches delivered to the crowd. The men whose labor and 
patience culminated in the erection of this county were great 
workers ; men of action. 

The day's jubilee closed with a dance at '*Our Hotel," at which 
our townsman, Hurd Payne, served as general utility boy, and his 
mother served as keeper of the ladies' wraps. To give my readers 
an idea of the enthusiasm with which the women of Mt. Gilead 
entered into the spirit of the hour let me here state that a lady, 
Mrs. Smith Thomas, roasted fourteen ducks and baked bread 
enough to fill a two-bushel basket, and placed all at the disposal 
of liie committee on rations. 

This is but a sample of the all-pervading spirit which, like that 
at pentecost, came down on all alike, old and young, male and 
female, and seemed for the time being, to make all of one kin. 

First Newspapers. 

The county seat was not long without newspapers. John 
Dumble issued The Democratic Messenger, Vol 1, No. 1, I think, in 
May, 1848, known in this day as the Union Register, His printing 
office was the first floor of a building which stood about where the 
**Bee Hive" store is now located. The gr6und floor of his ofiice, 
though, was about where the second story of the present brick 
building now is. 

The writer, then a barefoot boy, saw the first Democratic Mes- 
senger printed. That old hand printing press was the most awe 
inspiring sight he had ever beheld. I stood with a kind of rever- 
ence in the presence of John B. Dumble, who was a very dark com- 
plexioned, short, heavy set, black haired, black eyed man. 

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In that paper was an advertisement of the old ** carding ma- 
chine/' which closed with this request: 

"If we spoil your wool don't make a great racket, 
But call for the damage on 


David Watt started the Whig Sentinel and I think he issued 
the first number in July, 1848. The Sentinel printing oflRce was 
over Judge Richard House's store, where Theo. Brown's photo- 
graph gallery now is. The writer was a bred and bom Whig, 
and as soon as the Whig Sentinel was started he would steal up into 
that oflSce every week, when,, as a kind of market boy, he was sent 
to town with butter and eggs ; four cents a pound for butter and 
two cent§ a dozen for eggs, the current price in summer. 

In the Sentinel office on the Friday following the presidential 
election in '48, was a crowd of Whigs wild with joy over the elec- 
tion of General Taylor for president. Ben Peirson, a Baptist 
preacher, was a sort of leader. Charles Breese was almost crazed 
with joy over the defeat of Lewis Cass, the Democratic candidate 
for president. Of all the crowd I remember seeing there, I think 
no one is living. This was the first election in which the tele- 
graph had been brought into recpiisition in furnishing election re- 
turns and Columbus was the nearest telegraph office, but the news 
had reached Mt. Gilead from there by messenger. 

David Watt wrote: *' Thanks to Samuel Finley Breeze 
Morse for the magnetic telegraph by which we are enabled to inform 
our readers that General Taylor is elected president." 

These words were printed in what, I think, the printers call 
display type. The letters were so large that the sentence occupied 
the half of a page of the paper. Everybody in that crowd seemed 
happy, even the boy who is now writing this. We verily believed 
the country was saved, for we had heard Tom Corwin declare that 
the Democratic party, if not defeated, would destroy the govern- 

Ben Peirson succeeded C. K. Lindsey as postmaster and moved 
the post office from Lindsey 's dry goods store into a room which 
is now over the frame part of James & Strubble's stove and tinware 
store. In those days subscribers whose post office address was in 
the town where the paper was published, called at the printing 
office for their paper, as it was not distributed as now through the 
post ofSce. 

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The county ofSces were located in a long, frame, two-story 
house, which stood on the two lots where the court house now stands. 
This property was owned by Elzy Barton and J. M. Talmage. 
Court was held in the Baptist church, on the northeast comer of 
the south square. 

Exciting Financial Episode. 

Under the act erecting the county and locating the seat of 
justice at Mt. Gilead, the citizens of Gilead township were required 
to contribute $7,000 for public buildings, and they were required 
to make this amount good within two years, otherwise the location 
of the public buildings was to be submitted to a popular vote. 
Upon the settlement of this part of the new county business, there 
might be a great many surmises indulged in. Already about 
$12,000 had been expended by the managers of the new county 
enterprize, besides their time; and now, sixty-three years later, 
reversing the order and reasoning back from effect, or result, to 
cause, I conclude that it was arranged in Columbus about the 
month of February, sixty-three years ago. that a sacrifice should be 
offered, and that after all, the expense of securing the passage of 
the act erecting the county should be borne by the tax payers of 
the county, and the big hearted Dr. Geller was then and there 
chosen, and, by his consent, was prepared for the altar of sacrifice. 
He was elected county treasurer by 800, a handsome majority. 
Two years later our townsman. Smith Thomas, a Whig, was elected 
by 53 majority. Soon Dr. Geller 's shortage was discovered. The 
commissioners appointed Ross Burns, whose term as sheriff had 
just expired, to take charge of the treasurer's office until Mr. 
Thomas qualified, July 1st, following. Geller left, and by a 
strange fatality his bond could not be found, his bondsmen were 
saved, and twenty years later by a joint resolution of the general 
assembly of Ohio, the attorney general, Judge West, was authorized 
to compromise the state's claim against Geller and release him from 
all liability for criminal prosecution. The matter was settled by 
Geller 's agent, the late JudgQ Cunard, by the payment to the state 
of $6,000. And so ended what was once a very exciting episode 
in our county's history. 

Gk)DPATHER OP Mt. Gilead. 

Let me close by 'saying to the readers, when you are passing 
through any of the **old grave yards" in the vicinity of Mt. Gilead, 
Vol. 1—7 

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Stop and read the inscription on that **old grave stone," look at 
the figure of the ** weeping willow," and remember it was carved 
there by the chisel of Jonathan Willson and his ** hired hand," a 
Mr. Fishback; remember the work was done in a little log shop 
on the spot where the brick building now stands in which is located 
the residence of Dr. Pugh, and reflect, that seventy-eight years 
ago, the little hamlet, called ** Whetstone," was named Mt. Gilead, 
by an old bachelor, Daniel James, after a little village situated on 
the **Kotocktin" mountain in Loudon county, Virginia. He was 
a great-uncle of our honored townsman. Dr. A. D. James, and sold 
** goods and notions" for the village ** storekeeper," Mr. Roy, 
whose store was located where Dr. Tucker's residence now stands. 

The Memory Prodigy op Morrow County. 

One of the most extraordinary cases of memory united to 
power of arithmetical calculation was that of Daniel McCartney who 
resided the greater part of his life in Morrow county. The follow- 
ing letter and newspaper articles will explain. The latter was 
written by Joseph Morris, of the Society of Friends. 

**For many years," writes Friend Morris, *'I was well ac- 
quainted with Daniel McCartney; he has also been at my house. 
The first time that I remember to have seen this extraordinary man 
I stepped into a wagon maker's shop in Cardington on business 
and was introduced to Daniel McCartney, and was informed of his 
remarkable memory and that he could call to mind all that he had 
seen for twenty years. *Yes,' said he, Monger than that.' 

**I told him that my wife and I were united in marriage on the 
27th of the eleventh month, 1828, nearly twenty years ago. * Please 
tell me what was the day of the week?' I noticed a thoughtful 
expression come over his countenance, and then almost immediately 
the reply came. * Thursday; you Friends call it fifth day.' I 
asked him to tell how the weather was on that day. He said it 
wr.3 dark and a little stormy, which was the case. He laughed and 
said we killed a beef that day. 

**I asked him if he remembered what they had on the table for 
dinner. He said he did, and mentioned among other things, 
butter, but said he did not eat butter, for he was not fond of it. 
At other times and on other occasions I have heard him answer 
questions without once giving evidence of being mistaken. I would 
further add he was a worthy and consistent'man, I am directed by 
J. D. Cox, of Cincinnati, ex-governor of Ohio, to write to thee on 
this occasion/' 

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Prom the Cardington Independent ** Daniel McCartney died 
on the 15th of November, 1887, in Muscatine, Iowa, being a little 
over seventy years old. In view of the claims of Mr. McCartney 
and his friends as to his ability to remember the occurrences of 
each day since he was a boy of ten years, I feel that something 
more than a passing notice is required. He removed with his 
father and mother, Robert and Lydia McCartney, when he was 
sixteen years old, from Wadiington county, Pennsylvania, and 
settled in Washington township, Morrow county, Ohio. 

''After living here two years the family went to live in Card- 
ington, the same county, where the father, Robert McCartney, died 
soon after, leaving his son Daniel to be supported by his relatives, 
who lived in various parts of the county. His inability to support 
himself was caused by his defective vision, and although his sight 
became so much improved as to enable him to learn to read when 
he was about forty-two years old, yet it was with such great diflft- 
culty that his acquisitions can be said in no way to be due to his 

'*I will give a few extracts from the Journal of Speculative 
Philosophy, written by our state superintendent, in which he speaks 
of three severe examinations he gave Mr. McCartney. In the 
first he gave him twenty-four dates belonging to nineteen different 
years. He gave the days of the week correctly in an average of 
four seconds, with a description of the weather with the associat- 
ing circumstances. In the second examination he was given thirty- 
one dates in twenty-nine different years, for which he gave the days 
of the week, the weather and associating circumstances. The 
average time for giving the day of the week was five seconds. In 
the third examination he repeated the fifty-five dates previously 
given, to which he gave the same days of the week, the same 
description of the weather and the same associating circumstances, 
in some cases adding others. 

'*That the reader may more clearly understand what has just 
been written, I will give Mr. McCartney's answer to a question of 
my own: 'Wife and I were married on the 28th day of January, 
1836, give the day of the week, the kind of weather, etc?" He 
gave answer in a few seconds. *You were married on Thursday, 
there was snow on the ground, good sleighing and not very cold; 
father and I were hauling hay ; a sole came off the sled, we had to 
throw the hay off, put a new sole on the sled and load up again 
before we could go.' 

** Meeting Mr. McCartney perhaps a dozen of years afterwards. 

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I said to him, you told me the kind of a day I was married on. I 
looked him in the eye, which was the same as saying, *If your 
memory is as good as you claim you can repeat what you said on 
the former occasion. * He replied instantly, *ye8, it was on the 28th 
day of January, 1836, * and repeated the same story of his father 
and himself hauling hay, etc. My wife asked, *What kind of a 
day was the 16th of February, 1837?* He instantly threw up his 
hands and exclaimed, *0h, how it snowed!' which we knew to be 
true. At the same time I read (perhaps half a dozen) passages 
from the Bible, taken at random. Their exact location, book, 
chapter and verse were immediately given. 

**I then gave him a number of mathematical problems, such as 
multiply 786 by 392; what is the cube root of 357,911, etc.; to all 
of which he gave answers obtained mentally, and all were correctly 
given. I will give a few extracts from a committee's report of 
the r^ult of an examination held in Columbus, March 29, 1871, 
which was sufficient to shake the scepticism as to the correctness of 
all Mr. McCartney's claims. The Hon. E. E. White conducted the 
arithmetical examinations. Rev. Phillips the Biblical examination, 
and T. C. Mendenhall, of the Columbus High School, attested the 
accuracy of answers as to the days of the weeks. 

**One of the arithmetical questions asked was: *What is the 
cube root of 4,741,625?' to which a correct mental answer waa given 
in a few seconds. Another problem was 'increase 89 to the sixth 
power;' he gave the answer obtained mentally in ten minutes, 
496,984,290,961. The committee concluded their report in these 
words: *Mr. McCartney's experiences seem to be ready to appear 
before him at his bidding in all their original distinctness, which 
shows clearly that among the prodigies of memory recorded in 
history in the front rank must be placed Daniel McCartney. ' 

**Prom the Cleveland Leader of April 19, 1871, I give the fol- 
lowing extract: *The exhibition was a most full and unanswerable 
argument in support of the claim that Daniel McCartney has no 
peer; his peculiar gifts are more varied and wonderful than any 
other.' I knew of several attempts to exhibit Mr. McCartney to 
the public, all of which proved to be failures as far as money-mak- 
ing was concerned. The last attempt I knew of was made by a 
prominent citizen of our own county in the year 1871. When my 
opinion as to the success of the enterprise was asked, I told the 
agent that it would be a failure, not from any defects of McCartney 
in heart or mind, but because the capital he intended to invest was 
intellectual (the powers of soul) and not physical. I said, *If you 

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were showing the double-headed baby the public would be charmed 
at the sight. No one would be so poor as not to be willing to give 
his fifty cents. But his prominent traits are those of the mind, 
which soared so far above the majority of the public as to be lost 
to their view.' 

**How very few people there are who can realize the powers 
of a mind that can solve an arithmetical problem in the cube root 
mentally in a few seconds. Or how few are there who could realize 
the powers of memory by which Mr. McCartney could summon 
every prominent act of his life into his presence with all their 
original distinctness; or how very few there are who could tell 
whether the statements made by him were true or false. No one 
could tell unless he had kept a record of the occurrences of days 
and dates for the last fifty or sixty years. Such a record has been 
kept by many of our citizens, to whom the majority must look for 
a knowledge of the facts. In early life Mr. McCartney made a 
profession of religion by uniting with the Methodist Episcopal 
church, and remained a worthy, consistent member to the close of 
his life.'' 

Mrs. Smith DeMuth's Recollections. 

Below is given a brief history of Morrow county as written by 
Mrs. Smith DeMuth, whose grandparents were pioneer settlers. 
The paper was read at a meeting of the Current Topics Club and 
printed in the Morrow County Independent. 

**The historian of Morrow county is handicapped by the fact 
that its history proper only extends back to 1848, when it was 
formed from Delaware, Marion, Richland and Knox counties. It 
was named after Jeremiah Morrow of Warren county, who was 
governor of Ohio from 1822 to 1826. The area is about four 
hundred and fifty square miles and the population is 17,879. In 
1850 it was 23,350, a loss of 5,457 since that time. Sixty years ago 
large families were the rule and were considered a blessing; today 
it is the reverse. 

** Morrow county lies just south of the summit that divides the 
waters of the lake and the Ohio river. The most of the surface 
is level and average fall is less than one inch to the hundred feet. 
It was first settled immediately after the war of 1812, the settlers 
coming principally from the south and east, and a grand race of 
people they were. It was a case of the survival of the fittest. 
The beautiful farms that cover our fair county comprise one of the 

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heritages they left us, monuments that will commemorate their 
work better than marble or bronze. We little know the hard- 
ships they endured. They came into dense forests, cleared away 
a few trees, with those trees erected a cabin, and then felled a few 
more trees each season, clearing a little more ground and raising 
a little more grain. 

**My grandfather White, who lived in Bennington township, 
has stood on the porch, or * stoop,' as they then called it, of his 
cabin, and shot deer and wild turkey. My grandfather Horr, who 
some of you knew, helped raise the first log cabin built in Carding- 
ton. He rode up here from Bennington, worked all day and rode 
home at night, a ride of more than eighteen miles. He received 
for his day's labor a three gallon iron kettle, which my mother now 
has. My grandmother was terribly pleased with the kettle, which 
she could hang on the crane in the fireplace and cook many a good 
dinner in. The cabin was erected for John Shunk, who started a 
little store in it. The cabin now stands on the banks of the race 
and is used for a stable. 

** Morrow county produces all the staples that are raised in the 
middle west. The first grist mill was erected by Asa Mosher, half 
way between Mt. Gilead and Cardington. The old timbers were 
still visible a few years ago. Previous to the building of the 
canals and railroads the only market was the lake, which furnished 
employment for a great many teamsters. My grandfather Horr 
used to take a load of wheat to Sandusky, bringing back salt and 
tea and coffee, the neighbors coming for miles to get these luxuries. 
It generally took him two to three weeks to make the trip. This of 
course was in the summer time, as in the winter the roads were 
almost impassable. 

** Morrow county is noted for its thrift and the intelligence of 
its citizens. It has produced such men as Calvin S. Brice, Gen. 
John Beatty and Albert P. Morehouse, afterwards governor of 
Missouri; also Daniel McCartney, the man of wonderful memory, 
who could tell what kind of a day it was for twenty or thirty years 
back. The wonderful double babies were bom in Morrow county, 
one of the most wonderful curiosities of the world. I was for- 
tunate enough when a young girl to see these babies. They were 
being exhibited in Newark, where we then lived and my mother was 
a schoolmate of the mother of them. They lived to be about nine 
months old. 

** Morrow county is blessed with good water and grass, and in 
some places has fine stone quarries. It has an abundance of 

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churches and school houses, and it is a question of but a short time 
till she will have good roads and rank as the fairest county in the 
state. There are many societies and clubs, but only one of any 
particular note, namely the Current Topic Club of Cardington. 

** Morrow county, politically, is known as the * crank county' on 
account of its independent voters. Every new political fad finds 
a lodgment in the county. I have lived in this county a good many 
years, find it a fine place in which to live, and think that one could 
go far and fare worse." 

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Rich and Varied Soil — Mixed Husbandry — Agricultural 
Implements — First Farm Machinery — Underdraining and 
Ditching — Qrass Crops and Live Stock — Fruit Culture — The 
Farmers' Broadening Life — Morrow County Agricultural 
Society (by Robert F. Bartlett) — '' Johnny Appleseed" (by A. 
J. Baughman). 

Farming in the pioneer period was far different from what it 
is now. Then the farmer's home was a cabin of logs and he lived 
in the simplest maimer and with the strictest economy. His room 
was warmed and his feed was cooked by a fire in a 10-plate stove, 
which sent the gases up the flue of a solitary chimney that rose 
from one end of the cabin. His food was chiefly game and 
Indian com; later, fresh meat was added. With the exception of 
the game, everything he ate grew upon his own land. Everything 
he wore was made under his own roof. The good wife and her 
daughters cultivated the garden patch that lay near the house, 
trained the honeysuckles that shaded the door, spun the flax and 
woolen yam, wove the cloth and when harvest came worked in the 

Great changes have taken place since then which have caused 
almost an entire revolution in the methods of carrjdng on agricul- 
tural operations ; changes so radical in character, that many of our 
young farmers can neither realize nor understand how such a radi- 
cal transformation could take place in any business in so short a 
period as a century. On the farm the flail and wind mill have 
gone, never to return, and in their stead comes a machine that 
threshes, separates and cleans the grain with such astonishing 
rapidity and perfection as to be a source of wonder, even in this 
day of progress. And in the home the changes have been no less 
radical and distinct. The old spinning wheel, whose merry hum 
seemed an accompaniment to the cheerful song of our maternal 
ancestors, as they tripped across the uncarpeted floor of the rude 
pioneer cabin, while engaged in spinning the yam that was to 


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make clothes for themselves and families, has been transferred 
to the parlor or stored in the attic ; while the rapid click of the new 
sewing machine has relieved the busy housewife of the slow and 
tedious stitch that was the cause of much weariness in the perfor- 
mance of her household duties. 

Rich and Varied Soil. 

The chief resource of Morrow county lies in the rich and varied 
soil it i)08sesses. It is an agricultural rather than a mining Oi 
manufacturing county. It partakes largely of the prominent 
features that are common to the greater part of north and north- 
western Ohio, except that Morrow has not that flatness of surface 
and sameness of agricultural capacity that characterizes so much of 
that area. 

Morrow county is situated very near, but a little north of the 
center of the state, and is just south of the great watershed just 
far enough to have a slow drainage into the Ohio river. It is 
bounded on the north by Crawford and Richland counties, east by 
Richland and Knox, south by Knox and Delaware, and on the west 
by Delaware and Marion. 

Its form is nearly that of a rectangle, lying north and south. 
Its western boundary is broken by its wanting a township in the 
northwest corner, and by its including Westfield on the southwest. 

Mixed Husbandry. 

The prevailing system of agriculture in Morrow county, may 
be properly termed that of mixed husbandry. Specialties find 
no favor with the farmers. The practice is to cultivate the various 
kinds of grain, and grasses, and to raise, keep and fatten stock, 
the latter business being the leading pursuit of three-fourths of 
the farmers. Provided with a rich and varied soil, the average 
farmer has not felt the need of studying the principles of such 
branches of learning as relate to agriculture, and frequently 
hesitated to accept, or rejected the teachings of science. A few 
persons, however, were found at a comparatively early day who 
brought to the business of farming that amount of patient investi- 
gation which the greatest industry of this country demands. 
Farmers are becoming less and less unwilling to learn from others, 
and the husbandry of the county is attaining a commendable 
thoroughness, and is rapidly improving in every respect. 

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Owing to the richness of the soil, the subject of fertilizers has 
not received the attention which it has obtained in many other parts 
of the state. Phosphates and plasters are seldom used, and many 
have scarcely exercised the customary care in preserving the 
ordinary accumulation, much less to add to this store the artificial 
means. There are many fields to be found in the county that 
have been cropped with wheat or corn for years without renewing 
or fertilizing, and others have only been relieved by a rotation of 

The practice has, in most cases, born its legitimate result, and 
awakened a decided interest in this vital subject in late years. 
Rotation of crops is now being gradually introduced, com being the 
first crop planted on sod ground, followed by oats or flax and then 
wheat. Nothing is more strikingly apparent in an agricultural 
survey of Morrow county than the entire absence of anything like 
specialties in cultivation. 

The aim of the early settlers was obviously to derive from their 
lands a simple subsistence, and to this end a system of mixed 
husbandry was a necessity. 

The famous June killing frost of 1858 operated disastrously 
all over the state. The first damage was done on Friday night. 
On the following night came a ** killing frost,*' that left scarcely a 
vestige of the growing crops alive. Com was about eight or ten 
inches high, and potatoes had reached the growth that made the 
effect of the frost most damaging. All grain was ruined and the 
people suddenly found themselves brought face to face with the 
prospect of starvation. On the Sunday following the churches 
were most all very much deserted. The farmers wandered aim- 
lessly through their stricken fields, while the villagers thronged the 
country, anxious to measure the extent of the disaster which had 
involved town and farms alike. Fortunately there were some 
late crops that had not come on far enough to be injured by the 
frost, and the less fortunate ones set at once to repair the misfor- 
tune so far as possible. The com and potatoes were replanted, 
buckwheat was sowed in place of wheat, and, thanks, to an unusual- 
ly long season, these crops were fairly matured. There was a 
large proportion of soft com, hundreds of bushels of which molded 
and proved a complete loss. The check upon other enterprises 
of the county were not less severe, one dealer in agriculture ma- 
chinery who had secured orders for mowing machines had all his 
orders revoked save one. 

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Agricultural Implements. 

Probably the earliest and most important implement of hus- 
bandry known is the plow. Grain, plants and roots will not grow 
well unless the soil in which they are planted be properly stirred, 
hence the first requirements was an instrument that would fulfill 
such conditions. After the plow comes the harrow. Formerly 
a log of wood, or a brush harrow, supplied its place, but in the 
state of Ohio, the toothed instrument has nearly always been used. 
The hoe is lighter made than formerly, and is now made of steel. 
At first, the common iron hoe, sharpened by the blacksmith, was in 
constant use. Now, it is rarely seen outside of the southern states, 
where it is has long been the chief implement of agriculture. 

The various small plows for the cultivation of com and such 
other crop as necessitated their use, are all of the result of modem 
civilization. Now, their number is large, and, in many places, 
there are two or more attached to one carriage, whose operator 
rides. These kinds are much used in the western states, whose 
rootless and stoneless soil is admirably adapted to such machinery. 

In ancient times the sickle was the only implement used. It 
was a short curved iron, whose inner edge was sharpened and 
serrated. In its most ancient form, it is doubtful if the edge was 
but little if any serrated. It is mentioned in all ancient works. 
In more modem times the handle of the sickle was lengthened; 
then the blade, which in time led to the scythe. Both are yet in 
use in many parts of the world. The use of the scjrthe led some 
thinking person to add a ** finger*' or two, and to change the shape 
of the handle. The old cradle was the result. At first it met 
considerable opposition from the laborers who brought forward the 
old time argument of ignorance, that it would cheapen labor. 

Whether the cradle is a native of America or Europe is not 
accurately decided ; probably of the mother country. It came into 
common use about 1818, and in a few years had found its way into 
the wheat producing regions of the west. Where small crops are 
raised the cradle is yet much used. A man can cut from two to 
four acres per day, hence it is much cheaper than a reaper where 
the crop is small. 

First Farm Machinery. 

With the improvement of farms came the improvement of the 
implement used. Indeed, this has been a marked characteristic 
of Morrow county farmers, and the new inventions in this line were 

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early introduced here. The first farm machinery worked by horse 
power in Morrow county was in 1839. The first cast iron plows 
used here was in 1849, as was also the first revolving horse rake, 
horse com planter and cultivator. Three years later the first 
steel and the first combination plows were introduced, and in 1855 
the first reaper and mower. In 1856 the first com and cob 
grinder was introduced, and waa received with marked favor by 
the farming community, but of late years they have fallen into 
disuse. The first horse power wood saw was introduced about the 
same time, and in 1860 or 1862, the first riding horse rake and 
horse hay fork. 

In 1865 the riding corn plow, was brought in, and still main- 
tains its place on the best improved farms. These improved im- 
plements are now generally used. 

A noticeable and favorable feature of the agriculture of the 
county is the moderate size of the average farm, there are several 
land holders in the county, but the average farm is not over eight 
acres. These farms are well tilled, the buildings well improved, 
and a general well-to-do air of neatness and comfort prevails every- 
where throughout the farming community. 

Undbbdbaining and Ditching. 

The first drain tile were introduced in 1859, and have rapidly 
grown in the public estimation with each succeeding year. Farms 
are everywhere being greatly improved by underdraining and ditch- 
ing. Low lands that were nearly an entire waste, and rolling 
lands of the character called **Spouty'' have been re-claimed, so 
that there is a small amount or what can be properly called waste 
land in the whole county. The lands thus reclaimed produces 
the finest crops; can be cultivated much sooner after a rain, and 
from eight to ten days sooner in the spring. 

Grass Crops and Live Stock. 

The subject of grass lands has always been an important one 
in Morrow county, from the fact that the majority of the farmers 
have made a leading feature of stock raising. 

Qrain is raised principally for home consumption, and the 
system of husbandry has been directed to secure the best results 
for the grass crops. Timothy grass is mainly relied upon for the 
supply of hay, meadows being turned over about once in five years. 

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It would seem that the early settlers had a predilection for 
fine stock, and stamped this characteristic upon the agriculture of 
the county. There has been a constant effort to improve breeds, 
until Morrow county now boasts of a better average in stock than 
almost any other county in the state. In this department, and in 
others, the prevailing disposition of the farming community is 
apparent, and no class of the domestic animals of the farm is 
developed to the exclusion of others. The early history of the horse 
in Morrow county is involved in some obscurity. It was some 
years before horses were introduced to any extent. Oxen were 
better suited to the work of the clearing, were easier kept, and not 
so liable to accidents and disease, and these qualifications were all 
that were demanded of the early teams. In later years, as the 
demand for the teams for traveling purposes began to be made, 
these useful animals began to supersede the ox, until now one would 
scarcely meet an ox team upon the road in a month *s travel through 
the county. The first effort to improve the common stock of 
horses was by the importation about 1840. Mules have never, 
been received with favor by the general mass of the farmers. 
Their appearance was not prepossessing, and those conditions to 
which this animal is supposed to be best fitted have never existed 
in the county, and the mule has therefore not secured much of a 

The introduction of cattle into the county was as early as the 
first settler. Cows were a necessary part of the pioneer's outfit, 
without which his chances for obtaining a reasonably comfortable 
existence were very poor indeed, and few families were without 
them. But once here it required all the care and diligence of the 
settler to protect them against the ravages of wild beasts and 
disease. The wolves took off the yearlings and frequently made 
successful attacks upon the cows. A murrain a little later, took 
off scores of these animals, and journeys of a hundred miles were 
frequently undertaken to replace the animals thus lost. Then the 
marshes and the rank vegetation took their quota, so that in spite 
of the employment of all the available children of the settlement as 
herders, hundreds fell victims to the snares of a new country. 
Under such circumstances, the effort was narrowed down to a 
struggle to maintain rather than to improve the breed. 

Among the early settlers of the county were many English and 
Yankees, who had been used to seeing fine cattle, and, as soon as the 
pressure of the first years in a new county was removed, they began 
to look about for means to improve the cattle of their adopted land. 

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The first attempt in this line of which we have any record was by 
Stephen F. Randolph, of Peru, in 1836. 

Sheep were introduced as early as 1811, but the number and 
boldness of the wolves made sheep raising a burden upon the re- 
sources of the early pioneers that taxed them to the uttermost. 
Later improved varieties were introduced, among the first being 
some thoroughbred Spanish merinos. The long wool sheep were 
brought to Morrow later ; then came the Leicester, the Cotswold and 
the Southdowns. This has been called a wool county, and the im- 
provements made upon the native stock have greatly enhanced their 

The Woods breed of hogs is extinct in this county, and where 
it is used to take two years to raise a two hundred pound hog, a 
three and four hundred pound hog can now be made in nine to 
twelve months. 

Fruit Culture. 

The orchard culture of apples has only of late years begun to 
command the serious attention of farmers. The old orchards have 
been prolific producers, and in favorable seasons thousands of 
bushels have been marketed. Before the railroads made the mar- 
kets accessible, large quantities of fruit were dried and hauled to 
market — almost every well regulated farm being provided with a 
dry house. The recent addition of railroad facilities has had 
a quickening effect upon this branch of agricultural pursuits, and 
many are putting out new orchards with a view of marketing the 

The Farmer's Broadening Life. 

Any occupation prospers in proportion to the interest taken 
in it by its members, and this interest is heightened by an exchange 
of views. This feeling among prominent agriculturalists led to 
the formation of agricultural societies, at first by counties, then 
districts and lastly by states. 

The Ohio State Board of Agriculture was organized by an 
act of the legislature, passed February 27, 1846. Since that time 
various amendments to the organic law have been passed from time 
to time, too numerous to mention here. 

Later came the Grange movement, and still more recently the 
agricultural schools. In many parts of Ohio these schools are 

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being held with promising results. These schools besides their 
practical instructions do much toward inculcating a love for the 
farm by teaching that the calling of the farmer is one of the most 
honorable as well as independent, and that a high degree of intelli- 
gence is needed for the assurance of success in this field of human 

All over the state there is felt a need of something to be done 
to keep the boys on the farm. This can be done by making farm- 
ing pay better, and this in turn, can be accomplished by a careful 
study of the business — for it is a business — looking to the improve- 
ment of the soil, the stock, the grain and the grass crops. Man 
has always been striving to improve upon nature, and nowhere 
can he make wise improvements pay such great financial returns 
in proportion to the effort put forth as those made upon the farm. 
This is the great lesson which the agricultural societies and agricul- 
tural colleges teach. 

The Ohio Department of Agriculture is doing much supple- 
mentary work, such as the running of agricultural and fruit trains, 
which do much to arouse greater interest in these subjects. The 
interest in Farmers' Institutes is also increasing, and four may 
be held in each county per year. There were four held in Morrow 
county during the past year — at Johnsville, Iberia, Chesterville 
and Cardington. 

There is no one class which should appreciate a daily mail 
more than the farmer, for no one should require a wider range of 
knowledge nor keep better posted in market reports. Besides the 
rural mail delivery system being a great business advantage to the 
farmer, it means even more to the social life on the farm, for the 
daily arrival of mail encourages reading, lightens the long evenings 
and brightens the long working days. The grown-up children 
stay at home more readily and the home itself is in every way made 
happier ; for the family is in touch with the rest of the world. 

MoRROvr County Agricultural Society. 

By Robert F. Bartlett 

Th6 Morrow County Agricultural Society has affected our 
county history and is one of the enterprises for the encouragement 
of agriculture, and general stock breeding, and various other 

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The first effort in the enterprise was a call by Joseph Mos-her, 
D. C. Bingham and others, for the farmers and people generally, 
to exhibit their stock and the products of their labor, and the best 
samples of their crops, and the exhibit was made in the fall of the 
year 1850, in a field north of Mt. Gilead, on the east side of north 
Main street. No premiums were offered or paid, and no admis- 
sion was paid to see the show, which, compared with later fairs 
was not a very great one, but the effort so encouraged the movers 
in the scheme that an organization was formed and Joseph Mosher, 
living a mile south, an enthusiastic farmer and stockman, was 
elected president and D. C. Bingham was elected secretary, and it 
was decided to repeat the exhibit in 1851. Joseph Mosher had 
previous to 1850 imported Spanish Merino sheep and the Suffolk 
breed of hogs and Morgan horses, and had the Manny mowing 
machine, a man and horse killer; and D. C. Bingham had improved 
breeds of cattle and sheep. These two were the pioneer movers 
in our county fairs, which have become in general respects a very 
interesting and profitable part of our country life and economy. 
At the age of eighty-three years February 15, 1911, Mr. D. C. 
Bingham is still living with his son near Mt. Gilead. Joseph 
Mosher was re-elected president for two or three years and the sec- 
ond president was Wm. Simonson of Mt. Gilead, for one year, 
and then Judge Stephen T. Cunard was president for two or three 
years. He was a farmer from Lincoln township. During his 
presidency, and in 1857, Hon. Cassius M. Clay of Kentucky made 
an address at the fair on agriculture, which was instructive. 

The second fair was held in the field on the north side of the 
Olentangy creek and on the west side of South Main street, oppo- 
site the Buckeye flour mill, and for the next place land was pro- 
cured on the south side of the creek and east side of the street, 
where the fairs were annually held until 1868, but the race track 
was so small it was not satisf actorj'^ to the exhibitors of trotters. 

During the early history of the society John B. Dumble, editor 
of the Democratic Messenger, Wm. F. Bartlett, Samuel Hayden, 
John Farley, A. H. Wrenn, W. S. Irwin, Dr. J. T. Beebe and 
others were promoters of its interest. W. S. Irwin was secretary 
for a year or two and Dr. J. T. Beebe was secretary for many 
years before 1865, when he moved to Union county, Iowa. 

It is regretted that the old records cannot be found, and the 
recollections of the oldest citizens fail to recall the names of other 
officers of the society. 

A. H. Wrenn was the pioneer in exhibiting and selling agri- 
cultural machinery. 

Vol. 1—8 

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In 1868 twenty-two acres of land were boujrht of J. S. Trimble 
and are included in the present site of the fair pfrounds, and every 
year since 1868 successful fairs have been held with increasing? 
interest, except 1910 when rains interfered to prevent. More 
persons in Morrow and adjoining counties on October 5, 6, and 7, 
1910, were disappointed because no fair could be held, than were 
ever disappointed in the county, on any other three days. George 
W. Iliskett, now in his old age, and his sons have been breeders 
and exhibitors of improved stock of cattle and Delaine and Shrop- 
shire sheep. Also Wilson Brothers of Sparta, and I. N. Nichols 
and 11. C. Coomer of Lincoln township, have excellent flocks of 
these sheep. Captain Joel G. Blue of Cardington township, was 
a prominent exhibitor and breeder of Spanish Merinos imported 
from Vermont, from 1865 until his death in 1889. J. C. Swet- 
land of Chester township, was one of the earliest breeders of 

Since about 1865, Israel Gordon, deceased, and his sons, A. 
J. Gordon and Thomas P. Gordon have been breeders of Short- 
horns, Durhams; and also G. W. Brown, of Congress, and D. M. 
Douglass, of Washington. 

In later years Jersey breeds of cattle have become quite com- 
mon, and E. E. Neal and Herbert Kelly own and have exhibited 
fine herds of this breed at our fairs, and Enos Rule, of Edison, has 
an excellent herd composed cf both Jerseys and Guernseys. 

The earlier breeds of horses were roadsters and John Sellers, 
of Cardington, was among the leading breeders of these horses. 
In later years, the favorites among the farmers for draft and 
breeding have been Normans and Clydesdales and have become very 
common and popular. 

Improved breeds of hogs were brought into the county by 
Joseph Mosher, A. II. Wrenn and William F. Bartlett about 1850, 
and they were first Suflfolks, then Chester Whites and Poland 
Chinas, and the latter two breeds are yet favorites; then Berkshires 
and lastly Duroes, the latter bred exclusively by Selby Sellers, of 
Cardington township, late deceased; George Linn and Armstrong 
and Goflf, of Congress township, breed Poland Chinas. 

The prominent poultry raisers and exhibitors are Glenn Brown 
and R. F. Galleher, of Congress township, C. W. Smith, B. J. 
Babson, 0. E. Jones, Hartsook Bros, and C. E. Patterson, of Car- 
dington, Neal and Doty, Dr. R. L. Pierce and Robert Scott of Mt. 
Gilead. Glenn Brown, B. J. Babson and C. W. Smith are exhibitors 
throughout the state of Ohio.. 

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The agricultural board of our county, has for the fair of 1911, 
thrown open the competition to the entire state, in poultry, hogs, 
cattle and sheep. 

The annual fair for 1911, will be held October 3 to 6 inclusive 
1911, and Wednesday, October 4th will be free admission to preach- 
ers, teachers, ex-soldiers and to school children. 

I The Agricultural Board follows viz : C. H. Hartsook, president ; 
J. E. Dalrymple, vice president; J. G. Russell, treasurer; 0. J. 
Miller, secretary, Mt. Gilead, Ohio. 

Board of directors : W. T. Philips, Marengo ; C. H. Hartsook, 
Cardington; J. E. Dalrymple, R. D. Predericktown ; J. P. Dum- 
baugh, Mt. Gilead ; W. W. Evans, R. D. Cardington ; H. B. Jenkins, 
R. D. Cardington ; S. R. Warden, R. D. Edison ; G. B. Jennings, R. 
D. Mt. Gilead ; C. F. Osborn, R. D. Cardington ; John Webb. R. D. 
^It. Gilead ; J. A. Coomer, Ashley ; Ray G. Booher, R. D. Mt. Gilead, 
Jos. Yeager, R. D. Lexington ; J. D. Vail, Sparta ; W. A. Ferguson, 
R. D. Lexington ; J. F. McClarren, R. D. Galion. 

John Chapman (** Johnny Appleseed"). 

John Chapman, generally known as Johnny Appleseed, was 
one of Ohio's earliest and most unselfish benefactors. He was a 
nursery man and nearly all the orchards in northern Ohio were 
planted from his stock. There are many orchards in Morrow 
'county today dating back beyond the memory of any now living, 
and. owing their existence to Johnny Appleseed 's nurseries. 

On the afternoon of November 8, 1900, the Richland County 
Historical Society unveiled a monument in the Mansfield park that 
had been erected to the memory of Johnny Appleseed. General 
R. Brinkerhoflf presided at the meeting, and A. J. Baughman, the 
author of this work, delivered the address of the occasion, which we 
herewith copy : 

John Chapman was born at Springfield, Massachusetts, in the year 1775. 
Of his early life but little is known; as he was reticent about himself, but 
his half-sister who came west at a later period stated that Johnny had, when 
a boy, shown a fondness for natural scenery and often wandered from home 
in quest of plants and flowers and that he liked to listen to the birds sing- 
ing and to gaze at the stars. Chapman ^s passion for planting apple seeds 
and cultivating nurseries caused him to be called ** Appleseed John," which 
was finally changed to *Mohnny Appleseed," and by that name he was called 
and known everywhere. 

The year Chapman came to Ohio has been variously stated, but to say 
it was one hundred years ago would not be far from the mark. An uncle of 
the late Roscella Rice lived in JefTerson county when Chapman made his first 

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advent in Ohio, and one day saw a queer looking craft coming down the Ohit 
river above Steubenville. It consisted of two canoes lashed together, and 
its crew was one man — an angular, oddly dressed person — and when he 
landed he said his name was Chapman, and that his cargo consisted of sacks 
of apple seeds and that he intended to plant nurseries. 

Chapman's first nursery was planted nine miles below Steubenville, up 
a narrow valley, from the Ohio river, at Brilliant, formerly called Lagrange, 
opposite Wellsburg, West Virginia. After planting a number of nurseries 
along the river front, he extended his work into the interior of the state — 
into Richland county — where he made his home for many years. He was 
enterprising in his way and planted nurseries in a number of counties, which 
required him to travel hundreds of miles to visit and cultivate them yearly, 


as was his custom. His usual price for a tree was **a ftp penny-bit,'* but 
if the settler hadn't money, Johnny would either give him credit or take 
old clothos for pay. He generally located his nurseries along streams, 
planted his seeds, surrounded the patch with a brush fence, and when the 
pioneers came, Johnny had young fruit trees ready for them. He extended 
his operations to the Maumee country and finally into Indiana, where the 
last years of his life were spent. He revisited Richland county the last 
time in 1843, and called at my father's but ais I was only five years old at 
the time I do not remember him. 

My parents (in about 1827- '35) planted two orchards with trees they 
bought of Johnny, and he often called at their house, as he was a frequent 

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caller at the homes of the settlers. My mother's father, Capt. James Cun- 
ningham, settled in Richland county in 1808, and was acquainted with 
Johnny for many years, and I often heard him tell, in his Irish- witty way, 
many amusing anecdotes and incidents of Johnny's life and of his peculiar 
and eccentric ways. 

Chapman was fairly educated, well read, polite and attentive in manner 
and chaste in conversation. His face was pleasant in expression, and 
he was kind and generous in disposition. His nature was a deeply religious 
one, and his life was blanoeless among his fellow men. He regarded comfort 
more than style, and thought it wrong to spend money for clothing to make 
a fine appearance. He usually wore a broad-brimmed hat. He went bare- 
footed, not only in the summer, but often in cold weather, and a coffee sack 
with neck and armholes cut in it, was worn as a coat. He was about five 
feet, nine inches in height, rather spare in build but was large boned and 
sinewy. His eyes were blue, but darkened with animation. 

For a number of years Johnny lived in a little cabin near Perrysville 
(then in Richland county), but later he made his home in Mansfield with his 
half-sister, a Mrs. Broome who lived on the Leesville road (now West 
Fourth street) near the present residence of R. G. Hancock. The parents 
of George C. Wise then lived near what is now the comer of West Fourth 
street and Penn avenue and the Broome and Wise families were -friends and 
neighbors. George C. Wise, Hiram R. Smith, Mrs. J. H. Cook and others 
remember ** Johnny Appleseed'' quite well. Mrs. Cook was, perhaps, better 
acquainted with ** Johnny'* than any other living person today, for the 
Wiler House was often his stopping place. The homes of Judge Parker, 
Mr. Newman and others were ever open to receive ** Johnny" as a guest. 

But the man who best understood this peculiar character was the late 
Dr. William Bushnell, father of our respected fellow-townsman, the Hon. M. 
B. Bushnell, the donor of this beautiful commemorative monument, and by 
whose kindness and liberality we are here today. With Dr. Bushnell 's schol- 
astic attainments and intuitive knowledge of character he was enabled to 
know and appreciate Chapman's learning and the noble traits of his head 
and heart. 

When upon his journeys Chapman usually camped out. He never killed 
anything, not even for the purpose of obtaining food. He carried a kit of 
cooking utensils with him, among which was a mush-pan, which he some- 
times wore as a hat. When he called at a house, his custom was to lie upon 
the floor with his kit for a pillow and after conversing with the family a 
short time, would then read from a Swedenborgian book or tract, and pro- 
ceed to explain and extol the religious views he so zealously believed, and 
whose teachings he so faithfully carried out in his every day life and conver- 
sation. His mission was one of peace and good will and he never carried 
a weapon, not even for self-defiense. The Indians regarded him as a great 
* * Medicine Man, ' ' and his life seemed to be a charmed one, as neither savage 
man nor wild beast would harm him. 

Chapman was not a mendicant. He was never in indigent circum- 
stances, for h6 sold thousands of nursery trees every year. Had he been 
avarici' us, his estate instead of being worth a few thousand might have been 
tens of thousands at his death. 

"Johnny Appleseed's" name was John Chapman — not Jonathan — and 
this is attested by the muniments of his estate, and also from the fact that 
he had a half-brother (a deaf mute) whose name was Jonathan. 

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Chapman never married and rumor said that a love affair in the old 
Bay state was the cause of his living the life of a celibate and recluse. 
Johnny himself never explained why he led such a singular life except to 
remark that he had a mission — which was understood to be to plant nurser- 
ies and to make converts to the doctrines taught by Emanuel Swedenborg. 
He died at the home of William Worth in St. Joseph township, Allen county, 
Indiana, March 11, 1847, and was buried in David Archer's graveyard, a 
few miles north of Fort Wayne, near the foot of a natural mound. His 
name is engraved as a senotaph upon one of the monuments erected in 
Afifflin township, Ashland county, this state, to the memory of the pioneers. 
Those monuments were unveiled with imposing ceremonies in the presence 
of over 6,000 people September 15, 1882, the seventieth anniversary of the 
Copus tragedy. 

During the war of 1812 Chapman often warned the settlers of approach- 
ing danger. The following incident is given: When the news spread that 
Levi Jones had been killed by the Indians and that Wallace Reed and others 
had probably met the same fate, excitement ran high and the few families 
which comprised the population of Mansfield sought the protection of the 
block house, situated on the public square, as it was supposed the savages 
were coming in force from the north to overrun the country and to murder 
the settlers. 

There were no troops at the block house at the time and as an attack 
was considered imminent, a consultation was held and it was decided to send 
a messenger to Captain Douglas, at Mt. Vernon, for assistance. But wh(i 
would undertake the hazardous journey? It was evening, and the rays of 
the sunset had faded away and the stars were beginning to shine in the 
darkening sky, and the trip of thirty miles must be made in the night over 
a new cut foad through a wilderness — through a forest infested with wild 
beasts and hostile Indians. 

A volunteer was asked for and a tall, lank man said demurely : ^ ' I '11 go. ' ' 
H<e was bareheaded, barefooted and was unarmed. His manner was meek 
and you had to look the second time into his clear, blue eyes to fully 
fathom the courage and determination shown in their depths. There was 
an expression in his countenance such as limners try to portray in their pic- 
tures of saints. It is scarcely necessary to state that the volunteer was 
** Johnny Appleseed" for many of you have heard your fathers tell how 
unostentatiously ^Mohnny'* stood as a ^'a watchman on the walls of Jez- 
rell," to guard and protect the settlers from their savage foes. 

The journey to Mt. V'ernon was a sort of Paul Revere mission. Un- 
like Paul's, ** Johnny's" was made on foot — barefooted — over a rough road, 
but one that in time led to fame. 

** Johnny" would rap on the doors of the few cabins along the route, 
warn the settlers of the impending danger and advise them to flee to the 
block -house. Upon arriving at Mt. Vernon, he aroused the garrison and 
informed the commandant of his mission. Surely, figuratively speaking, 

**The dun-deer's hide 

On fleeter feet was never tied," 

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for 80 expeditiously was the trip made that at sunrise the next morning 
troops from Mt. Vernon arrived at the Mansfield blockhouse, accompanied 
by 'IJohnny/' who had made the round trip of sixty miles between sunset 
and sunrise. 

About a week before Chapman's death, while at Fort Wayne, he heard 
that cattle had broken into his nunrery in St. Joseph township and were 
destroying his trees, and he started on foot to look after his property. The 
distance was about twenty miles and the fatigue and exposure of the journey 
were too much for his physical condition, then enfeebled by age; and at 
the even-tide he applied at the home of a Mr. Worth for lodging for the 
night. Mr. Worth was a native Buckeye and had lived in Richland county 
when a boy and when he learned that his oddly dressed caller was ** Johnny 
Appleseed" gave him a cordial welcome. '^ Johnny'' declined going to the 
supper table, but partook of a bowel of bread and milk. 

The day had been cold and raw . with occasional flurries of snow, but in 
the evening the clouds cleared away and the sun shone warm and bright as 
it sank in the western sky. '* Johnny" noticed this beautiful sunset, an 
augury of the Spring and flowers so soon to come, and sat on the doorstep and 
gazed with wistful eyes toward the west. Perhaps this herald of the Spring- 
time, the season in which nature is resurrected from the death of Winter, 
caused him to look with prophetic eyes to the future and contemplate that 
glorious event of which Christ is the resurrection and the life. Upon re- 
entering the house, he declined the bed offered him for the night, preferring 
a quilt and pillow on the floor, but asked permission to hold family worship 
and read, '^ Blessed are the poor in spirit, for theirs is the kingdom of 
Heaven," ** Blessed are the pure in heart, for they shall see God," etc. 

After he had finished reading the lesson, he said prayers — prayers long 
remembered by that family. He prayed for all sorts and conditions of men; 
that the way of righteousness might be made clear unto them and that sav- 
ing grace might be freely given to all nations. He asked that the Holy Spirit 
might guide and govern all who profess and call themselves Christians and 
that all those who were afificted in mind, body or estate, might be comforted 
and relieved, and that all might at last come to the knowledge of the truth 
and in the world to come have happiness and everlasting life. Not only the 
words of the prayer, but the pathos of his voice made a deep impression upon 
those present. 

In the morning Chapman was found in a high state of fever, pneumonia 
having developed during the night, and the physician called said he was be- 
yond medical aid, but inquired particularly about his religious belief, and re- 
marked that he had never seen a dying man so perfectly calm, for upon his 
wan face there was an expression of happiness and upon his pale lips there 
was a smile of joy, as though he was communing with loved ones who had 
come to meet and comfort him and to soothe his weary spirit in his dying 
moments. And as his eyes shone with the beautiful light supernal, God 
touched him with his finger and beckoned him home. 

Thus ended the life of the man who was not only a hero, but a benefactor 
as well; and his spirit is now at rest in the Paradise of the Redeemed, and 
in the fullness of time, clothed again in the old body made anew, will enter 
into the Father's house in which there are many mansions. In the words of 
his own faith, his bruised feet will be healed, and he shall walk on the gold- 
paved streets of the New Jerusalem of which he so eloquently preached. It 

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has been very appropriately said that although years have come and gone 
since his death, the memory of his good deeds live anew every Springtime in 
the beauty and fragrance of the blossoms of the apple trees he loved so 

** Johnny Appleseed 's ' * death was in harmony with his unostentatious, 
blameless life. It is often remarked, **How beautiful is the Christian life; ** 
yea, but far more beautiful is the Christian's death, when '*the fashion of his 
countenance is altered,'* as he passes from the life here to the life beyond. 

What changes have taken place in the years that have intervened be- 
tween the ** Johnny Appleseed'* period and that of today? It has been said 
that the lamp of civilization far surpasses that of Aladdin's. Westward the 
star of empire took its way and changed the forests into fields of grain and 
the waste places into gardens of flowers, and towns and cities have been built 
with marvelous handiwork. But in this march of progress, the struggles and 
hardships of the early settlers must not be forgotten. Let us not only record 
the history, but the legends of the pioneer period; garner its facts and its fic- 
tions; its tales and traditions and collect even the crumbs that fall from the 
table of the feast. 

Today, the events which stirred the souls and tried the courage of the 
pioneers seem to come out of the dim past and glide as panoramic views be- 
fore me. A number of the actors in those scenes were of my * * kith and kin ' ' 
who have long since crossed '*over the river'' in their journey to the land 
where Enoch and Elijah are pioneers, while I am left to exclaim: 

**0h, for the touch of a vanished hand 
And the sound of a voice that is still." 

While the scenes of those pioneer days are vivid to us on history's page, 
future generations may look upon them as the phantasmagoria of a dream. 

At seventy-two years of age — forty-six of which had been devoted to 
his self-imposed mission — John Chapman ripened into death as naturally and 
as beautifully as the apple seeds of his planting had grown into trees, had 
budded into blossoms and ripened into fruit. The monument which is now 
to be unveiled is a fitting memorial to the man in whom there dwelt a com- 
prehensive love that reached downward to the lowest forms of life and up- 
ward to the throne of the Divine. 

In a letter to Mr. Bushnell, under date of October 4, 1900, John H. Arch- 
er, of Fort Wayne, Indiana, grandson of David Archer, writes: *' During his 
life and residence in the vicinity of Fort Wayne, I suppose that every man, 
woman and child knew something of ** Johnny Appleseed." I find that there 
are quite a number of persons yet living in the vicinity, who remember John 
Chapman well and who enjoy relating reminiscences of his life and peculiar- 
ities of his character. The grave, more especially the common head-boards 
used in those days, have long since decayed and become entirely obliterated, 
and at this time I do not think that any person could with any degree of cer- 
tainty come within fifty feet of pointing out the location of Chapman 's grave. 
Suffice it to say, that he has been gathered in with his neighbors and friends, 
for the majority of them lie in David Archer's grave yard with him." 

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Three Months' Men in Civil War — Company I, Third Reqi 
MENT, O. V. I. (Three Years) — Company C, Fifteenth Reqi 
MENT — Company A, Twentieth Regiment — Companies C and E, 
Twenty-Sixth Regiment — Company E, Thirty-First Regiment 
— Company B, Forty-Third Regiment — Fifty-Fifth Infantry — 
Company C, Sixty-Fourth Regiment — Company D, Sixty-Fhtth 
Infantry — Company K, Sixty-Sixth Regiment — Companies F, 
G and K, Eighty-First Regiment — Company C, Eighty-Second 
Infantry — Companies B and C, Eighty-Fifth Regiment — 
Eighty- Seventh and Eighty-Eighth Regiments — Companies C 
AND D, Ninety-Sixth Regiment — One Hundred and Second, One 
Hundred and Twenty-First, One Hundred and Twenty-Eighth, 
One Hundred and Thirty-Sixth, One Hundred and Seventy- 
Fourth, One Hundred and Seventy-Ninth, One Hundred and 
Eightieth and One Hundred and Eighty-Eighth Infantry Re6i- 
ments — Artillery and Cav^vlry — Ohio Boys in Other Com- 
mands — United States Army and Navy — Spanish- American War. 

By Robert F. Bartlett. 

In writing a brief history of the county, scrupulous accuracy 
will be the highest aim, and if the truth gives praise that will be 
most gratifying ; but if it gives blame, it cannot be helped, but will, 
nevertheless, be a reason for regret. 

The inspiration to write this chapter is to illustrate the patrio- 
tism of the men of 1861 to 1865, and to hand down to the present 
and coming generations the deeds, and sufferings, of the young men 
of that county, of nearly half a century ago. It is proper to say 
that a few fathers and mothers gave a half dozen of their sons to 
the support of the government in the war of Rebellion, and that 
others gave all the sons they had ; many of them paid the **last full 
measure of devotion to their country'* with their lives upon the 
battlefield, and others came home bearing scars from honorable 


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wounds, and maimed for life. The men of those times made the 
history, and its truthfulness cannot be disputed. A few, only, op- 
posed the efforts of the government to put down the rebellion, but 
there were a few. 

Underground Railway Stations. 

It is not necessary to go into a discussion of the causes of the 
war more than to say that ** State Rights," and *' American 
Slavery'' in all their bearings were .the causes, and the people of 
Morrow county as to slavery had some part. Nearly every one of 
the old heroes for freedom, who had a part, and took a hand in 
the ** Underground Railroad" from the south to Canada, are gone. 
It was so called because its trains ran in the night, and its stations 
were not generally known. When a slave left his master and was 
lucky enough to set his foot on the soil of Canada he was that in- 
stant a free man ; for the laws of England made him free. Three 
stations of the Underground Railroad were in Morrow county : One 
at or near South Woodbury; one at the Friends' Settlement, two 
and one-half miles south of Mt. Gilead ; and one at Iberia ; and many 
are the black men and women who gained their freedom, through 
help given them at these stations. The nearest station south was 
in Union county, or at Osem Gardner's, twelve miles north of Co- 
lumbus, Ohio. These agents were called ** Abolitionists" and con- 
sidered it their religious and highest duty, to aid runaway slaves. 
At South Woodbury, William Martin and Reuben, and Aaron L. 
and Aaron **Dick" Benedict (or Long Aaron) were men of mature 
years, from 1850 to 1860, and were conscientious in their work for 
these slaves. At the second station Samuel Andrews, Samuel Peas- 
ley, Jonathan Wood, Sr., David Wood, the late Col. Samuel N. 
Wood, and his brother, Jonathan Wood, Alfred Breese and Robert 
and Joseph and John Mosher, Wm. Wood, Nathan N. and Gideon 
Mosher and Thomas A. Wood (all now living) were youngsters 
then, and all, or nearly so, were conductors of loads of runaway 
slaves. They were usually conveyed in a spring wagon with cover, 
or some other device to conceal the passengers. At Iberia, the 
third station, men engaged in aiding fugitive slaves were Rev. 
George Gordon, Robert and Hugh McClarren, Richard Hammond, 
James H. and Robert Jeffrey, Archibald Brownlee, Allen McNeal, 
I. P. C. Martin, James Ross, Alexander Campbell and Samuel 
lams, James and Robert McKibben, and a few others in minor 
roles. Because of resistance to a United States marshal, in pur- 

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suit of runaway slaves or fugitives from labor, Iberia became a 
place of note in all southland. Grandison Martin, a fugitive slave, 
had escaped from his master in Kentucky and in September, 1860, 
was pursued by Joseph L. Barber, a United States marshal, and 
the men, who were friendly to the negro, acting under a higher 
law, as they claimed a law in the ** Impressible Conflict'' superior 
to the Fugitive Slave law caught the marshal, cut off his hair and 
shaved his head, for which that official afterward recovered dam- 
ages in our courts. This caused excitement at the south, but was 
not the cause of the war. 

The occasion for the Rebellion of the south, was the election, as 
president, of Abraham Lincoln, who had said **The nation could 
not exist half slave and half free, ' ' which was really the statement 
in a different form; of the saying of Jesus Christ, **That a 
Kingdom divided against itself, that Kingdom cannot stand." 
In his first inaugural message President Lincoln declared **that 
he had no purpose to interfere with slavery in the states where it 
existed," but the leaders in the south had for a long time contem- 
plated ** Secession" and nothing could pacify them. Prom the 
November election in 1860 until April, 1861, the days were filled 
with gloomy forebodings of dire disaster and war, and great ex- 
citement and threatenings possessed the .south, and dread possessed 
the whole nation. Many overt acts were committed, such as firing 
in December, 1860, on the **Star of the West," and an armed 
transport, with relief for Fort Sumter, and firing on steamboats 
on the Mississippi river; but the north remained calm, as no act 
of war had yet been committed against the authority of the govern- 
ment of the United States; but on April 12, 1861, Fort Sumter, 
at Charleston, South Carolina, was bombarded and the entire north 
was electrified with great excitement and the alarms of war filled 
every breast. Words can scarcely describe the state of feeling in 
the public mind, at that time in the north. 

By this act of the Rebels the authority of the government of 
the United States was attacked, and the news reached the north on 
April 13th and caused the greatest excitement throughout the 
entire country. On April 15th President Lincoln issued his procla- 
mation for the enlistment of seventy-five thousand volunteer 
soldiers for three months to suppress the insurrection, and cause 
the laws to be enforced in the states in rebellion. The quoto of 
Ohio was one-tenth of this call, but the enthusiasm to enlist was 
so great, that within ten days twenty-two full regiments of infantry 
of more than one thousand men each were organized in Ohio. 
Many companies were organized within two days. 

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Three Months' Men Prom Morrow County. 

Morrow county furnished its full share, in Company I, Third 
Regiment, Ohio Volunteer Infantry, and Company G, Twentieth 
Regiment, for this call. Company I, Third Regiment, was raised 
mainly through the influence of John Beatty of Cardington who, 
on the organization of the regiment, was made Lieutenant Colonel, 
and his commission dated April 18, 1861 ; and the company oflicers 
were David C. Rose, captain, John McNeal, first and James St. 
John, second lieutenant, and Henry E. Cunard, first sergeant, 
their commissions being dated April 25, 1861. This company was 
raised in Cardington and vicinity. 

Company G, Twentieth Regiment, was recruited about Chester- 
ville and Mt. Gilead, and was mustered into the service of the 
United States April 27, 1861. The captain of the company was 
Henry Rigby, first lieutenant, Samuel E. Adams, promoted to 
quartermaster; and Jeremiah M. Dunn, promoted from private, 
was made first lieutenant. Eli A. James was commissioned second 
lieutenant, and John Allison, first sergeant. The company was 
mustered in the service of the United States April 27, 1861, and 
mustered out August 28, 1861. 

The United States government refused further enlistments 
from Ohio. At the date of this call of the President for troops, 
the legislature of Ohio was in session, and voted one million dollars 
to put the state on a war footing. The greatest honor is due these 
men who thus sprang to the aid of the government to put down the 
rebellion and to stamp out treason, which it was then thought could 
be done in a few weeks; but later events proved the contrary, as 
the southern states had been arming and equipping troops for 
months past, and were determined to go out of the Union. The 
men of the north who enlisted at that call were regarded by nearly 
all classes of society as heroes, as they were. The wearing of the 
army uniform was the highest distinction a man could have at 
that time. Nearly all who enlisted for the first three months' 
service re-enlisted for three years before the three months' term 
expired, so great was the enthusiasm of the times. Martial music 
was heard daily ; and camps of instruction in drill of the manual 
of arms were many; the country seemed like a continuous camp, 
and all the pomp and circumstance of war were present. Prom 
all ranks, and circumstances in life the **boys" came, and so little 
did they know what would immediately happen that a comrade 
who first enlisted April 20, 1861, in Company I, Fifteenth Regi- 

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ment, served his enlistment of three months, and after remaining 
at home three weeks re-enlisted for three years, and was finally 
mustered out *'as a veteran*' August 15, 1865, told the writer, that 
on his first enlistment he expected to be immediately rushed to the 
front, and within a few days, to be in deadly affray with the enemy. 
He was with his regiment in the battles of Phillippi, June 3, 1861 ; 
Laurel Hill, July 8, 1861, and Carriek's Ford, July 14, 1861 all 
in West Virginia. He was afterwards wounded July 3, 1863, in 
the battle of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. It did not always thus 
happen, for the Ninety-fifth Ohio Regiment in ten days after their 
muster into the United States service, on August 19, 1860, were 
almost annihilated by Kirby Smith's veteran rebel soldiers in over- 
whelming numbers, at the battle of Richmond, Kentucky, and the 
One Hundred and Twenty-first Regiment was engaged, and had 
heavy loss in the battle of Perryville, Kentucky, October 8, 1862. 
A part of two companies of this regiment from Morrow county 
will be hereafter noticed. A number of men enlisted (nearly all, 
April 18, 1861) in the Fourth Regiment, Ohio Volunteer Infantry, 
most of whom served three or more years, whose names we give, 
but for whose records reference must be had to the roster of the 
regiment published by the state, viz : — 

Company A. — James M. Conger; Bernard M. Griffis, wounded 
May 12, 1864, at Spotsylvania, Virginia, and Hiram Fields, Com- 
pany H, killed at same place ; Henry H. Pollock, wounded at Cold 
Harbor, June 3, 1864, and Abner Ustick and Daniel D. Booher 
(both of Company K) both wounded at same time and place. 

Company B. — John B. Arringdale (Company A, 20th O. V. I.) ; 
John T. Hyatt (also Company D, 65th) ; John M. Moore (also Com- 
pany F, 136th); Nelson E. Claytar, veteran; Wm. Davis; B. F. 
Davis (also surgeon 44th O. V. I.) ; William Kile, and William 

Company D. — Joseph H. Holloway, wounded at Gettysburg, 
Pennsylvania; Samuel Fonts ; Amos J. Moore (also captain Com- 
pany H, 118th) ; Joseph F. Moore (also 4th Regiment, U. S. Art., 
Company K) ; Mervin Crowell (also Company C, 6th O. V. I.) 

In Seventh Regiment, Company B, Morris Baxter enlisted 
April 22, 1861, and died from wounds, November 27, 1863; and in 
Company C, John S. Cooper (also lieutenant colonel 107th) and 
Jacob Ashton Peasley, and John J. Peasley (students at Oberlin) 
enlisted April 25, 1861. 

In Fifteenth Regiment, April 23, 1861, second lieutenant 


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Henry C. Miner (captain Company M, 3rd Regiment) and Hinch- 
man S. Prophet, enlisted in Company C, and Thomas B. Keeeh 
in Company H ; also Company D, one Hundred and Second, Ohio 
Volunteer Infantry. 

Company I, 3rd Regiment, 0. V. I. (Three Years). 

On June 15, 1861, Company I, Third Regiment, was, wth the 
regiment, re-organized, and re-enlisted for three years. Captain 
D. C. Rose in August and September recruited Company E, 
Thirty-first Ohio Volunteer Infantry; Henry E. Conrad, first ser- 
geant, was promoted to captain and James St. John made first 
lieutenant and both were later killed (October 8, 1862) at Perry- 
ville, Kentucky. Joseph D. Moore was commissioned second 
lieutenant and later killed (December 23, 1861) at Elkwater, 
Virginia. Joel G. Blue was promoted from sergeant to second 
and first lieutenant. The state roster must be consulted for other 
members of the company. 

Lieutenant Colonel John Beatty was again commissioned to 
that rank on February 12, 1862; promoted to colonel, and Novem- 
ber 9, 1862, to brigadier general, and later to brevet major general. 

Edwin Reid was promoted to second lieutenant, October 8, 
1862, and died in a Rebel prison. 

On May 3, 1863, the entire regiment present for duty was 
captured on Streights raid, and the oflBcers sent to Rebel prisons, 
mainly to Libby prison, Richmond, Virginia, and the men paroled, 
and exchanged in August, 1863. Many ef the officers were im- 
prisoned twenty-two or more months, being still in prison at end 
of the three years' enlistment. No effort was made to re-enlist 
the men as veterans. Many of the men enlisted in later new regi- 

The following members of Company I were killed or died of 
wounds at the battle of Stone River, Tennessee, December 31, 1862, 
to January 3, 1863; Jonathan B. Benedict, Levi H. Cartwright, 
Robert Glenn, John Mortram, James Wright, Charles W. Wood, 
and Wendell P. Willitts. Also at Perryville, October 8, 1862, in 
addition to the officers: Charles R. Merrill, George W. Merrill, 
Sidney J. Aldrich, and Alfred Fisher. Wounded at Perryville: 
Simon C. Bennett, Stephen Latsco, Byron Bunker, Lyman M. 
Courtwright, Job Garberson, Charles S. Hiskett, Hudson B. Shol- 
well, John Straub, Alonzo Swisher, C. L. Van Brimer (lost right 
arm) and Milo Welch. Wounded at Stone river: Elias C. NichcP- 

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las, Henry Conklin, Jasper Mann, Benjamin J. Meeker and Fred 
A. Miller. 

The men of the Third Regiment were a brave and vigorous 
class of men, ready for any emergency, and somewhat restive under 
strict discipline. Those who served three years were: first ser- 
geant, George 6. Early; sergeants, William Stiner, John M. 
Hiskett, and William Williams; corporals, Milo Welch, John S. 
Reijsoner, William W. Kendall, Jehu Matthews, and James A. 
Blair; Hudson B. Shotwell, John B. Casey, John J. Armstrong, 
Fletcher Armstrong, Wesley Ayres, Charles W. Benedict, Theodore 
C. Callahan, Francis M. Doty, William W. Dipert, John A. Duncan, 
James Duncan, Adam Devore, Joseph Farley, Robert M. Finch, 
CSiarles S. Hiskett, William Houseman, John W. Henry, Jesse 
Harris, Henr\' Keeler, George Keams, Paul Long, Daniel J. Long, 
Stilman Morey, Fred A. Miller, Jasper Mann, Shelby K. Moore, 
Jonathan Miller, Melville Maxwell, Timothy O'Shea, Smith M. 
Oliver, William G. Oliver, Francis R. Phelps, Philander Powers, 
John Straub, Alonzo Swisher, Jesse Snyder, Felix B. Shaw, Joseph 
Underbill, Thomas Van Sickels, Michael Vincent, John B. White, 
Simon Welch, James Watson, and William H. Wood. 

Company C, 15th Regiment, O. V. L (Three Years), 

In the last days of August, 1861, Captain Hiram Miller, of 
Mansfield, Ohio, who had served as captain of Company H, Fif- 
teenth Regiment, in the three months' service, came to Mt. Gilead 
and recruited Company C, Fifteenth Regiment for three years in 
Morrow coimty (rendezvous, Camp Bartley, Mansfield). Nearly 
all enlistments were on August 30, 1861, and the company was or- 
ganized with Hiram Miller as captain, Jeremiah M. Dunn as first, 
and John G. Byrd as second lieutenant. Both of the last two, 
later in the service were promoted to captain, as was also Thomas 
C. Davis. 

David Clarke Thurston, William Abner Ward, (wounded 
December 31, 1862, at Stone river, and November 25, 1863, at 
Mission Ridge, Tennessee) Alexander Moore (promoted to second 
sergeant, sergeant, major and first lieutenant,) and Alfred H. 
Hurd (died from wounds received at Dallas, Georgia, May 27, 
1864) were first sergeants. During the service Edward B. Mosher 
promoted to hospital steward. 

The regiment was a heroic one in its qualities of courage and 
length of service (August 30, 1861, to November 21, 1865). The 

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casualties of the reg:iment on the Atlanta campaign were: Killed, 
forty-four ; wounded, one hundred and seventy-seven ; and missing, 
nineteen; total, two hundred and forty. (See serial No. 72, page 
411, Records of the Rebellion). 

Besides those above noted the casualties of Company C were: 
Wilscn S. Her, promoted to principal musician, died of wounds, 
September 14, 1864; others killed were: Reuben Hissong and Joel 
Miller, and died of wounds. Captain Thomas C. Davis, Hugh S. 
Moore, William H. Rodgers, Hiram Morehouse, Reuben Davis and 
Enoch Numbers wounded at Shiloh, April 7, 1862. 

The company (C), with the regiment, took part in the fol- 
lowing great battles of the Civil war : Shiloh, Corinth, Mississippi ; 
Stone river, and Liberty Gap, Tennessee; Chickamauga, Georgia; 
Mission Ridge, Tennessee; Rocky Pace Ridge, Resaca, Cassville, 
Pickett's Mills, Kenesaw, Peach tree Creek, Atlanta and Lovejoy 
Station, Georgia; and Franklin and Nashville, Tennessee. 

Those killed in battle and died of wounds in prison and dis- 
eases, other than those given above in Company C, were: Andrew 
J. Craven, Marshall S. Byrd, James M. Barrett, Joseph S. Hunt, 
Benjamin F. Lehman, Smith Walker, Alonzo O. Wilson, James C. 
Chambers, Philip Fogle, Leroy Fields, Nathaniel M. Grice, David 
Hunter, Theron A. Jolly, Melvin B. Lane, John Messmore, John 
R. McBride, and Emanuel Strawbridge. The wounded were: 
Captain John G. Byrd, sergeants William Doak, Harvey Sipe, and 
George W. Thompson ; corporals Harvey C. Calkins, William Karr, 
John C. Ibach, and Joseph P. Moulton ; and privates Welcome Ash- 
brook (twice), Felix Albaugh, Samuel C. Burke, Charles C. Byrd, 
David K. Baggs, George M. Chambers, Daniel C. Courtwright, San- 
ford U. Earley (twice), Amos F. Harding, William D. Hammell, 
William C. Markward, Jacob S. Risor, Calvin J. Paxton, and 
Richard L. Wrenn. 

The men of Company C, Fifteenth Regiment, who served three 
years were: Sergeants Albert Noe and William A. Ward, and 
privates Charles C. Byrd, Asa M. Breese, George C. Early, Smith 
Fry, Thomas J. Holloway, William D. Hammell, James T. House, 
William C. Markward, Theodore J. Mosher, Hiram Morehouse, 
Calvin J. Paxton, John C. Porter, Daniel S. Potter, Joseph B. 
Ross, Sylvester H. Reed, Frank B. Shauck, Byron L. Talmage, 
Richard L. Wrenn, William R. Withers, and John B. Williams; 
and they were mustered out September 20, 1864. The veterans 
who were mustered out November 21, 1865, were : Sergeants Wil- 
liam Doak, Henry C. Groff, Harvey Sipe and Robert D. McBride; 

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coi-porals Harvey C. Calkins, Abner Sipe, Jonathan Gidley, John 
C. Ibaeh, Joseph P. Moulton, Henry G. Meredith, William McHill, 
and William F. Karr; Martin Johnson, musician; John Meyers, 
wagoner; privates Welcome Ashbrook, Samuel C. Burke, James 
Blair, Sanford II. Early, Nathaniel M. Grice, William Laney, and 
Abram Sherman. James C. Chambers died in prison. 

Company A, 20th Regiment, 0. V. I. (Three Years). 

The larger number of Company A, Twentieth Regiment, was 
enlisted for three years in Chesterville and its vicinity, in Septem- 
ber, 1861. Ebenezer Martin, living near that village, at the age 
of fifty-five years enlisted in Company I, of that regiment, on 
November 20, 1861, and was discharged for disability October 20, 

1862. He enlisted chiefly, to prevent his son, Noble C. from en- 
listing, and whom he wanted to stay at home and care for the 
wife and mother. His act deserves to be embalmed in history. On 
the organization of Company A, Dr. Elisha Hyatt was made cap- 
tain ; William Rogers of Knox county, first, and Lyman N. Ayres, 
second lieutenant; and Peter Weatherby, first sergeant; and the 
commissions of the four bore the date of September 3, 1861. 
During the Service Peter Weatherby was promoted to the various 
grades of second and first lieutenant and captain, and major, 
Lyman N. Ayres to first lieutenant and captain. William 
W. McCracken from sergeant to first sergeant and second lieu- 
tenant, and discharged for wounds received at Champion Hill, May 
16, 1863. (He carried the bullet back of his right ear, for more 
than twenty-eight years). Christopher W. McCracken from 
sergeant to first sergeant and first lieutenant, veteran; James E. 
McCracken from corporal to sergeant, sergeant major and captain 
Company A, and mustered out with the company July 15, 1865, 

For records of others, reference is made to volume 2, pages 
686-89, Rosters of Ohio Soldiers. 

Company A, with the regiment, participated in twenty-three 
great battles, including Fort Donelson, February 14-16, 1862; 
Shiloh, April 6 and 7, 1862, in Tennessee ; Champion Hill, May 16, 

1863, and Vicksburg, May 19, July 4, 1863, in Mississippi ; Kenesaw 
Mountain, July 27, 1864; Atlanta, July 22, 1864, in Georgia; 
Sherman's march from Atlanta to the sea; Benton ville, March 19, 
1865, and Goldsboro, March 21, 1865, in North Carolina, and fifteen 
other battles. Whitelaw Reid's **Ohio in the War,'' volume two, 

Vol. 1—9 

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in an extended account of the services of the Twentieth R^ment, 
among other things sa3rs on page 145: ''It became known that 
(Oeneral Joseph E.) Johnston had asked terms for surrender; the 
men seemed crazy with joy ; they shouted, laughed, flung their hats 
in the air, threw their knapsacks at each other, hugged each other, 
stood on their heads in the mud, and were fairly mad with delight" 
The regiment marched via Raleigh, North Carolina, and Richmond 
Virginia, to Washington, District of Columbia, and was in the 
Grand Review May 24, 1865. The casualties, in Company A, 
among the men from Morrow county were as follows: — killed and 
died of wounds and disease in the service : William Allison, Arnold 
Davis, Levi B. Evarts, Robert M. Pogle, Caleb W. Galleher, Philip 
Ephraim Harris, Daniel Harris, Davis B. James, Abraham Skill- 
man, and Benjamin F. Wilson. Wounded May 12, 1863 : Thomas 
B. Runyan, both eyes shot out. ' 

David Griffith, a sturdy Welshman from Chester township, 
was drafted for nine months in the fall of 1862 in the forty-fifth 
year of his age, his term commencing November 15, 1862, and clos- 
ing July 13, 1863, which period covered the Vicksburg campaign 
through all of which he served in Company A. He died April 22, 
1910, at his home in Chester township, at the age of nearly ninety- 
two years. His son, Albert W., served in Company P, Eighty-first 
Regiment, and another son, Gillman T. in Company E, One hun- 
dred and Seventy-fourth Regiment. 

James J. Runyan, a soldier in the war with Mexico, also served 
three years in .Campany A.. Isaac W. Rush, from Morrow county, 
also served in Company G, Twentieth Regiment. On ''Shermans' 
March to the Sea/' an amusing incident happened. Sergeant 
Major James E: McCraeken had just received on the march (Jan- 
uary, 1865) his commission as a captain of Company A, Twentieth 
Regiment, and he needed a valise in which to carry his uniform, 
and told one of the ''bummers" to bring him a valise which the 
soldier did. The column was near Branchville, South Carolina. 
The valise when brought was locked, and when a key was found 
to open it, the contents were found to be a Confederate dress 
uniform for an officer of herculean size, two Confederate eight 
per cent bonds, of the denomination of $500 each, and fifty-four 
thousand dollars in Confederate currency. The bills were dis- 
tributed among the soldiers who lighted their pipes with some of 
them, and with others played poker with one thousand dollars on a 
comer. The men who served three years and were mustered out 

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September 14, 1864, were : Captain Lyman K. Ayers, Lucien Rigby, 
Robert W. Cunningham, James J. Runyan and Augustus R. Run- 
van. The veterans who were mustered out July 15, 1865, were 
Captain James E. MeCraeken, Lieutenant Christopher W. Mc- 
Cracken, first sergeant Wm. W. McMahon, Peter Weatherby, major 
John T. Condon, James L Miller, Lester Wright, Aaron V. Lam- 
bert, William H. Kinney, Charles W. Hotehkiss, Van Buren Ayers, 
Abram Brokaw, Corydon Chauncey, James Clink, Russell B. 
Conant (in prison many months at Andersonville, Georgia), John 
J. Cramer, Madison Hobbs, William Lidderdale, Alexander S. 
MeGaughey, George W. Modie, Mahlon I. Runyan and William 

Company C 26th Regiment, O. V. I. 

Early in June, 1861, Captain Jesse Meredith, a veteran of the 
war with Mexico, as captain of Company B, Third Regiment, Ohio 
Volunteer Infantry, at the age of forty- four years, and in June, 

1861, at the age of fifty-nine years, began to rai^e a company in 
Westfield township, Morrow county, of which he was a resident, 
and in the adjoining territory in Delaware county; which became 
Company C, of the Twenty-sixth Ohio Regiment. His commission 
was dated June 5, 1861. About one-half of this company was from 
Morrow county and one-half from Delaware county. On account 
of age and infirmity Captain Meredith resigned August 11, 1862. 
The first lieutenant was E. A. Hicks of Delaware county, who was 
promoted to captain of Company I. 

William Clark was second lieutenant, promoted to first lieu- 
tenant December 12, 1861; to captain Company E, December 5, 
1B62; to lieutenant colonel December 9, 1864, and mustered out 
with' the regiment October 21, 1865, at Victoria, Texas. 

Other soldiers, of this company, whose merits require partic- 
ular notice are Benjamin W. Shotwell, appointed sergeant and pro- 
moted first sergeant July 15, 1861 ; second lieutenant December 5, 

1862, and first lieutenant April 6, 1863 ; severely wounded Septem- 
ber 20, 1863, at Chickamauga, Georgia, and resigned September 
13, 1864; veteran. 

Also Justin A. Gk)odhue, appointed sergeant and promoted to 
first sergeant December 5, 1862; second lieutenant April 6, 1863, 
and mustered out February 11, 1865 ; veteran. 

Also Jerry E. Coomer, promoted from private to hospital 
steward, August 1, 1864 ; to first lieutenant Company D, December 

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9, 1864 ; to captain February 10, 1865, and resigned June 8, 1865 ; 

Also Josephus F. Doty and John B. Richardson, sergeants, 
serve each three years. 

Jesse Mason, musician, was captured September 20, 1863, at 
Chickamauga, Georgia, and confined in Rebel prisons at Libby, 
(Richmond, Virginia), Pemberton, Danville, Anderson ville, 
Charleston and Florence, and paroled in December, 1864; dis- 
charged January 25, 1865. . 

The members from Morrow county of Company C, who wen 
killed or died of wounds or disease in the service, were: Corporals 
Thomas J. Simpson, and William Creamer; George H. Burrell, 
James Bartholomew, George Bensley, Newman Barber, Benjamin 
Corkins, John Goodhue, Daniel Hopkins, Adam Moyer, Newton 
Oliver, Levi Potter, Jonathan Sherwood, Albert Taylor, David H. 
Taylor, William H. West, Frank M. Wilcox, and Dcnnison Frye. 
Wounded : John Shoemaker. Discharged after three years* service : 
W. H. Miller, Vincent E. Dunnen, Elijah Hibbard, Benton Mason, 
and Sidney Winsor. Discharged October 21, 1865, as veterans: 
Theron M. Messenger, corporal; Samuel E. Hull, musician; Wil- 
liam Bensley, William McClary and William Worline. 

Company E, 26th Regiment, 0. V. I. 

At the same time Company C was recruited at Westfield, 
Morrow county, and in Delaware county. Dr. Sylvester M. Hewitt, 
of Mt. Gilead, and Henry C. Bnimback, of same place, as tirst 
lieutenant, and James E. Godman, of Cardington, as second lieu- 
tenant, commenced to recruit for Company E. Each of their 
commissions was dated June 5, 1861. Nearly all the enlistments 
were in June, 1861. 

On July 26, Captain Hewitt was promoted to major of the 
Thirty-second Regiment and on July 29, 1861, James K. Ewart, a 
resident of Harmony township, Morrow county, was commissioned 
captain of Company E. He had a military training at Norwich 
University, Vermont, and was an accomplished officer. 

Oscar L. R. French was made a first sergeant, and was dis- 
charged February 7, 1862, also as first lieutenant Company C, One 
Hundred and Eightieth Ohio Volunteer Infantry. 

Henry C. Brumback resigned November 20, 1861, and James E. 
Godman was promoted to the vacancy December 23, 1861 ; resigned 
April 26, 1862, and died at home May 11, 1862. 

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William H. Green was appointed sergeant from corporal 
October 11, 1861; and first sergeant January 14, 1863, and died 
October 21, 1863, from wounds, received at the battle of Chicka- 
mauga, Georgia, September 19, 1863. 

Walden Kelly, aged eighteen, was appointed sergeant from 
corporal, February 6, 1862; first sergeant October 22, 1863; pro- 
moted to first lieutenant December 9, 1864, and to captain Company 
P, Pebruary 28, 1865, and mustered out with that company October 
21, 1865 ; veteran. His record is a very heroic one. To commem- 
orate the services of Company E, he has written and published a 
sketch entitled, *'A Historic Sketch;" **Lest We Porget;'' ** Com- 
pany E, Twenty-sixth Ohio Infantry." In it he gives a thrilling 
account of the services of the company and regiment. Alter giving 
a graphic account of the first day's battle at Chickamauga, Sep- 
tember 19, 1863, he says this: **Over half of the company had 
fallen in two or three hours desperate fighting, not as Greek met 
Greek, but as Americans met Americans, so view the field, ye good 
people of Morrow county ; stand by that monument erected by the 
great State of Ohio to the memory of the Twenty-sixth, two hundred 
and twelve of whom fell in that bloody battle — three fourths of 
them undoubtedly on the Vineyard farm. Then, but a few yards 
away, see the one erected by the State of Georgia in memory of the 
Twentieth Regiment of Infantry; Confederate States of America, 
and read the inscription on it ; this regiment went into battle with 
23 officers and of this number 17 were killed and wounded." 

Lieutenant Colonel William H. Young was in command of the 
Twenty-sixth Ohio at this battle, and his report shows 350 men of 
the regiment engaged, and the total loss 213. Company E, had 32 
in the battle, of whom 20 were killed and wounded: Killed and 
mortally wounded, Pirst Lieutenant Prancis M. Williams; Pirst 
Sergeant William H. Green; Sergeant Silas Stucky; Corporal 
Luther Reed and Privates Moses AUer, William Calvert, John 
Blaine, James R. Goodman, Chas. A. R. Kline, Samuel Neiswander, 
Emanuel W. Stabler, and Robert W. Stonestreet. The wounded 
were : Corporals James W. Clifton and Isaac D. Barrett ; William 
H. H. Geyer, Henry C. Latham, McDonald Lottridge, John Mishey, 
Joseph L. Rue, Henry Stovenour and Isaiah Sipes. Twenty killed 
and wounded out of thirty-two of Company E, and only one of the 
wounded, William H. H. Geyer was ever able to rejoin the company. 

The services of the Twenty-sixth Ohio, at the battle of Mission 
Ridge, Tennessee, November 25, 1863, and on the Atlanta cam- 
paign, from May 3 to September 5, 1864, in many battles, as well 

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as during the Nashville campaign in the destruction of the rebel 
army under General J. B. Hood in December, 1864, were very 
heroic, and those who **paid the last full meaure of devotion to 
their country" with their blood and their lives of Company E, in 
these campaigns were, as follows: William Derr (twice wounded), 
Daniel Densel, John Derr, Origen M. lies, Joseph Wallace Miller, 
Henry G. Shedd, Socrates Shaw, James H. Smith, Hudson H. 
Thompson, and Joseph Utter. The company and regiment were 
finally mustered out October 21, 1865, at Victoria, Texas, and 
discharged at Camp Chase, Columbus, Ohio, in November, 1865. 

The descendants of the soldiers of the Twenty-sixth Ohio 
Regiment can refer with pride to the services of their fathers. 

These served three years: Sergeant George W. Jackson; 
Corporal Andrew M. Smith; Socrates Chandler, Peter Craley, 
Joseph Cromer, William H. H. Geyer, Henry L. High, Martin M. 
Karr, McDonald Lottridge, and Philip Metzger. These served as 
veterans and were mustered out October 21, 1865, at Victoria, 
Texas: First Sergeant Samuel Watson; Sergeant John Bechtel; 
Corporal John L. Richardson ; John W. Emerson, Charles Hender- 
son, George W. Longstreet, James W. Longstreet, and Edmund L. 

Company E, 31st Regiment, O. V. I. 

In the last days of August, and early in September, 1861, 
Captain David C. Rose, who had served from April 25, to August 
22, 1861, in Company I, Third Regiment, with the aid of others, 
enlisted fifty-eight men in the south half of Morrow county, who, 
with twelve men from Preble county and the balance from Delaware 
county, formed Company E of the Thirty-first Regiment. Captain 
Rose was the oldest of seven sons of James Rose and wife, of Lin- 
coln township. His brothers, Henry H., and James M., served 
under him in Company I, of the Third, and both enlisted in Com- 
pany E of the Thirty-first. The other brothers were Edward, 
and John M., of Company B, Tenth Regiment, of Ohio cavalry; 
Alonzo J. of Company B, Ohio Volunteer Cavalry, Thirteenth 
Regiment, and Charles J., of Company G, One Hundred and Thirty- 
sixth Regiment, Ohio Volunteer Infantry. 

The other oflScers were George P. Stiles, Sr., first lieutenant; 
George W. Reed, second lieutenant, and Ludwell M. Cunard, first 
sergeant; the latter's wife is a sister to the Rose boys. All were 
commissioned September 24, 1861. Captain D. C. Rose died 

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December 26, 1861, at Camp Dick Robinson, Kentucky. Lieutenant 
Stiles served nearly three years and three months. Lieutenant 
Reed resigned March 18, 1862, and Sergeant Cunard was promoted 
to second lieutenant, and resigned August 12, 1863. 

Private Jonathan Culver was appointed first sergeant, and pro- 
moted to second lieutenant and mustered out with company July 
20, 1865; wounded; veteran. 

The regiment served in the army of the Cumberland in seven- 
teen great battles and campaigns, among which were the siege of 
Corinth; Perrysville, and Stone river, in 1862; Chickamauga and 
Mission Ridge in 1863; Resaca, Kenesaw, Peachtree Creek and- 
Atlanta in 1864; Qoldsboro, North Carolina, 1865; and ** Sherman's 
March to the Sea. ' ' Mustered out July 20, 1865. 

The men of Company E, from Morrow county who gave up 
their lives, and those who received wounds are, besides Captain 
Rose; Sergeant William B. Doty, Corporal Joseph C. Campbell, 
and Private Charles W. Barber. The wounded were : Lieutenant 
Jonathan Culver, Slocum Barge, Myron A. Cady, Nathan Heren- 
deen, and James M. Rose. Died of disease: William R. Clark, 
Fred K. Kehrwecker, John Mills, and Jacob Sherman. Those from 
Morrow county who served three years and were mustered out 
September 24, 1864, were: Lieutenant George P. Stiles, Sr., First 
Sergeant Nathan H. Patton, and Walter I. Case, Alexander Cun- 
ard, Myron A. Cady, Major Frost, Stephen H. Green, Caleb H. 
Herendeen, Nathan Herendeen, John S. Powers, Jacob Pancoast, 
Lorenzo Rogers, Lewis H. Shirey, Benjamin F. Tyler, Francis M. 
Tyler, George Zent and Francis T. Conklin. The veterans mus- 
tered out July 20, 1865, were: Sergeants John D. Scovill and 
Thomas Edgar; and Privates Slocum B. Barge, and Henry N. 

Company B, 43rd Regiment^ O. V. I. 

On September 14, 1861, recruits for an original company, 
chiefly about Iberia, Williamsport and Chesterville, in Morrow 
county, were enlisted and it became Company B, Forty-third Ohio 
Infantry. A majority of the soldiers of this company were from 
the country. On the organization of this company, James Marsh- 
man became captain, and Samuel McClarren first lieutenant; both 
of whom resigned September 3, 1862, the former for ill health, 
and the latter for wounds. Hinchman S. Prophet, who had already 
served in Company C, Fifteenth Regiment, from April 23, 1861, 

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was appointed second lieutenant December 5, 1861 ; June 17, 1862, 
was promoted to first lieutenant and assi^ed to Company H; to 
captain August 18, 1862, and assigned to Company C, and resigned 
June 10, 1863. 

John H. Rhodes enlisted as private October 1, 1861 ; was ap- 
pointed first sergeant, promoted to sergeant major; and May 15, 
1862, to captain Company K; April 15, 1865, to lieutenant colonel, 
and July 13, 1865, was mustered out with the regiment. 

The rendezvous was at Camp Andrews, Mt. Vernon, Ohio. 
The first colonel of the regiment was J. L. Kirby Smith, a West 
•Point cadet, who died October 12, 1862, of a wound received at the 
battle of Corinth, Mississippi, October 4, 1862. 

The subsequent advancement of men of Company B was as 
follows : George W. Purcell, who enlisted October 2, 1861, was pro- 
moted to second lieutenant June 7, 1862, and to first lieutenant 
September 3, 1862, and mustered out with his company July 13, 
1865; veteran. 

Jonathan J. McClarren, who enlisted September 14, 1861, 
promoted to quartermaster sergeant, and to second lieutenant Sep- 
tember 3, 1862, and to first lieutenant and regimental quarter- 
master, May 27, 1863; and mustered out December 27, 1864, on 
expiration of enlistment ; veteran. 

Milton P. Miles, enlisted September 14, 1861, as private, and 
appointed sergeant ; January 9, 1862, promoted to second lieutenant 
Company A, Forty-ninth Regiment, and to first lieutenant Com- 
pany B, September 30, 1862 ; transferred to Company H, Pebruary 
13, 1863 ; appointed adjutant Porty-ninth Regiment March 2, 1863 ; 
promoted major, March 29, 1865, and lieutenant colonel, June 26, 
1865 ; mustered out with Porty-ninth Regiment November 30, 1865 ; 

James H. Green enlisted September 14, 1861, as private; 
promoted to hospital steward January 1, 1864, and transferred to 
Pourth Alabama, Company P; veteran. The soldiers of Com- 
pany B, were more than an average for intelligence and soldierly 

A number of men of Company E, Porty-third Regiment were 
also from Morrow county ; among whom were : Charles P. Andrews, 
Henry Nefe, Prancis M. Carpenter, Henry Graverick, and Justus 
and David Paxton, son and father. 

Also several Morrow county men were in Company K, among 
whom were Denton and David Brewer, William M. Eccles, Harrison 
Kinneman, and Charles E. Lewis. 

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The casualties in Company B, among soldiers from Morrow 
county, were: Killed and died from wounds: Corporal Salathiel 
K. Galleher, William Creighton Orr, and Robert Simpson; and 
privates Bradford Huld, James B. Bowen, W. L. Churehhill (in 
rebel prison), Joseph Sunderland, and Nathan Thornburg. The 
wounded were: Sergeant Asher Reynolds and James Hefifelfinger, 
Russell B. Clink, and James Gage. The killed in Company E, 
were: Henry Nefe, and Justus Paxton, and Company K, David 
Brewer (in prison). Those who died from disease in Company 
B, were: John M. Breese, Alexander Fleming, William H. Mar- 
pie, and Thomas E. Turner. 

The Forty-third Regiment took part in the following battles, 
sieges and raids: New Madrid, Missouri, March 13, 1862; luka and 
Corinth, Mississippi; Resaea, Dallas, Kenesaw, Nickajack Creek, 
Atlanta and Savannah, Georgia; Rivers Bridge, South Carolina, 
and Sherman's ** March to the Sea." It was mustered out July 13, 
1865, at Louisville, Kentucky. 

These men of Company B served three years: Sergeants Fred 
F. Adams, and Orson D. Merriman; Corporals Francis M. Iden, 
and Elias Ashburn; and privates Commodore P. BroUier, Harod 
Hays, Moses C. Rogers, Madison M. Smith, Leonidas W. Wilson, 
and George Yeagly; and in Company E, Francis M. Carpenter. 
These men of Company B were veterans and mustered out July 13, 
1865 : Captain Jerry 0. McDonald ; First Sergeant Thomas Dakan ; 
Commissary Sergeant Henry H. Adams; Quartermaster Sergeant 
James B. Conger ; Sergeants Bentley B. Benedict, James M. Peter- 
son, and Asher Reynolds; Corporals Calvin D. French, Aaron B. 
Kees, George W. Re&se, Robert Simpson, Thomas Turner; Musi- 
cians David Auld and Dennis Auld; Privates James Hefifelfinger, 
James" B. Bowen, Robert M. Clayton, Russel B. Clink, Daniel Con- 
ger, Michael Denton, Milo A. Dicks, Charles S. Ely, Henry Fleming, 
John Groves, James Gage, Edward Hilliard, Washinton G. Irwin, 
Edward Jones, Zephaniah Kinney, Judson J. Kelly, George W. 
Mills, Thomas B. Morris, Samuel Pipes, John H. Rogers, and of 
Company E, Charles P. Andrews, Henry Nefe, and John J. Gainer. 

An Escaped Andersonville Prisoner. 
By Calvin D. French, Company B, 43rd 0. V. 7. 

**0n the morning of the 4th of August, 1864, the Forty-third 
Ohio Regiment, with others, was ordered to advance the Union 

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lines in front of Atlanta, Georgia. Our regiment was put on the 
skirmish line, after piling all of our knapsacks together, each com- 
pany 's by itself. We started from a depleted line about nine in 
the morning, and went over fences and ditches into a dense under- 
brush, the rebel batteries covering their infantry while firing at us. 
The bullets were coming thick and fast, and I stepped behind a 
tree, which was so small I had to stand sidewise to get under cover. 
I continued to fire my gun as fapidly as possible in the direction of 
the enemy who were concealed in the thick underbrush directly 
ahead. Suddenly a rebel appeared at my left, closely followed by 
others. I had become separated from the rest of the company, 
in the rush which followed our advance, and only Barney Keyes 
and one other member of my company were in sight. They turned 
and ran, but Keyes stumbled and fell. I thought he had been 
shot. Realizing that I was surrounded, my first impulse was to 
break my gun against the tree, and, as I raised it to do so, a rebel 
ordered me to halt at the point of his gun, and I was compelled 
to hand my Endfield over to him. 'Come on, you Yank,' he said, 
and I was marched back through the rebel forts to Atlanta, which 
was just east of their lines. 

**The guard took me with a few others they had captured into 
an old bam, where we were kept under guard for the night. The 
next morning we were marched about six miles south to a station 
called Eastport, and in the evening were put on a train and started 
for Andersonville, where we arrived about ten o'clock the follow- 
ing morning. 

**The stockade was built of pine logs about fifteen feet high set 
on end in the ground, each log touching the other. This ran all 
the way on four sides enclosing about thirty acres of ground. 
The rebel guards were stationed on top of this stockade at iiftervals 
of about fifty feet where a small guardhouse was built, reached by 
stairs from the outside. 

**We were driven like cattle into this pen. There were three 
from my company (John H. Rogers, James B. Bowen and myself) 
all of us young, stout and healthy. The first night we went to the 
north side of the prison and, with my blouse for a blanket and my 
shoes for a pillow, began my service in Andersonville, the stars 
for my consolation and the rebel guards for protection. When I 
shook my blouse in the morning, a multitude of maggots and vermin 
dropped to the ground, which awakened me to the real conditions 
under which we were placed. 

**The site of Andersonville was a solid pine forest before the 

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war, and when the first prisoners were brought there they had 
built some small shanties or huts with some of the trees which were 
left after the stockade and other rebel buildings had been con- 
structed. These shanties were all occupied by prisoners and some 
others had dug-outs in the ground covered with split timbers. But 
those who came in the summer of 1864 had the sky only for their 

** There was a low piece of ground toward the south end of the 
enclosure where the water from the rebel soldiers' camp came down 
through the prison. This stream was bridged with a plank cover- 
ing at one place to convey prisoners from one side of the prison to 
tha other. This stream was filled with filth which came from the 
rebel camp above, but it was the only source of water supply for 
the new recruits. The older prisoners had dug wells, but they 
were insufficient to supply more than their own needs, and the 
spirit of the prison was * every man for himself in the desperate 
struggle for existence.' There was a market street where Union 
soldiers had dried roots to sell ; also biscuits which they had made 
from flour purchased from the rebels. They got the roots by 
rolling up their sleeves and digging in the swale filled with the 
refuse of the prison. Once a day the rebs would send a wagon 
through the prison with com bread or baked beans, which were 
distributed to the prisoners. When we got bread we got no beans, 
and when we got beans we got no bread. Food, food, was the 
great cry of the prison, and the only think talked about was some- 
thing to eat. I have seen stout, robust men look over the situation 
when they arrived as prisoners of war, lay down in the hot sand, 
and in a day or two were so weak they could not stand up. They 
would simply root their heads in the sand and in a short period of 
time die. It was such a common occurance that no one paid any 
attention to such a thing. To live through such an ordeal re- 
quired steel courage and not a thought of despair. While it 
looked hopeless, some of us had a ray of hope that Sherman would 
cause the rebels to transfer us to a safer place. 

** While I was there the Providence spring broke out during a 
night of heavy thunder and. rain storm. Some of the stockade 
was washed down. In the morning there was a spring with run- 
ning water — ^nice and cool — between the dead line and the stockade. 
They ran this water over the dead line so we could get it. Each 
man took his turn to drink or take a canteen of water away with 
him, and there was a continuous line of men from daybreak in the 
morning until dark. This was the best water I ever drank, and 
the spring was rightly named * Providence. ' 

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**The dead line was constructed of a narrow piece of board 
nailed on stakes about fifteen feet from the stockade all around the 
prison. If a prisoner touched or fell on the line — even though 
from weakness — the guards killed him. Commencing at dark and 
lasting until daylight, on the hour the guards would pass along 
the call * eight o'clock and all's well,' *nine o'clock and all's well,' 
and so on through the dismal night. 

**Time passed on and we learned that Sherman had captured 
Atlanta. On September 11th it came my turn to march to the 
depot, and about eight o'clock in the morning we were put in box 
cars and started for Charleston, South Carolina. At Macon we 
were allowed to be around some under guard. After leaving 
Mtocon one prisoner said to me that he would have gotten away 
there if someone had gone with him. I told him that I would have 
done so, and then told him a plan which had come to me during 
our journey to Macon. We agreed that we would work over near 
the door of the car and when the train was running slowly I would 
get off and he would follow as soon as possible. We were then to 
walk toward each other and make for the Union lines together. 
Soon the train began to slacken its speed, and he took hold of my 
hand and let me down until my feet touched the ground, and let 
go. I rolled over and over to a ditch beside the track and lay quiet 
until the train had passed. The guards in the cars and on top 
failed to see me and I was a free man again, for the moment at 
least. In letting me down from the car my left leg struck against 
a tie and when I got up after a few minutes found that I was 
quite badly hurt, although I could walk. I then started in the 
direction the train was moving to mee^ my comrade. I went 
some little way and saw a cabin by the side of the track. A 
negro was living there, and he got me some cold water with which 
to bathe my leg, and also bartered my blouse for his gray coat. 
He gave me some com bread and I went on down the track. 

** After going a little further I heard someone whistle, which 
was our prearranged signal, and my comrade in the escape, who I 
later learned was George W. Wagerly, of Chillicothe, Ohio, came 
up the bank, and we shook hands. We were glad to see each other. 
We went back the way we had come and stopped at the negro 
shanty. The darky told us to go back the railroad track about 
three miles until we came to a road crossing, then to turn to the 
right and follow the road. We were now in the enemy's territory 
and had to use every precaution in our movements. When we 
reached the road crossing we saw a fire and found it was a rebel 

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picket with three men around the fire. We went back a hundred 
paces or more and removed our shoes, and then slowly and quietly 
got by them. 

**We deemed it wise not to go in the road, but to keep in the 
woods and open fields. We turned into a path in the underbrush 
and followed it until daylight, when we camped near an open field 
in some low bushes. We slept some during the day. Some 
negroes passed close by, but we lay low waiting for night to come. 
Then we went to the nearest plantation and made friends, with a 
negro, who got some johnny cake for us, which we relished very 
much. We then struck out, taking the moon and stars for a guide, 
traveling through com fields, swamps, wet grass, sometimes eating 
sweet corn and now and then some raw sweet potatoes. We kept 
clear of the road, although progress was very slow otherwise. We 
got wet through and before morning were hardly able to walk, but 
our only thought was of escape and return to the Union lines. At 
the break of day we could find some low bushes and camp for the 
day. This we kept up for seven or eight days and nights, depend- 
ing upon the negroes at the plantations for most of our food. 

**The eighth night when we got our corn bread from the darkey 
at a plantation, he said, *Massa, there is no rebs in these parts, why 
doan you all take the road.' Well, that night we took the road 
and went as directed, but about nine o'clock there came a man on 
horseback at full gallop right to us before we could get out of sight. 
We were pretty well scared, thinking he was a reb, but he asked 
where some doctor lived, and we quickly told him there was one 
three miles straight ahead. He whipped up his horse and drove 
away, and we drew a long breath of relief. 

** Toward morning we came to an outpost of rebels. We went 
around them, and soon came to a railroad that had been torn up by 
Sherman's army be^re he took Atlanta. A burned bridge im- 
peded our progress, and we had considerable difficulty getting over 
the river. That day was Sunday, and we camped in the woods. 
About three o'clock saw some women and children coming towards 
us. We went over the hill on a run and* into a big swamp, where 
we remained until darkness came. We could hear the bark of 
blood hounds in the far distance, and thought they might be on 
our trial, but the sounds gradually died out. It would have meant 
the end of our hopes had the hounds been on our trail, for we had 
no means of defence, and our strength was on the wane. 

** Progress in the swamp was very diflBcult. Every step we 
would go down in the mud and water, then get up again only to 

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fall headlong the next step. When we finally did get to dry- ground 
again, we were a dilapidated looking sight. We moved at a slow 
pace, but were not disheartened. In a little while we began to 
smell the camp fires, and soon after midnight we could see our 
pickets a short distance ahead. It was necessary at this point to 
use great precaution in advancing for fear we would be mistaken 
for rebels. At four in the morning we were halted by our guards, 
and we told them we were escaped prisoners. We were escorted to 
the picket post and everyone greeted us with open arms. It was the 
happiest time of my life. Once more back to real freedom. When 
our thoughts reverted to the prison pen where 32,000 were huddled 
together in about thirty acres, and where they died at the rate of 
ninety a day during our confinement there, it made us thankful 
beyond expression for our deliverance. 

** After being fed and given some clothing, we were taken by 
wagon to Atlanta, Georgia, four miles south. Brother Oscar 
came to see me before we started. They had all believed that I 
was killed instead of being captured. At Atlanta we were taken 
to the Soldiers' Home, where we had plenty to eat. It was at this 
place that my comrade in the escape, George W. Wagerly, of Chilli- 
cothe, Ohio, and I became separated, and I have never seen nor 
heard from him since, although I have used every endeavor to get 
in communication with him. 

**I found some of the boys from my company and went with 
them to where our regiment was camped. They gave me a great 
reception. Barney Keyes wa» one of the first boys I met. 

**In a few days I was granted a furlough and went home. 
When my furlough of thirty days had expired I went back to 
Atlanta, and arrived just in time to go with Sherman on his March 
to the Sea. 

FiPTY-FiPTH Ohio Volunteer Infantry. 

These men of Morrow county served in the Fifty-fifth Regi- 
ment, namely : First Sergeant John B. Gatchel, Company F, nearly 
four years ; previously three months in Company I,. Fifteenth Regi- 
ment, and wounded at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. He was County 
Recorder of Morrow county from 1876 to 1882. A cut of him ap- 
pears on the following page. 

Also Clark Edgington, in Company F, and in Company G, 
Henry H. Sterner. 

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Company C, 64th Regiment, O. V. I. 

In the Sixty-fourth Regiment were about twenty men, mainly 
in Company C, from Morrow county, chiefly among whom were: 
Riley Albach, who enlisted October 9, 1861, as private; appointed 
sergeant November 18, 1861, and first sergeant October 31, 1862; 
promoted to second lieutenant April 1, 1863; wounded November 
25, 1863, at Mission Ridge, Teanessee ; promoted to first lieutenant 
August 5, 1863, and resigned May 7, 1864 ; veteran. 

Jacob H. Shauck, enlisted as private October 5, 1861 ; appointed 
first sergeant October 31, 1861 ; discharged February 20, 1863, for 

Jacob Shively, enlisted October 19, 1861; appointed corporal 
October 31; and sergeant November 27, 1861; wounded, May 25, 


1864, at Dallas, Georgia; mustered out January 11, 1865; veteran. 

Alben Coe, enlisted as private October 4, 1861; appointed 
sergeant October 31, 1861; discharged for disability January 11, 
1863 ; also captain Company E, Ninth Ohio Volunteer Cavalry. 

William Christy, enlisted as private October 11, 1861; 
appointed corporal November 1, 1864; mustered out October 3, 
1865 ; veteran. 

Joseph E. Moser, enlisted October 4, 1861 ; appointed corporal 
April 7, 1863 ; killed September 20, 1863, at Chickamauga, Georgia. 

John W. Leidleigh, enlisted October 22, 1861, as private; 

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wounded May 9, 1864, at Rocky Face Ridge, Georgia; promoted to 
sergeant major May 1, 1864; mustered out with regiment Decem- 
ber 3, 1865. 

The Sixty-fourth belonged with the Sixty-fifth Regiment to 
Sherman's famous brigade, and was in the same battles and cam- 
paigns as the latter. 

Company D, 65th Rhgiment, O. V. I. 

Contributed by Sergeant Washington Gardner. 

Company D, Sixty-fifth Regiment, Ohio Volunteer Infantry, 
was recruited wholly from Morrow county during the month of 
October, 1861. The men came chiefly from Mount Gilead and 
near-by towns, and from Westfield and vicinity. At that time, 
and for many years after, James Olds, who recruited the company, 
was the foremost lawyer in the county. His boyhood home was on 
a farm near Westfield, the people in that section were proud of 
him, and the young men were eager to follow his standard. 

In November, 1861, the company assembled in Mt. Gilead, 
where it had its first formation on the public square and from which 
it broke ranks to be taken in private conveyances to Camp Bucking- 
ham, near Mansfield, where it became a part of the regiment above 
named. It was mustered into the United States service for three 
years, or during the war, December 3, 1861. James Olds became 
the first major of the regiment ; John Chambers Baxter, captain of 
Company D; David H. Rowland, first lieutenant, and John T. 
Hyatt, second lieutenant. Charles G. Harker, a young man of 
twenty-five years of age, a graduate of. West Point and a captain 
in the Fifteenth United States Infantry, was made colonel. Harker 
was an accomplished and gallant officer, and greatly endeared him- 
self to the men of his command. His death as a brigadier general, 
on the slopes of Kenesaw Mountain, was sincerely mourned, and 
his memory is treasured by all who served under him. 

During its first year of service Company D, though not 
seriously engaged in battle, lost by disease. Lieutenant Hyatt, 
died while the company was still in Camp Buckingham. He was 
a promising young officer, who had seen service during a previous 
three months* enlistment. His death, so soon after going into 
camp, made a profound impression on the company. Septimus 
Clagett died February 6th ; William H. Braddock, February 10th, 
and Abraham M. Smith, March 5, 1862, all in hospital at Stanford, 

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Kentucky, and Andrew M. Buck died in hospital at Lebanon, Ken- 
tucky, February 24th of the same year. Captain Baxter resigned 
February 26th, Lieutenant Rowland, June 16th, and Major Olds, 
October 7th, all in 1862. During the first twelve months in the 
field, twenty-five men were discharged on surgeon's certificate of 
disability. During its first year of service the company lost, by 
death, resignation or discharge, thirty-two of its original eighty- 
seven oflScers and men; or almost exactly thirty-seven per cent, 
before a single man had been killed or wounded, or the company 
seriously engaged in battle. Besides these, James Peak had been 
transferred to the navy. 

The company entered its second year with a total enrollment 
of fifty-four officers and men, present and absent. Asa M. Trimble, 
who had been promoted successively from sergeant to first lieu- 
tenant, was now regimental quartermaster; Asa A. Gardner, who 
had likewise been advanced through the same grades, was first 
lieutenant, commanding the company, and John S. Talmage was 
second lieutenant. The company was on the field at Shiloh, the 
second day of the battle, but was not actively engaged; it had also 
been in a number of skirmishes and was in supporting distance at 
the battle of Perryville, but was not in the fight. Its first real bat- 
tle came early in the second year of its service at Stone river, near 
Murfreesborough, Tennessee, on the last day of December, 1862, 
and the first three days of January, 1863. In this battle John 
Long, a younger brother of Robert, was fatally wounded on De- 
cember 3l8t, and died on the 18th of the following January. 
Lieutenant Asa A. Gardner, commanding Company D, while en- 
deavoring to rally his hard-pressed men, wa« shot through the 
body. When the ball struck him, he fell forward on his face, his 
sword dropping from his hand. All supposed, until some time 
after when the lost ground was recovered, that he was dead upon 
the field. In Colonel Barker's official report of the battle, Lieuten- 
ant Gardner received honorable mention. Amos Pinyard lost an 
arm; Fred ISIoser was badly wounded, the ball passing through 
the face from cheek to cheek, knocking out most of his teeth and 
breaking his jaws. Pinyard and Moser were permanently disabled. 
Others wounded, but less severely, were Samuel P. Snider, Daniel 
Griffith, Elias Aldrich, John Bailey, Samuel Kirkpatrick, William 
L. Thompson, George W. Jackson and Joel Wright. Joseph Dewitt 
and Calvin W. Hudson were taken prisoners, but after a few 
weeks were exchanged and returned to service.. 

Following the battle of Stone River, the company participated 
Vol. I— 10 

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in the TuUahoma and the Chattanooga campaigns and took part in 
the battle of Chiekamauga, September 19 and 20, 1863. Lieutenant 
Gardner who, in the meantime, had been promoted to captain, had 
suflSciently recovered from his Stone River wound to return to the 
field and took his company into action on Saturday afternoon, Sep- 
tember 19th. In the first volley from the enemy, which was fired 
at close range, John 0. Bartlett was shot dead in the front line 
of battle. During the war the Sixty-fifth Ohio lost many worthy 
men in battle, but it laid no purer nor nobler sacrifice upon the 
altar than this Mount Gilead youth of twenty years. In the same 


line, and almost at the same time that young Bartlett fell with a 
bullet through his brain, Captain Gardner was again shot through 
the body, James Hopkins through the shoulder, and William Taylor 
who had been hit at Stone River and had recovered, was again 
among the wounded. 

On Siuiday, about noon of the 20th, in a desperate encounter 
with the enemy and after the field officers of the regiment and the 
line officers of Company D had all been killed or wounded, a cap- 
tain of the line was in command of the regiment and Sergeant 
Samuel P. Snider, in command of Company D. At this time 
Junius B. Shaw was badly wounded. Taking his shattered and 

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bleeding right arm in his left, he withdrew from the line of battle 
and walked twelve miles through dust and heat to Chattanooga, 
where he submitted to an amputation at the shoulder. There was 
no finer example of genuine grit than this grim twelve-mile march 
of Shaw, looking for a surgeon to sever his lacerated arm from his 
body. Samuel P. Snider, though only a boy not yet quite eighteen 
years old, was so brave and so competent a company conunander in 
battle as to deserve and receive high praise in the official report 
of the commanding officer of the regiment. About the time Shaw 
was hit, the Union line was being hard pressed by the enemy not 
only in front but on both flanks. Snider received a grievous wound 
through the right shoulder and while prostrate on the field was 
captured. Sergeant Robert Long, who stopped to minister to his 
suffering comrade, likewise fell into the hands of the enemy and 
was kept in prison until the close of the war. He was a pas- 
senger with 1,898 other exchanged prisoners on the ill-fated 
** Sultana," the memory of which still causes a shudder of horror 
to all who recall the many heroic men who having endured the 
horrors of prison now went from her burning decks to a watery 

Among others captured at this stage of the battle were Calvin 
W. Hudson, Joseph Dewitt, Ira Barber and Harvey Wheeler. The 
three last named died in prison. Hudson, while being transferred 
from one place of confinement to another, managed to escape and 
after a perilous experience of lying in hiding, by day, and traveling 
under the friendly aid and guidance of the negroes, by night, 
reached our lines in June, 1864, ragged and emaciated, but happy 
to be once more among friends. 

Company D was among the beseiged at Chattanooga in the 
fall of 1863 ; it participated in the assault on Missionary Ridge and 
in the march to the relief of Knoxville, where it completed its second 
full year in the service. In this second year, there was much of 
hard srvice and hard fighting. The company had lost, killed in 
battle two, wounded seventeen, five of the latter so severely as never 
to be able to return to active service. Eight were taken prisoners 
during the year, three of whom died. Three were discharged for 
disabilities other than wounds.. Among these was John Barger, 
a fine-spirited youth from near Mount Gilead, who died on his way 
home after being discharged. 

In the latter part of the winter of 1863-4 a large per cent of 
Company D veteranized — i. e., reenlisted for three years more, or 
during the war. The reenlisted men were given a home furlough 

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for thirty days. When the Atlanta campaign opened, in the spring 
of 1864, there were but comparatively few of the original members 
of Company D in line. In the affair at Rocky Pace Ridge, on May 
9th, the company suffered no casualty ; but five days later at Resaca, 
Georgia, it lost over thirty per cent of the original company actually 

In this battle, John Koon was mortally wounded on Saturda^v 
afternoon, and died in Jhe field hospital the following Sunday 
morning. Koon died like a true soldier. Not a murmur of com- 
plaint escaped his lips because of suffering or the approach of death. 
When the fatal bullet struck him, he was within elbow touch, on 


the right, with the author of this sketch, and was but third man 
from him in the row of w^ounded in the field hospital when he 

John S. McKibbin also received a wound, from the effect of 
which he died a few weeks later. Company D had no more faith- 
ful or dependable soldier, whether in the camp or in battle, than 
Mr. McKibben whose body now rests in the family burial lot near 
his boyhood home at Iberia. 

Hiram Wheeler and Washington Gardner were badly and Joel 
Wright slightly wounded at Resaca. Wright returned to the corn- 

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pany and served until the regiment was mustered out. Neither 
Wheeler nor Gardner was ever after able for duty in the field. 

In the Atlanta campaign, during which there were one hundred 
successive days that artillery or musketry firing could be heard 
somewhere along the line, Company D was reduced to two muskets 
in line for duty out of the more than eighty that went out from 
Mansfield. The company had been considerably strengthened by 
drafts and substitutes, but these not being from Morrow county are 
not considered in this sketch further than to say that they did 
splendid service, as is attested by the list of killed and wounded 
from their number, notably in the battles of Spring Hill and Nash- 


John S. Talmage, who had been promoted to first lieutenant, 
resigned in July, 1864, and Sergeant Snider became, during the 
same year, a captain in the United States colored troops. On 
December 14, 1864, while the Union army was lying on the out- 
skirts of Nashville, the non-veterans in the field were mustered out, 
they having served a little more than three years, the full term 
of enlistment, and were given an honorable discharge. They were 
Sergeant Ira Herrick, Sergeant Washington Gardner, and Private 
Barak M. Butler, Frederick Cutler, Zeno Hakes, Calvin W. Hudson 

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and Gilbert E. Miller. Three of these were from Mount Gilead 
and three from Westfield. John C. Barber was mustered out 
December 16, 1864, at Columbus, Ohio; Harrison Clark, October 
20tb, at Camp Dennison, Ohio ; William L. Thompson, January 10, 
1865 ; Joseph M. Parley, March 20, 1865, and Sergeant Robert W. 
Long, May 20, 1865. These were all members of the original com- 
pany and each had served three years or more. 

Those who had veteranized continued in the service. Among 
those was Jonathan Lewis. He was a great favorite in Westfield, 
where he was bom and reared. While home on veteran furlough, 
he married a Westfield young woman of good family. Most of his 
first period of service Lewis had been a musician ; consequently he 
did not go into battle. Near the close of his first enlistment he 
asked to enter the ranks and carry a gun. He was appointed a 
corporal November 1, 1864, and on the 14th day of December, the 
day his non-veteran comrades were discharged, he was made a ser- 
geant and on the 16th, two days later, was shot dead on the field 
of battle near Nashville. He was the last soldier of Company D to 
give his life for his country in battle. In the village cemetery at 
Westfield his body rests beside that of his brother, Orson, of the 
same company. 

Robert T. McKibben, a younger brother of John, came as a 
recruit to the company during the winter of 1862-3, and served the 
three years' term of enlistment. 

Of the original members of the company, when mustered out 
of service at Victoria, Texas, November 30, 1865, were Pirst Lieu- 
tenant William H. Smith, Pirst Lieutenant William H. Mozier, 
who had done excellent service as hospital steward; Second Lieu- 
tenant Joseph Meredith, who had served as regimental commissary 
sergeant ; Second Lieutenant Joel Wright, Sergeant Daniel Griffith 
and Sergeant Zeno Wood. 

According to the official record, the oldest man in Company D 
was Edward Terry, forty-nine, and the youngest Washington Gard- 
ner, sixteen. Both were from the village of Westfield. Nineteen 
per cent of the company was killed in battle, mortally wounded, or 
died of disease or in prison. Eighteen per cent were wounded once 
and several of these twice. Seven were captured on the field of 
battle, three of whom died in prison. Ten became commissioned 

So far as is known at this date, fifty years after enlistment, 
every surviving member has lived a respectable life. Several have 
been more than ordinarily successful in business, and some have 

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been honored by their fellow citizens with positions of trust and 
responsibility. Among the latter may be mentioned Captain Asa 
A. Gardner, who served the people of Morrow county as probate 
judge for a period of six years, and Lieutenant William H. Mozier, 
who held the same honorable oflBce in the county of Van Wert for 
three years. Captain Samuel P. Snider served two years in con- 
gress, and Sergeant Washington Gardner, a younger brother of 
Asa, served five years as secretary of state in Michigan and twelve 
years in congress. Snider and Gardner, each of whom was sixteen 
years old at the time of enlistment in 1861, were the **kids" of 
Company D. They were for a time bunk-mates and, so far as is 
known, are the only two rank-and-file soldiers who slept under the 
same army blanket in the war who afterward both served in the 
congress of the United States.. 

Company K, 66th Regiment, O. V. I. 

Sixteen soldiers from southwestern Morrow county served in 
Company K, Sixty-sixth Regiment, among whom were First Lieu- 
tenant Wilson Martin and Watson N. Clark; Sergeants Yelverton 
P. Barry and Alva M. Rhoads (both wounded at Chancellorsville, 
Virginia) and Philip Phillippi, and Privates William Powell (who 
lost a leg at Antietam, Maryland) and Francis C. Shaw. Those 
who served three years were Daniel W. Gibbs and Mark Sweet ; and, 
as veterans, Philip Phillippi, Benjamin Peak, John Van Brimer, 
James D. Bishop and Benjamin F. Stokes. 

Companies F, G and K, 81st Regiment, 0. V. I. 

In August and September, 1861, and later, seventy-five men 
from the eastern and northeastern parts of Morrow county enlisted 
in Company F, and G, and in August, 1862, thirty more in Com- 
pany K, Eighty-first Regiment. The complete organization of a 
full regiment was delayed many months. 

On the initial organization of the regiment Samuel E. Adams, 
of Chesterville, was made quartermaster and served as such from 
August 19, 1861, to August 18, 1864. 

Andrew R. Boggs, private in Company G, was promoted to 
quartermaster sergeant and served until July 22, 1862, and was 
discharged for disability ; later adjutant One Hundred and Thirty- 
sixth Regiment. 

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Pascal B. Ayers, aged fifty-one years, private Company Q, of 
Chesterville, was made commissary sergeant and discharged August 
22, 1862, for disabiUty. 

Richard S. Laycox, Company P, was promoted to principal 

The officers in Company P were : William Pitman, successively 
promoted from private to sergeant, first sergeant, sergeant major, 
second and first lieutenant and assistant adjutant general, second 
brigade, fourth division, Pifteeivth Army Corps; mustered out 
March 27, 1865; veterans. 

Wesley K. James, promoted from private to sergeant and first 
sergeant for good conduct at battle of Corinth, Mississippi; mus- 
tered out December 13, 1864. 

The officers of Company G, from Morrow county were Russell 
B. Kinsell, captain; Eli A. James, first lieutenant, and Caleb B. 
Ayres, second lieutenant, each of whom was commissioned October 
2, 1861, and resigned: Captain Kinsell, August 15, 1862; dis- 
charged : Lieutenant Ayres, September 30, 1862. Lieutenant James 
was discharged June 30, 1862. 

In the roster of Ohio soldiers of the Eighty-first Regiment, 
published by the state, fourteen soldiers, including Sergeant Samuel 
Virtue, are omitted from the roster, in Companies P and G. 

In Company H, Thomas H. Imes, was appointed sergeant 
August 21, 1862 ; promoted to first sergeant and to second and first 
lieutenant, and mustered out July 13, 1865. 

The first service of a detachment of the regiment, from 
September 24, 1861, to March 1, 1862, was in northern Missouri, 
where about one-half of the population were rebels and bush- 
whackers, which made the service especially dangerous, and where 
several expeditions against bands of guerrillas were undertaken, 
one of two weeks duration in December, 1861, on which the men 
at night slept on the ground in rain, sleet and snow with no covering 
but blankets. 

Early in March, 1862, the regiment left St. Louis, Missouri, 
on the transport and steamboat, ** Meteor," and arriving at Pitts- 
burg Landing March 17th, was assigned to McArthur's brigade of 
General C. P. Smith's division, and while in camp here the regiment 
was vigorously drilled by Major Evans. PoUowing the battle of 
Shiloh the rebel army retreated to Corinth, Mississippi, and in- 
trenched, the Union army beseiged it, but during the whole spring 
and until the evacuation of Corinth by the Rebel army May 15, 1862, 
only a few skirmishes occurred. The armies menaced each other 

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all summer at Corinth and on October 3 and 4, 1862, a great battle 
was fought in which the Eighty-first lost 14 killed and 44 wounded. 
In 1863, but two battles occurred in which the Eighty-first was 
engaged, Tuscumbia and Town Creek, Alabama, with small loss. 

In April, 1864, preparations were made for the Atlanta 
campaign, in which the Eighty-first was engaged in the following 
battles: Leys Ferry, May 14th and 15th; Rome Cross Roads, May 
16th ; Dallas, May 26th to June 4 ; Atlanta, June 22nd, and a second 
battle, July 28th ; the seige of Atlanta, July 28th to September 2nd ; 
Jonesboro, August 31st to September 1st, and Lovejoy Station, 
September 2nd to 6th, 1864, all in the state of Georgia; in which 
the Eighty-first, had 62 killed, 80 wounded and 160 died of disease. 

Those killed and died of wounds in Companies P and G, from 
Morrow county, were : Sergeant James Carrothers ; Corporal Abner 
McCall, and Privates Daniel H. Brown, Durbin Prench, Leman P. 
Qiflford and John R. Thompson ; and in Company K, Benton Karr. 
The wounded in Companies P and G were : Sergeants Ira Hartwell 
and Marcus L. Newland, and Privates George A. Crowell, John E. 
Jones ; in Company K, Thomas J. Bur well and Samuel Shaffer. 

The men of Company F who served three years were, besides 
those already noted above : Ira Hartwell, Marion Hartwell, Daniel 
W. Potts, Marcus L. Newland, William Bates, Napoleon B. Bowker, 
Benjamin P. Hartwell, James W. Galleher, Daniel Cooper, Silas 
Richey, Duncan Bowker, Moses Clark, Orion Clark, George W. 
Cunningham, John Gleason, Robert H. Inscho, Davis E. James, 
Caleb S. Jeffries, John E. Jones, Augustus Jones, Alexander Mann, 
Wiley Peterson, James D. Pitts, Clark Richards, Samuel J. Rogers, 
Sylvester Shipman and William Wagoner; and veterans George 
AUington, George A. Crowell, James Kennedy and Albert 

In Company K, which was enlisted in August, 1862, the men 
who served nearly three years were as follows : Lieutenant Thomas 
H. Imes; Peter Snyder, Joseph J. Smart, Stephen Hosford, John 
R. Stoller, Andrew W. Kerr, Samuel Mobley, Levi Arman, Delevan 
Brewer, John Burkhart, Thomas J. Burwell, William B. Dickey, 
Justus Dye, David L. Elder, George Fry, Charles S. Garberich, 
Harrison Harding, Jacob Hill, Samuel James, Samuel Pitman, 
Samuel Shaffer, Jacob B. Snyder, Thomas W. Snyder, Samuel 
Spigle, James Stall and Marcus L. Teeple. 

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Company C, 82nd Regiment, O. V. I. 

In November, 1861, Francis M. Baker and Morris Baker, of 
Harmony township (the latter wounded May 2, 1863, in the battle 
of Chaneellorsville, Virginia), enlisted in Company C, Ei^ty- 
second Regiment, and both were finally mustered out July 24, 1865, 
as veterans. 

G^eorge A. Breckenridge, of Westfield township, enlisted in the 
same company November 25, 1861, and was discharged May 13, 
1864, for wounds received July 1, 1863, at Gettysburg, Pennsyl- 

On February 29, 1864, Orlando D. Phillips enlisted in same 
company, and was wounded at Dallas, Georgia, May 25, 1864, and 
transferred to Veteran Relief Corps March 3, 1865. 

Companies B and C, 85th Regiment, O. V. I. 

James G. Shedd, of Mt. Gilead, May 27, 1862, enlisted for three 
months in Company B, Eighty-fifth Regiment, and in the last days 
of May and June, 1862, fifty-six men were from Morrow county en- 
listed for three months in Company C. Some of these men were 
transferred to Company I, Eighty-seventh Infantry. (See state 

Of Company C, Thomas S. Bunker was made captain; Silas 
Holt, first lieutenant (died August 4, 1862, at Camp Chase, Ohio), 
and Ludwell W. Nickols, second lieutenant, and all who were not 
transferred to Company I, Eighty-seventh Regiment, were mustered 
out September 23, 1862. 

Company I, 87th Regiment, O. V. I. 

The twenty men of Company C, Eighty-fifth Regiment, from 
Morrow county transferred to Company I, Eighty-seventh Ohio 
Volunteer Infantry, were with the remainder of the command taken 
prisoner at Harper's Perry, Virginia, September 15, 1862, by 
General ** Stonewall'* Jackson's Rebel army. After their term of 
enlistment had expired (the Eighty-seventh being a three months 
regiment), they were released on their paroles, and mustered out 
October 3, 1862. 

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88th Resoiment, O. V. I. 

In the early summer of 1862, four companies, called the First 
Battalion Governors' Ouards, were organized at Camp Chase, Ohio, 
and in July and August of that year six more companies were 
mustered into the United States service for three years, as the 
Eighty-eighth Ohio. Infantry. About one hundred men were from 
Morrow county, many of whom were drawn from the religious de- 
nomination of Friends, conscientiously opposed to war but desirous 
to serve their country. The regiment was engaged principally in 
guarding rebel prisoners at Camp Chase. It also took part in the 
pursuit of General John Morgan's raiders, and in the insurrection 
in Holmes county, Ohio. It was mustered out July 3, 1865. 

Companies C and D, 96th Regiment, 0. V. I. 

Of the field and staff oflScerp of the Ninety-sixth Regiment, 
Morrow county furnished the f (blowing: Adjutant George N. 


Clark, who was commissioned July 18, 1862, and, for ill health, re- 
signed February 28, 1863. 

David A Stark, adjutant ; promoted from Company C ; resigned 
November 20, 1863. 

Charles W. Ketcham, chaplain; commission dated September 
10, 1862, and resigned June 22, 1863. 

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George M. Scott, chaplain ; promoted from first sergeant Com- 
pany C, and discharged December 15, 1864. 

Henry S. Bunker, promoted from private Company C, to 
commissary sergeant, March 4, 1863, and mustered out with regi- 
ment, at Mobile, Alabama, July 7, 1865. 

Henry S. Green, promoted from private Company C to 
hospital steward, and mustered out with regiment, July 7, 1865, 
at Mobile, Alabama. 

The rendezvous of the regiment was at Camp Delaware, Ohio, 
and the men assisted in building the barracks; left by rail on 
September 1, 1862, and arrived at Covington, Kentucky, that 

Company C and seventy-five men of Company D, were enlisted 
in Morrow county in the last days of July and the early days of 
August, 1862. Twenty-five men of Company D, came from Marion 
county, Ohio. 

Levi Reichelderfer, who had served fourteen months in 
Company E, Fourth Regiment, Ohio Volunteer Infantry in the war 
with Mexico, from May 15, 1847, to July 20, 1848, was commissioned 
(July 23, 1862) as captain of Company C, and resigned March 26, 
1863. Thomas E. Shunk was commissioned August 9, 1862, as 
first lieutenant, and died March 27, 1863, at Milliken's Bend, 

David A. Stark was commissioned second lieutenant August 9, 
1862 ; promoted to first lieutenant and adjutant January 26, 1863, 
and resigned November 20, 1863. 

Morris Burns was appointed first sergeant and discharged for 
disability, March 11, 1863. 

Sergeant John W. Godman was promoted to first lieutenant 
March 27, 1863, and mustered out with company July 7, 1865. 

Sergeant Charles 0. Oldfield was promoted to second lieutenant 
January 26, 1863, and to first lieutenant July 13, 1864; transferred 
to Company B, and mustered out with company July 7, 1865. 

Sergeant Jacob W. Dalrymple was promoted to first sergeant 
April 30, 1864, and to second lieutenant November 18, 1864; 
transferred to Company B and mustered out with that company at 
Mobile, Alabama, July 7, 1865. 

Corporal George M. Scott was promoted to first sergeant and 
to chaplain, June 24, 1863, and discharged December 15, 1864. 

Sergeant George S. Singer, at the battle of Sabine Cross Roads, 
Louisiana, April 8, 1864, was color-bearer. On the retreat he was 
commanded by the rebels to surrender the colors, but amid a shower 

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of bullets, which riddled his clothes, refused to give up the flag 
and brought it safely oflF the field. He was discharged May 24, 

The hospital steward, Dr. Henry S. Green, at Sabine Cross 
Roads was taken prisoner, and was on duty ten weeks with three 
hundred Union wounded in Rebel hospitals at Mansfield, Louisiana. 

The killed and died of wounds in Company C at Arkansas 
Post, Arkansas, January 11, 1863, were Cyrus Devore, Daniel Lin- 
den and George W. Curren; at Grand Coteau, Louisiana, Novem- 
ber 3, 1863, William H. Wheeler; at Sabine Cross Roads, Louisiana, 
April 8, 1864, James J. Gilkison; and Daniel ^cClary, lost on 
steamer *' Sultana,*' April 28, 1865. The wounded were Robert T. 
Barge and William Faris at Vicksburg, Mississippi, and Alfred 
J. Battey, Francis M. Harris and Julius V. Wood (lost right arm), 
at Grand Coteau, Louisiana, and Gilbert Cronk and Peter D. Wil- 
son at Sabine Cross Roads. Died of Disease : Lieutenant Thomas 
E. Shunk, Sergeant John Kehrweaker, Corporal Robert P. Demuth, 
and Privates David Barber, Thomas Barber, George W. Barnhard, 
William D. Barnhard, Joshua Brokaw, Hampton Brown, Albert 
G. Caris, James W. Clark, John H. Click, Albert S. Coomer, James 
H. Coomer, Benson H. Conway, Jacob P. Cratt, James H. Cunning- 
ham, Elisha Everts, Edwin B. Frost, Josiah T. Howard, Lyman 
Losee, Joseph Matheany, John W. Myers, Oliver P. Phillips, An- 
drew J. Reed, Obed Rogers, Fortunatus Sherman, Caleb Under- 
wood, Albert D. White and Elias White. 

William M. Dwyer, who had previously served as sergeant for 
eight months in Company C, Fifteenth Regiment, Ohio Volunteer 
Infantry, was commissioned July 23, 1862, as captain of Company 
D, Ninety-sixth Regiment, and Thomas Litzenburg, at same date, 
was commissioned second lieutenant. For ill health. Captain 
Dwyer resigned January 26, 1863, and Lieutenant Litzenburg 
March 22, 1863. The first lieutenant, John B. Williams, who be- 
came captain, and First Sergeant John M. Godman, who also be- 
came captain, were both from Marion, Ohio. Sergeant David 
Bachelder was promoted to second and first lieutenant and captain, 
but not mustered as captain until after the war. He had, for a 
long period, performed the duties of captain and was entitled to that 
rank. He was mustered out November 18, 1864, by reason of the 
consolidation of the regiment into a battalion. 

The casualties in Company D, were : Killed or died of wounds 
at Arkansas Post (killed) : James M. Marvin, and (wounded). 
First Sergeant Robert F. Bartlett, George Brown, Nathan Clark 

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and Daniel May (lost right arm) ; at Vicksburg (killed) : John N. 
Geyer and Clark Miner and (wounded) William W. Reed, who was 
discharged for wounds September 5, 1863; at Grand Coteau, 
November 3, 1863 (killed) : George Blanehard, John C. Campbell, 
Henry W. Pranks, Henry Peerer and David W. Reid and 
(wounded) Pirst Sergeant Robert P. Bartlett (lost left arm), 
Amos G. Barger and Cyrus R. Myles; and killed at Sabine Cross 
Roads, Charles H. Kendall. Died of disease: Madison Walker 
Wagoner, George Blow, Charles Boynton, Ryla W. Busby, Hiram 
O. Cooper, Alexander Dakan, Abner J. Dennis, William P. Dennis, 
Joseph Devolt, David Perguson, Benjamin Kennedy, Nicholas Bole, 
Benjamin W. McDonald, Thomas Maiden, Malachi Mann, Isaac 
N. Miracle, James Moore, Alexander Reed, Alexander D. Reed, 
Joseph A. Reed, Madison Shields, John ShoflFner, Daniel L. Smith 
and John M. Young. 

Deaths from disease, while General Grant's army was 
encamped near Vicksburg, at Young's Point and Milliken's Bend, 
in the Ninety-sixth Regiment, (as in all others), were very numer- 
ous. One hundred and seventeen soldiers of this regiment are 
buried in the Vicksburg National Military Park Cemetery. The 
total number is nearly 17,000, and of this number 12,704 graves 
are unidentified. The casualties . of the entire regiment were: 
Killed and died of wounds, 49; wounded, 54, and died of disease, 
217. Total 320. 

The men of Company C who had served nearly three years, 
besides those above noted, were : Harrison Doty, Amos Pell, Dewitt 

C. Sanford, Chester Thompson, Gilbert Cronk, John G. H. Metz- 
ner, Jacob R. Lyon, Reuben Aldrich, Robert T. Barge, Peter Battey, 
Spencer Booher, John P. Burdine, Prancis M. Curren, Prancis M. 
Harris, Andrew Hart, Jesse H. Hudson, Silas E. Idleman, Samuel 

D. Kemerer, George B. Lee, Chauncey Lewis, Daniel McClary, 
David C. Marvin, John B. May, Henry W. Sanderson, Alpheus 
Scofield, Mathew D. Smith, William Weaver, Henry C. Wells, 
Peter D. Wilson and George W. Wolf. 

And of Company D ; Barkley P. Irwin, Abraham B. McGowen, 
David R. Bender, William H. Messenger, John W. Coe, Jacob B. 
Pisher, Isaac Ealy, Samuel R. Dille, Cornelius Nicholas, Amos G. 
Barger, Lemuel H. Breese, William H. Briggs, David Butler, 
David Colmery, Albert Davis, Isaac M. Dewitt, Isaac Hall, Jacob 
H. Henney, George H. Jones, Royal D. McDonald, Simon A. Num- 
bers, Isaiah Pinyerd, William W. Russell, Henry J. Smith, Melville 
B. Talmage and William Vanatta. The Ninety-sixth Battalion was 

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finally discharged July 29, 1865, at Camp Chase, Ohio, having 
been mustered out July 7, 1865, at Mobile, Alabama. 

A War Reminiscence. 

By Robert F. Bartlett 

**It was up the Teehe with General Banks, in the fall of the 
year 1863; that valley in Louisiana that George W. Cable has 
made memorable in his writings, for its beauty and fertility and as 
the land of the Acadian exiles from Nova Scotia in 1755. 

**The Thirteenth Army Corps had, a few weeks before, been 
detached from the Army of the Tennessee, at Vicksburg, and sent 
to the Army of the Gulf. 

**The campaign and siege of Vicksburg had recently closed, 
during which occurred strategy most bewildering to the enemy, 
terrific attacks by the Union army, and stubborn resistance by the 
Confederates; and in all this memorable campaign, the Thirteenth 
Army Corps had borne a prominent part. 

**0n arrival at New Orleans, in the last days of August, the 
corps was camped on the common above the city, on which the 
Cotton Exposition Buildings in 1885 were located, and the Thir- 
teenth and Nineteenth Army Corps were reviewed by Generals 
Grant and Banks, and General L. Thomas, adjutant general, 
U. S. A. 

** Later the two corps entered on what is known in the history 
of the Civil war, as the Teche expedition. On October 3rd tha 
Ninty-sixth Ohio Infantry, under orders, turned over their camp 
tents and received dog, or shelter tents, which the boys called 
**purp*' tents, broke camp and embarked on a steamer and was 
transported to a landing at Algiers, the eastern terminus of a 
railroad running eighty-three miles west of Brashear. It is now 
a part of the Great Southern Pacific system, from New Orleans to 
San Francisco. 

**0n disembarking from the steamboat, it was found that a 
train of flat gravel cars on which was loaded a train of army 
wagons, cleated on, was the transportation provided to carry the 
regiment to Brashear. We awaited orders. The shades of even- 
ing were approaching, and in the dusk of the evening the regiment 
was ordered to board these gravel cars under the army wagons, and 
the soldiers with hilarious shouts climbed on the cars and put 
down their blankets as best they could. The lieutenant command- 

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mg Company D and the writer hereof, and another comrade long 
since mustered out, fixed our blankets under the fore axle of an 
army wagon, where only a small space was permitted above us, and 
so rode until late in the night to Brashear, now Morgan, and got 
off and laid down on the wharf, and slept until morning light. 

**The patriotism of a true soldier forbade him to murmur at 
hardships, and his loyalty and faithfulness required unquestioned 
obedience to orders. The soldiers laughed at apparent impossibil- 
ities, and always attempted to carry out their orders. 

**By easy marches we advanced through Pattersonville, Frank- 
lin, New Iberia and Vermillionville, now Lafayette, to Opelousas, 
and on our marches saw orange orchards, and fields of sugar cane, 
which were quite new and interesting to us, and also fields of yams 
and cotton. 

**The soldiers of Ohio were, by law, permitted to vote in the 
field, and we camped at Vermillionville long enough to vote for the 
governor of Ohio, John Brough was the Union candidate, and 
Clement L. Vallandigham, who had been arrested for treasonable 
utterances and sent through the Confederate lines, was the candi- 
date opposed. The vote of the regiment wqn two hundred and 
twenty-one for Brough, and five for Vallandigham. 

**Prom here on to Opelousas frequent skirmishes occurred be- 
tween the cavalry, when the enemy was met in such force, that we 
fell back from Opelousas ten miles and the army encamped on 
Carencro bayou, with a strong rear guard, consisting of the 
brigade of General S. G. Burbridge and a detachment of the Four- 
teenth New York Cavalry the One Hundred and Eighteenth Illinois 
MoTinted Infantry, the First Louisiana Cavalry, one section of the 
Second Massachusetts Light Artillery, and the Seventeenth Ohio 
Battery Light Artillery, in all sixteen hundred and twenty-five 
men, camped on the prairie at the edge of a wood, on Bayou 
Bourbeau, and three miles to the rear of the main army. It was 
a weird place for a camp, as the trees in the woods were festooned 
with southern moss. 

**For three days the enemy's cavalry hovered about our rear, 
and skirmished with our cavalry videts, and on November 3rd a 
force of the enemy admitted to be four to one, to our rear guard, 
attacked us. 

**I pass over the events of the battle, only to say that the 
enemy's cavalry swept around our left flank, and captured several 
hundred men, many being wounded, and to mention the gallant 
conduct of Colonel Thomas H. Bringhurst of the Forty-sixth Indi- 

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ana Infantrv% and Colonel John Connell of the Twenty^eighth Iowa 
Infantry, who at their regimental camps, three miles away, on hear- 
ing the roar of battle, formed* their regiments, without awaiting 
orders, and came on the double quick across the prairie, and checked 
the cavalry of the enemy that had flanked us on our left. Later the 
main army came up in battle line, and the enemy, not desiring to 
bring on a general engagement, withdrew. 

**At evening, forty-seven of us, severely wounded, found our- 
selves within the lines of the enemy and prisoners of war, at the 
plantation of Mrs. Rodgers whose place was appointed for a tempo- 
raiy hospital ; and for the humane acts, and for the kindly solici- 
tude of this noble southern woman, and to commemorate the same, 
this reminiscence is written. Mrs. Rodgers said to the writer 
that she could not see anyone, either Confederate or Federal, suffer 
and not do all in her power to relieve them. Nearly one hundred 
wounded men, from both sides, were at her house, and her rooms 
and verandas were filled with the most severely wounded, lying on 
cots and bed mattresses and sofas, which she had placed for them. 
On that night, of November ^Srd, I lay on the veranda on a hair- 
cloth sofa without sleep, with an ounce bullet in my left elbow ; at 
my head a Confederate soldier, mortally wounded, lay on a bed 
mattress, and silently died during the night; at my feet lay my own 
comrade, David W. Reid, mortally wounded on a bed mattress, and 
he also died early the next morning, and both were buried in the 
same grave on the front lawn, under the China trees. Under in- 
struction from Mrs. Rodgers, the servants prepared yams and meat 
and bread and milk for the wounded, and she ministered to the 
soldiers herself, and all were treated alike, and all was done that 
could be done by her. 

**Many of the *Cajun' neighbors, came with carriages, and 
carryalls and inquired for the Union wounded, to care for them. 

** During the day, November 4th, General J. P. Major, who 
commanded a brigade of Confederate cavalry, came to the house, 
and talked with the soldiers of both sides and was courteous to all. 

** About four o'clock that afternoon the medical director of our 
brigade and staff, with ambulances, came to Mrs. Rodgers planta- 
tion and met the oflRcers of the enemy appointed for the purpose, 
and the surviving wounded were exchanged, and soon after night- 
fall arrived at the camp of the Union army on Carencro bayou, 
happy to be again in our own lines. 

**In all the years since, my mind has reverted, with feelings of 
gratitude to this dear old lady for her kindly sympathy and deeds. 

Vol. I— 11 

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**Much has been forgiven and passed into oblivion between the 
soldiers of the north and south, and both sides respect and admire 
the courage of the other, and not to do so is to question our own 

One Hundred and Second Ohio Inpantby. 

Ten men from the northern part of our county served in the 
One Hundred and Second Regiment, among whom were: Cyrus 
Shumway, Robert Barr and Henry Riggle, of Company C ; Thomas 
B. Keech and David K. Mitchell, of Company D, and Peter W. 
Shambaugh and Isaac Baker, of Company E. Captain Amos J. 
Moore (as private of Company D, Fourth Ohio Volunteer Infantry) 
and Benton L. Thompson, served three years each in Company H, 
One Hundred and Eighteenth Regiment. 

In the One Hundred and Twentieth Regiment, Ohio Volunteer 
Infantry, John E. Cromer, Alfred J. Creigh and Milton Parks, 
served in Company I, and Leyman Webster in Company K. The 
latter died in the service. 

One Hundred and Twenty-first Regiment, 0. V. I. 

The larger part of Companies D and E, of the One Hundred 
and Twenty-first Regiment, and a few men in Companies P and 
G, were from Morrow county and reported at their rendezvous, 
Camp Delaware, Ohio, the afternoon of September 1, 1862, which 
camp the Ninety-sixth Ohio Infantry had vacated early that 

William Smith Irwin, of Mt. Gilead, was commissioned 
lieutenant colonel, August 18, 1862> and he resigned from ill health 
March 17, 1863. 

The regiment was mustered into the service of the United 
States on September 11, 1862. 

In Company D there were no commissioned oflScers from 
Morrow county; all were from Delaware county. Benjamin A. 
Banker, of Morrow, was appointed first sergeant and promoted to 
second lieutenant, Company P, March 1, 1863; to first lieutenant, 
Company C March 31, 1864; to captain Company A August 29, 
1864, and mustered out with Company A, June 8, 1865. 

Sergeant Isaac D. Irwin, Company D, was promoted to 
commissary sergeant May 11, 1865, and mustered out with regiment 
June 8, 1865. 

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The commissioned oflSeers in Company E, from Morrow county, 
were: David Lloyd, captain, who died of wounds August 7, 1864, 
received at Kenesaw Mountain, Georgia, June 27, 1864; Elisha B. 
Cook, second lieutenant, resigned September 7, 1863, for disability ; 
Perry Swetland, private Company D, promoted to principal musi- 
cian and mustered out with regiment; Milton D. Wells, promoted 
from private Company H, to quartermaster sergeant, November 6, 
1862, and to first lieutenant Company D, April 12, 1864, and ap- 
pointed quartermaster, and mustered out with regiment June 8, 

On October 8, 1862, lass than one month from muster, the 
regiment took part at the battle of Perryville, Kentucky, had large 
losses in killed and wounded, and besides losses at Perryville, Ken- 
tucky, the greatest losses of the regiment were at Chickamauga, 
Georgia, September 20, 1863, Kenesaw Mountain, Georgia, June 
6-30, 1864, and Bentonville, North Carolina March 19-21, 1865. The 
most terrific contest in which the regiment was engaged was at the 
battle of Chickamauga, Georgia, as a part of I. Steadman's divi- 
sion of General George H. Thomas' corps, in which the repeated 
assaults of the Rebels, in overwhelming numbers, were repulsed. 
At this time the battle flag of the Twenty-second Alabama Infantry, 
and most of the men of that regiment, were captured by the One 
Hundred and Twenty-first Ohio, but with great losses to that com- 
mand; for five officers and seventeen men were killed, and seven 
officers and seventy men wounded. Governor David Tod, of Ohio, 
acknowledged the receipt of the flag of the Twenty-second Alabama, 
as a trophy of the valor of the One Hundred and Twenty-first Ohio, 
and returned his own with the thanks of the loyal people of Ohio. 

On the Atlanta campaign, which commenced early in May, 
1864, the One Hundred and Twenty-first entered with 18 officers 
and 429 men, and at the close of the campaign in September, 1864, 
the reports show that four officers and 22 men had been killed, and 
8 officers and 205 men wounded and one captured. 

The men from Morrow county who were killed or died of 
wounds were: Killed, George Shafer, first sergeant; corporal Wil- 
liam Baxter, and Jarvis H. Aldrich, Joshua Barry, Chester 
Bartholomew, Washington Liggett, Sanford Olds, William M. 
Slack and Hugh Worline (last named in Rebel prison), Willis 
S. Gibbons, Peter Harris and Clark Pierce; and (wounded), 
Ezekiel B. Slack, Captain David Lloyd (at Chickamauga and also 
at Kenesaw Mountain), Byron Colwell, Charles Owens, Edward P. 
Reid, John Ruggles and Martin G. Modie, of Company G (lost 
both thumbs by a single gunshot). 

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Died of disease in the service : Sergeant Henry C. Bishop and 
Gideon Worline; Privates George W. Barnes, David Cooley, Ben- 
jamin Denton, Almon L. Ruggles, Theodore P. Wood, Edward L. 
Bliss, David Lyon, Raymond Sheldon, David P. Watkins and 
Thomas West. 

The men of Company D who served nearly three years were: 
Isaac D. Irwin, promoted to commissary sergeant ; Perry Swetland, 
promoted to principal musician ; Danford Hare, Alfred R. Livings- 
ton, Caleb N. Morehouse, Ezekiel B. Slack, Lester W. Case, Benja- 
min F. McMaster, Milton Hicks, Charles Holt, Joseph Lewis, Lewis 
K. Riley, Albert L. Slack, Matthew D. Sterritt, Andrew J. Utter 
and Harman J. Wheeler. Those of Company E were: Captain 
James A. Moore, Daniel S. Mather, David R. Evans, Clark Pierce, 
Columbus D. Pierce, George W. Williams, William T. Carson, David 
C. Breese, Christian Sellers, John Bain, David P. Bliss, Christian 
Edgell, Samuel A. Fiddler, William B. Fowler, Edward M. Hall, 
William H. Howard, Jeremiah Jones, Edward P. Reid, William B. 
Wagoner, Ephraim H. Watkins, Emory A. Wilson and Lucius V. 
Wood. Those of Company G, were: David Dwyer, Paul C. 
Wheeler and Martin G. Modie. 

One Hundred .\nd Twenty-Eighth Regiment, O. V. I. 

Seven men served in Company K, One Hundred and Twenty- 
eighth Regiment, under an enlistment for three years, to-wit: 
Thomas C. Cunard, Lucius C. Kinu:, Morgan Wiseman, Orlando R. 
Clark, Thomas Roby, James W. Underhill and John O. Underhill. 

One Hundred and Thirty-Sixth Regiment, O. V. I. 

The one-hundred day men who went out May 2, 1864, 
performed a very patriotic duty, and relieved that many drilled 
and trained soldiers, who went to the front in General Grant's **0n 
to Richmond,'* campaign. About 450 of these men were in Com- 
panies A, C, F, G and I, One Hundred and Thirty-sixth Regiment, 
and 32 in the One Hundred and Forty-second Regiment. Their 
services were mainly in the forts in the vicinity of Washington 
City, D. C. The One Hundred and Thirty-sixth was mustered out 
August 31, 1864. 

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One Hundred and Seventy-Fourth Regiment, 0. V. I. 

The One Hundred and Seventy-fourth Regiment was the 
second of the one-year regiments to organize, in July, August and 
September, 1864, and fully one-half of the field and staff, and oflS- 
eers of the line, and the men in the ranks, were trained soldiers 
who had seen service at the front from one to three years. Colonel 
John S. Jones (from Delaware county) had served from April 21, 
1861, to June 21, 1864, as an officer in the Fourth Regiment. Lieu- 
tenant Colonel Amos J. Sterling (from Union county) had served 
as Captain, Company F, Thirty-first Regiment for over two years 
and had been discharged for wounds. 

Of the field and staff officers, William G. Beatty, major; Ben- 
jamin J. George, chaplain (promoted from private. Company I) ; 
Balera J. Aurand, commissary sergeant (promoted from private, 
Company H), and Davis McCreary, principal musician (promoted 
from musician. Company A), were from Morrow county. 

Nearly all of Companies A and K were from Morrow county, 
with a few in each company from Marion county. Company A 
was recruited in the vicinity of Cardington and William G. Beatty 
was captain and was promoted to major; Henry Rigby, first lieu- 
tenant, and promoted to captain ; John B. White, private and pro- 
moted to second and first lieutenant, and discharged May 18, 1865, 
for wounds; and William F. Wallace, promoted from private to 
first sergeant and second lieutenant. 

The officers of Company K, were : Henry McPeek, captain ; B. 
B. Mc(?owen, first lieutenant; Thomas J. Weatherby, second lieu- 
tenant, and William W. McCracken, first sergeant. The latter had 
served in Company A, Twentieth Regiment, was discharged for 
wounds received at the battle of Champion Hill, Mississippi. 

Because so many of the regiment had seen service, it was rushed 
to the front and on December 4, 1864, took part in the battle of 
Overall's Creek, Tennessee, and on December 7th, in the battle of 
the Cedars, Tennessee, in which many of the regiment were killed 
and wounded. On January 17, 1865, the regiment was ordered to 
Washington, District of Columbia, and thence to Fort Fisher, North 
Carolina, aiid on March 10, 1865, took part in the battle of Wise's 
Fork, North Carolina, with numerous fatal casualties. 

It is believed that the One Hiindred and Seventy-fourth did 
the most fighting of any among the one-year regiments, and its 
casualties were 22 killed, wounded 39, and died from disease, 95: 
The regiment belonged to Ruger's division. Twenty-third Army 

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Corps. Those who died of wounds in Company A, were: William 
A. Henry and Franklin T. Smith ; wounded : Elwood Bunker, and 
died of disease: Marvin Burt, Samuel L. Milligan, Lafayette Al- 
drich, Henry Pairchild, Albert Matthews, Cyrus Mowry, Melville 
W. Nichols, Wesley II. Peek, Isaac Perkins, Joseph Reed, Gard- 
ner Sage and John P. Demuth. 

In Company K, the died-of-wounds was Julius M. Woodford; 
wounded, Gilbert J. Conklin and Adin W. Salisbury ; died of dis- 
ease, Joel Fiant, William M. Parker, Alexander M. Parks, Clarkson 
C. Parks and Israel Shaffer. The regiment was mustered out June 
28, 1865, at Charlotte, North Carolina. 

179th and 180TII Regiments, 0. V. I. 

Forty men from ^lorrow county served in the One Hundred 
and Seventy-ninth Regiment; fifteen in Company A, and twenty- 
five in Company F. In the latter company two officers had seen 
service; First Lieutenant John W. Hammer, in ('ompany D, Ninety- 
sixth Ohio Vohmteer Infantry, and First Sergeant Benjamin 
Tuthill, in Company B, Forty-third Regiment. The enlistments 
were chiefly in September, 1864, and for one year. The regiment 
was on duty at and in the vicinity of Ntishville, Tennessee. There 
were no casualties save from disease or accident, which numbered 

Eighteen men served in the One Hundred and Eightieth Ohio 
Infantry, on enlistments for one year: one in Company A; eight in 
Company C, of whom Second Lieutenant Oscar L. R. French, who 
had served in Company P], Twenty-sixth, and I, One Hundred and 
Thirty-sixth was one; two men in Company II, and seven men of 
C(>!ii]>any I. Henry II. Shaw, private of Company I, was promoted 
to assistant surgeon. One Hundred and Eighty-fourth Regiment. 
The One Hundred and Eightieth was engaged with the enemy at 
Wise's Fork, near Kingston, North Carolina. March 8, 1865, and 
the losses were two killed and three died of wounds. Seventy-five 
died of disease. Total casualties, eighty. 

18TTn ANo ISSth Re(ji.mknts, O. V. I. 

Forty men of Company d. One Hundred and Eighty-seventh 
Infantry, enlisted for ouo year, in February. ISdf^ many of whom 
had served for three years in old rcLriinents. whose terms of enlist- 
nunxX had expinnl. John (\)iii]y liaxtei- was coniinissioned 

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captain. He had served in Company G. One Hundred and 
Thirty-sixth Regiment. Warner Hayden was commissioned first 
lieutenant, and he had served in Company E, One Hundred and 
Twenty-first, Company G, One Hundred and Thirty-sixth ; and Bela 
G. Merrill, second lieutenant, had served in Company I, Third 
Regiment. All were commissioned March 2, 1865 ; on the following 
day the regiment was taken by rail to Nashville, Tennessee, and 
ordered to repor', at Dalton, Georgia, and did provost duty there 
and at Kingston and Macon, Georgia, until January 20, 1866, when 
it was mustered out at the place last named. One man, James R. 
Craven, died March 12, 1865. 

Four men from Morrow county served in Company F, One 
Hundred and Eighty-eighth Ohio Infantry. George Ilibbard, 
Thomas Ayres, John C. Cooley (killed on cars August 27, 1865), 
and George McClary, the last of whom had served in Company G, 
Third Ohio Volunteer Infantry, and Company G, of the Tenth Regi- 
ment, for three years and two months, continued to serve from 
February 1, 1865, until September 21, 1865. 

Artillery and Cavalry. 

Ten men of Company I, Second Regiment, Ohio Volunteer 
Heavy Artillery, enlisted from ^lorrow county in the summer of 
1863 for three years. Charles H. Dalrymple was appointed 
quartermaster sergeant of Company I, and promoted to regimental 
quartermaster sergeant, January 19, 1865, and to second lieutenant 
Company M, February 23, 1865, and mustered out with company 
August 23, 1865. 

Ten men of Battery E, First Regiment, Ohio Light Artiller>', 
enlisted; most of them in August, 1861. They were: Francis M. 
Jeffrey, corporal; John McNeal, wounded December 31, 1862, at 
Stone River; John F. McNeal (later a prominent lawyer at Marion, 
Ohio) ■; William Wallace McNeal, killed December 31, 1862, at battle 
of Stone River, Tennessee; Henry McPeak, George W. Miller, Jacob 
Miller, Reason R. Morrison, Albert J. Myers and Godfrey F. 
Pfeiffer. The majority of these men served three years. 

Seven men from ^lorrow county served from September, 1861, 
in the First Regiment, Ohio Volunteer Cavalry : Hays Clark, aged 
forty-two, in Company C, and discharged November 29, 1862; in 
Company K, Abram F. ^McCurdy, second lieutenant ; resigned June 
16, 1862, and also major of Tenth Regiment ; John I\l. Schultz (who 
had served in Company I), Third Ohio Infantry in war with 

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Mexico), wounded June 15, 1864, at Kenesaw Mountain, Georgia 
(veteran) ; Balera J. Aurand, William E. Campbell, William 
Cyphers and Samuel Darrah. Of John M. Schultz, his captain has 
said that he was a **dare devil" and would recklessly ride after 
the enemy. The regiment was mustered out September 13, 1865, 
at Hilton Head, South Carolina. 

In Companies D, E, F, L and M, Third Regiment, Ohio 
Volunteer Cavalry, ninety-seven men from Morrow county served, 
from the fall of 1861, as follows: William Meredith and Harvey 
Kerns, Company D; James C. Serrells (or Searles) and Cyrus 
Hoy, Company E ; Elijah Boxley, Company F ; and Chauncey Olds, 
Company L (died of wound, November 9, 1862). The balance, 
ninety-one men, were in Company M. John W. Marvin was com- 
missioned captain ; Henry C. Miner, who had served as second lieu- 
tenant in Company C, Fifteenth Infantry, for three months from 
April 23, 1861, was commissioned first lieutenant September 18, 
1861; promoted to captain January 21, 1863, and mustered out 
November 22, 1864. 

James W. Likens was appointed second lieutenant September 
8, 1861; promoted to first lieutenant January 21, 1863, and re- 
signed May 16, 1864. 

William S. Furbay was appointed first sergeant November 8, 
1861 ; promoted to second lieutenant January 2, 1863, but not mus- 
tered ; discharged for disability January 23, 1863. 

Thomas A. O'Rourke, was appointed company quartermaster 
sergeant November 8, 1861, and first sergeant August 11, 1864; 
promoted to second lieutenant Company L, July 13, 1864, and first 
lieutenant Company D, January 6, 1865, and mustered out with 
company August 4, 1865 ; veteran. 

John H. Fisher was appointed sergeant November 8, 1861; 
wounded in left forearm June 15, 1864, and mustered out October 

13, 1864, for wounds and expiration of service. 

Henry D. Smith was appointed sergeant November 8, 1861 ; 
discharged for disability August 12, 1862. 

Melville R. Benson was appointed corporal November 8, 1861 ; 
killed December 31, 1862, at battle of Stone River. 

Horace B. White, private, aged fifty, was promoted to battalion 
hospital steward, December 1, 1861. 

Napoleon B. Benedict, private, died September 3, 1864, of 
wounds received in action. 

James S. Dodge was a recruit to Company M, enlisting July 

14, 1862, at the age of sixteen years; was appointed corporal and 

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sergeant; mustered out with company August 4, 1865, and became 
a prominent lawyer and judge at Elkhart, Indiana. 

On an expedition to Knoxville, Tennessee, Company M charged 
a company of Georgia cavalry and Private Jacob Kreis selected his 
man. As they came in collision and their sabers clashed, Jake's 
saber flew out of his grasp, but with great presence of mind he 
spurred his horse close to his enemy ; seized him by his long hair, 
dragged him off his horse, and captured him. As Jake said, ** When 
I goes for you, I takes you.*' He had herculean strength, and 
the rebel was not his equal. The regiment was mustered out 
August 4, 1865, at Nashville, Tennessee. 

The men from Morrow county who served three years were: 
Sergeants, Marion Eldred and John A. Brown; Corporals, J. K. 
P. Harris, and Privates Charles A. Anderson, Samuel Everett, 
Alexander W. Everett, William Hennie, Naaman Hodge, Silas 
Jacobs, John T. Jamison, Jacob Kreis, John Lackey, George W. 
Preston, Joseph Rogers, Adelbert B. White, William A. White and 
Frederick Yahn. Those who served more than three years as 
veterans, were : First Sergeant John S. Chapin, Sergeant Louis R. 
Miller, Corporal Frederick Reidel, Bugler Hiram Martin, Farrier 
Joseph Adams, and Privates Valentine Childers and Daniel E. 

Omar D. Neill enlisted for one year in Company I, Fourth 
Cavalry, and was discharged with company. 

Rolvin J. Brennen and Asa Messenger served in Company C, 
Fifth Cavalry, and both were mustered out with company October 
30, 1865. 

Benjamin F. Davis was assistant surgeon in the Fourty-fourth 
Regiment, Ohio Volunteer Infantry, and Eighth Cavalry. 

Alden P. Moore was sergeant in Company D, Forty-fourth 
Regiment, Ohio Volunteer Infantry, and in Company I, Eighth 
Ohio Volunteer Cavalry. 

Eleven men served in Company K, Ninth Ohio Volunteer 
Cavalry, who enlisted in October and November, 1863, for three 
years. They were: Alben Coe, first lieutenant, and promoted to 
captain Company E ; William Logan, Oscar P. Bowker, Levi Ema- 
hizer, Alfred McDonald, Charles S. Miller, Alexander Poland, 
Sidney A. Sayre, Henry Soladay, Levi Townsend (who were all 
mustered out July 20, 1865),- and George Rodney (who died March 
29, 1864). 

Abram F. McCurdy was commissioned October 6, 1862, second 

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lieutenant, Company B. Tenth Cavalry, and promoted to captain 
and major. William J. Dick, Peter Brewer (killed at Resaca, 
Georgia), Oswald M. Bruce, Thomas C. Crane, William Nichols, 
Edward P. Rose, John Rose and Francis M. Sloan, served in Com- 
pany B. 

William M. Hayden enlisted in Company B, as private, was 
promoted to commissary sergeant and second lieutenant Company 
L; mustered out July 24, 1865. 

Simon Poland, Company L ; mustered out June 10, 1865. 

Denton J. Snider, enlisted as private in Company H; was 
appointed sergeant and promoted to second lieutenant. Company P, 
One Hundred and Twenty-fourth Regiment, Ohio Volunteer 

James Taylor Corwin served in Company G, Twelfth Cavalry, 
and Prancis Newson and Jacob Watson in Company H. 

Wilbert Granger (wounded at Dinwidie Courthouse, Virginia) ; 
Albert Claypool, Jesse Henry and Alonzo J. Rose served in Pifth 
Independent Battalion and Company B, Thirteenth Ohio Volunteer 
Cavalry, on three years* enlistment. 

On six-months' enlistment, in the summer of 1863, Sergeant 
Alva C. Shaw, Hubbard M. Betts, Madison Poust, William P. Per- 
guson, Zenas L. Mills and James William Sexton, served in Com- 
pany B, Pifth Independent Ohio Volunteer Cavalry; the last man 
also in Company D, Sixty-fourth Ohio Volunteer Infantry. 

On September 3, 1864, William P. Armstrong and (Jeorge 
Karns, enlisted, each for one year in Company M, Merrill's Horse; 
mustered out January 10, 1865. 

Ohio Boys in Other Commands. 

The military history of Morrow county would not be complete 
if it failed to give the services in the army of many of its native 
sons, who grew up to young manhood within its borders, and went 
to other states, as Union soldiers, and therefore as many as can be 
leamo'l about, are here mentioned : 

John Purvis, One Hundred and Eleventh Regiment Illinois 
Infantry, three years. 

Joseph Grove, Company P, Eighth Regiment Illinois Infantry, 
five years. 

Richard M. Hoy, Company G, One Hundred and Second 
Illinois Infantry. 

Lyman Beecher Straw, Company B, One Hundred and Second 

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Illinois Infantry ; killed at Peachtree Creek, Georgia, July 20, 1864. 

Mitchell Blair, Thirteenth Regiment Illinois Infantry. 

Butler Dunham, Eighty-eighth Regiment Illinois Infantry; 
killed at Kenesaw Mountain, Georgia, June 27, 1864. 

Uenry B. Crane, Company H, Fifty-ninth Regiment Illinois 

Cyrus G. Benedict, Company I, One Hundred and Fifty-third 
Regiment Illinois Infantry. 

Levi Benedict, Company A, Second Regiment Colorado 

Henry C. Shunk, Eighth Regiment Indiana Infantry. 

Liston A. Coomer, Company A, Thirtieth Regiment Indiana 
Infantry: wounded June 27, 1864, at Kenesaw Mountain; served 
four yehvs, 

Byron Talmage Cooper, Company H, Twenty-ninth Indiana 

James C. McKee, Company C, Thirty-seventh Indiana Infan- 
try three years; and Company A, Thirty-eighth Indiana, eighteen 

Benjamin F. Pinyerd, Thirtieth Indiana ; three years. 

Nathan N. Mosher, Company G, Third Iowa Infantry. 

Ephraim Cooper, Seventeenth Iowa Infantry; killed at 
Jackson, Mississippi, May 14, 1863. 

Charles McDonald, Twenty-second Iowa Infantry ; drowned iix 
Mississippi river. 

Morris Barge, Thirty- fourth Iowa Infantry; died near Vicks- 
burg, Mississippi, in May, 1863. 

C. V. Gardner, captain of company in Twenty-ninth Iowa 

James M. Gardner, captain of company of same regiment. . 

Ralph Emerson Cook, private Company E, Twelfth Kansas 
Infantry; captain First Kansas Colored Infantry; killed October 
6, 1863, by QuantrelPs guerillas. 

John R. Cook, Company E, Twelfth Kansas Infantry. 

William Swart, Company A, First Kansas Infantry. 

Richard W. Duncan, Sixth Michigan Infantry; killed at Port 
Hudson, Mississippi, in 1863. 

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George Nelson, Company G, Eleventh Michigan Cavalry. 
Ephraim Zolman, First Michigan Light Artillery. 

Sidney A. Breese, captain in Sixth Missouri Cavalry. 

William Thomas, Eighth Missouri Infantry. 

Samuel Garver, Company F, Fourth Missouri Cavalry. 

Daniel Beers, Eighth Company, First Battalion, New York 

. Sylvester Willison, in regiment ^ew York Infantry. Lost an 
arm at Antietam, Maryland, September 11, 1862. 

Silas H. Bush, Company I, Eighth Pennsylvania Infantry; 


Company I, Fifth Regiment, United States Colored Troops: 
Curtis Revels, William Salters. Daniel Johnson (died in service), 
and Lewis St. John (died in service). 

Company C, Sixth United States Regiment: John Scott and 
Jefferson Kemp (died in service). 

Twenty-sixth United States Regiment: Henry Johnson (died 
in service). 

Fifty-fifth Massachusetts: John Cosby, David M. V. Kinney, 
George Lewis and Elijah Revels. 

More than 360,000 Federal soldiers gave their lives to save 
the Union of states; their blood has consecrated to freedom every 
slave state, and it is believed that the foregoing history shows con- 
clusively that the soldiers from Morrow county, Ohio, fully did 
their part. 

United States Navy. 

Douglas Roben, lieutenant. 

Edwin T. Pollock, lieutenant commander (see sketch). 

Smith De Muth, United States Marine Corps, October, 1873. 

Albert F. Rushmund; battleship ** Maine,*' August 7, 1901— 
August 6, 1905. 

Clarence W. Ewers, April 2, 1907 ; battleship ** Rhode Island;" 
cruise around the world. 

Gilbert H. Kelly; enlisted May 21, 1904; rating landsman; 
served on United States steamer ** Hancock," until April, 1905, 

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and United States steamer ** Maryland," on cruise around world; 
discharged May 24, 1908 ; rating yeoman, first class. 

Hubert H. Randolph, United States steamer **Yorktown,*' 
July 13, 1908— June 11, 1909. 

United States Army. 

James J. Van Horn; entered West Point Military Academy 
1856; colonel Eighth Regiment, United States Infantry; died 
August 30, 1898, from injuries at Siboney, Cuba. 

Charles H. Howard, Company P, Fourteenth United States 
Infantry; three years in Civil war. 

Luke C. Lyman, Company A, Second Battalion, Eighteenth 
United States Infantry. 

Samuel R. Eccles, Company A, Second Battalion, Eighteenth 
United States Infantry. 

Jas. S. M. Patton, Eighteenth United States Infantry, six years. 

John C. Poland, musician Company K, regimental band, 
Nineteenth United States Infantry; ten years. 

Albert Germain, musician, band. Nineteenth United States 

Edgar Irwin, musician, band, Nineteenth United States 

Marcus A. Boner, Fourth United States Cavalry, and Company 
E, Twenty-sixth Ohio Volunteer Infantry. 

James W. Longsdorff, Fourth United States Cavalry and 
Company E, Twenty-sixth Ohio Volunteer Infantry. 

Riley Taylor, Company A, Fifth United States Cavalry, Civil 

Vern T. Rinehart, Troop I, Thirteenth United States Cavalry, 

James P. Stickle, Seventeenth United States Infantry, since 

Spanish-American War. 

Arthur A. Ashbrook, Company A, Seventeenth United States 
Infantry; died July 13, 1898, near Siboney, Cuba. 

John P. Adams, regular army ; died in Philippine Islands. 

Dolph Bums, November 4, 1901 ; Troop A, Sixth United States 
Cavalry, 1911 ; still in army. 

John L. Boner, January 26, 1898; Troop I, Seventh United 
States Cavalry; discharged for wound. 

John Burr, Hospital Corps, Philippine Islands. 

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Villa Furstenberger, Hospital Corps, Philippine Islands. 

Lewis floule, Company L, Fourth Ohio Volunteer Infantry; 
died in 1899. 

HoUis Hull, Company G, Fourth Ohio Volunteer Infantry; 

Ray Livingston, lieutenant. 

William Long, Eighth Ohio Volunteer Infantry, and Thirty- 
third United States Infantry. 

Arthur C. Mellinger, Battery G, Ohio Volunteer Light 

Briee Osborn, Company K, Fourth Ohio Volunteer Infantry. 

David G. Orsborn, Company B, Fourth Ohio Volunteer 

Ralph Waite, Company L, Fourth Ohio Volunteer Infantry. 

Thomas H. R. Smith, Company B, Fifteenth United States 

Walter M. Wright, Company A, Nineteenth United States 

Carey B. White, Company B, Fourth Ohio Volunteer Infantry. 

Mexican and Civil War Veterans. 

At present writing (June, 1911), Major JIarvey Johnson, of 
Marengo, is the only living veteran of both the Mexican and Civil 
wars residing in Morrow county. As he was born in Richland 
county, January 5, 1824, he is in his eighty-seventh year; but, as 
one of his army of friends remarks, ''While the Major is an old- 
timer, he is not a back number," as you will find if you get a chance 
to get into conversation with him. The following sketch briefly 
tells the story of his life. 

At an early age Harvey Johnson ^s parents located where Sparta now is, 
which at that time was a wilderness, his grandfather clearing a space upon 
which to build his cabin, where the hardware store of E. G. Coe now stands. 
Among his playmates at that time were the boys of the Potter family who 
kept what at that time was called a tavern. His boyhood days were 
spent in Knox, Logan and Franklin counties where he was living at the out- 
break of the Mexican war, and enlisted in Company F, Second Ohio Infantry, 
with headquarters at Ck)lumbu8. (General Morgan, of Mt. Vernon, was colonel 
of his regiment. His company was transferred to headquarters of his regi- 
ment at Cincinnati by way of the canal to Portsmouth, thence down the 
Ohio to Cincinnati. While on duty in this service he took part in the battles 
of Buena Vista and Monterey. After fifteen months service the war closed, 
and he was discharged at New Orleans. After his discharge he worked at 

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his trade, that of a carpenter, in Louisville, Kentucky, for a time, and finally 
settled in Cannelton, Indiana, where he married and was living at the out- 
break of the Civil war. Here he raised a company of which he was com- 
missioned captain, August 9, 1861. His company was attached to the 
Twenty -sixth Indiana Regiment, Herron's Division, Army of the Frontier, 
commanded by General Fremont. While in this army his regiment took 
part in the battles of Pea Ridge and Prairie Grove, Arkansas. His regiment 
was later attached to the Thirteenth Corps Army of the Gulf, and partici- 
pated in the battle of Yazoo City and the seige of Vicksburg. He was 
promoted to major, March 13, 1863. At the time of his enlistment in 1861 
he was accompanied to the front by his son, Samuel, a lad of fifteen years, 
who, because of his youth, could not enlist to carry a gun, but went as a 
drummer boy. After serving about a year in this capacity he entered the 
service, and serving out his term of enlistment was discharged, but enlisted 
again in Hancock's Veteran Reserve Corps and earned his second discharge. 
The son died many years ago. Major Johnson resigned his commission at 
New Orleans on account of disability. 

For years J. J. Runyan, of Mt. Gilead shared, with Major 
Johnson, the honor of being the only living soldier in Morrow 
county who had served in both the Mexican and the Civil wars. 
His death occurred at Mt. Gilead, November 12, 1907, that town 
having been his residence since 1864. 

Mr. Runyan was born in Wayne township, Knox county, one 
mile north of Fredericktown, Ohio, on the sixth day of April, 1824, 
residing there until he was seventeen years of age. He came to 
Morrow county and settled near Sparta. From there he returned 
to Fredericktown and learned the carpenter trade with Amos and 
Stephen Woodruff. At the expiration of three years he had learned 
and mastered his profession, and his first work of overseeing and 
buildinjj: a house was near Mt. Vernon. * This same house is still 
in existence and is occupied to this day. 

Always cherishing a great patriotic love for his country he had 
a desire to join some military company and consequently united 
with a company called the Fredericktown Cadets, for a term of five 
years. August 3, 1847, he enlisted in Company G., Second Ohio 
Volunteer Infantry to take * up arms for this country against 
Mexico. The following being the officers of that company : Captain, 
James E. Harle; First Lieutenant, Robert B. Mitchell; Second 
Lieutenant, Stiles Thrift; Third Lieutenant, Jabez J. Antrim; 
First Sergeant, Andrew S. Gressner; Second Sergeant, Hiram Mil- 
ler. This company reported at Camp Wool, Cincinnati, at which 
place Mr. Irwin was elected colonel and was mustered into service 
about September 1, 1847, and on September 10th embarked on 
three steamboats for New Orleans. After an uneventful journey 

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down the Ohio and Missisippi rivers of some two weeks, the com- 
pany arrived at New Orieans. Two weeks later company G 
boarded a government boat at New Orieans, and about the fourth 
of October landed at Vera Cruz, Mexico, camping about two miles 
west of the city. With three other regiments, a company of cav- 
alry, and six pieces of artillery, this company was sent to guard 
1,000 wagons and 2,000 pack mules loaded with ammunition, pro- 
visions and clothing for Mexico City. The regiment continued its 
march to Pueblo, which place was reached about November 1st. 
They were then ordered to Rio Frio. At this place several of the 
members were killed in skirmishes with guerrillas. They were kept 
here until the close of the war. Some seventy-five men of this regi- 
ment were killed or died from diseases contracted while in the 
service. The regiment was returned to Cincinnati, and on July 26, 
1848, were mustered out of service. Being relieved from duty Mr. 
Runyan remained in Cincinnati a short time, and then returned to 
his home in Morrow county. This in brief, was his experience in 
the Mexican war. 

Again responding to a call from his country, Mr. Runyan 
enlisted at Chesterville in August, 1861, with Company A, Twen- 
tieth Ohio Volunteer Infantry, for three years, and on September 
3rd went to Predericktown and from there to Camp Chase, where he 
was again mustered into service. The regiment participated 
honorably at the following battles: Fort Donelson, February 14-16, 
1862; Shiloh, April 7, 1862; Bolivar, August 30, 1862; luka, Miss- 
issippi, September 19-20, 1862; Hankison's Ferry March 3, 1862; 
Raymond, May 12, 1863 ; Champion Hill, May 6, 1863 ; Vicksburg, 
May 19, 1863; Jackson, July 9-16, 1863; Baker's Creek, Meridian 
Raid, February 4, 1864; Kenesaw Mountain, Georgia, June 27, 
1864. Mr. Runyan 's regiment participated in several other bat- 
tles but he was taken sick and sent to **Big Shanty Hospital," 
Atlanta, Georgia, and later to Rome, Georgia. He served his time 
and was discharged October 8, 1864, at Columbus, Ohio. May 6, 
1855, he was united in marriage to Miss M. X. DeWitt, daughter 
of Joseph P. and Phoebe DeWitt, of Chesterville, early pioneers 
of Morrow county. He then, in 1864, removed to Mt. Gilead, where 
he resided until his death in 1907. 

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First Year op Bench and Bar — Other Lb.iding Lawyers— 
Thi: Divorce Bt'Scness— Changes in Court Systems — Circuit 
Bench — Resident Practicing Attorneys — Made Their Marks 
Abroad — Judges, Attorneys, Sheriffs and Clerks. 

By Robert F. Barilett, 

It should be proper that a history of the courts and bar of 
Mori*ow county should be ivritteu, now that sixty-three years have 
passed since the county was organized, and the members of the old 
bar have finished their work and passed to their reward. James 
Olds was one of the oldest and longest practitioners at the Morrow 
county bar, having located at Mt. Gilead in July, 1848, and died 
January 28, 1903, while yet in active practice ; and he was the last 
of the old bar. 

Those who took a leading part, and were longest in the practice 
in the county, were Charles W. Allison, Bertrand Andrews, Judson 
A. Beebe, Henry C. Brumback, Philander C. Beard, Thomas H. 
Dalrymple, Andrew K. Dunn, John J. Gurley, Joseph Gunsaulus, 
James Olds, James W. Stinchcomb, Thomas W. McCoy, W. Smith 
Irwin, Stephen Brown, Jabez Dickey, Fletcher Douthitt, James 
Marshman and Disney Rogers. Henry P. Davis practiced in 1848 
and went to Mansfield, where he died at the age of eighty-five 
years. Also, several others, for a few years, took a prominent 
part in legal affairs. 

The earliest firms were Bushfield & Elmer, Dunn & Winters, 
Robbins & Kelly, Bums & Mitchell, Finch & Olds, Willetts & Stinch- 
comb, Sanford & Brumback, Oliver, Bartley, Kirkwood & Gurley, 
Hurd & Dalrymple; and John Henry Sleymaker Trainor, (Jeorge 
C. Elmer, C. G. Vananda, Samuel Kelly, Andrew R. Boggs, Edward 
F. Riley, T. J. Weatherby and D. Hindman, were names well known 
to the bar in former times. 

Vol. 1—12 

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First Year op Bench and Bar. 

ITpon the organization of the county in February, 1848, there 
was a rush pf lawyers to the county, and the profession became 
very much crowded. There were nineteen resident lawyers pres- 
ent at the first term of court. The man who had the largest num- 
ber of cases in court during the first year was John M. Bushfield, 
who came from Guernsey county, Ohio. Bushfield was a talented 
man, and of the first one hundred cases brought, in 1848, he was 
attorney in fifty-nine of them, most of which he had commenced 
as attorney for plaintiff. His career was short; he remained in 
Mt. Gilead about two years, and then returned to his native county, 
and the court records show that he was defendant in several suits 
after he left. 

There were many of those who came the first year who had no 
cases, and no visible means of support. There was a law in force 
at that time that any person vho had not gained a year's residence 
in the township, and there was a probability that he might become 
a public charge, could be warned out of the township. During 
the first year of Morrow county's history a meeting of the citizens 
of Mt. Gilead was called to consider the propriety of warning some 
lawyers out of Gilead township. Thomas Cook, a chair maker, 
and other excitable citizens, were the leaders in this call and meet- 
ing. It was finally concluded that all might remain, on account 
of the eminent respectability of Mr. Bushfield, and his large 
practice, and the influence of a part of the others. 

A great amount of bombast and hilarity were indulged in at 
that time. One lawyer with a very long name( but I will leave the 
reader to guess who it was), when he came to Mt. Gilead inquired 
for the **war hotel." lie said he wanted to stop at the **war 
hotel.'' A" hotel stood on South Main street, kept by Lovell B. 
Harris, called the Palo Alto House, in recognition of the battle 
of Palo Alto in the Mexican war. This man made much sport for 
**the boys," and on one occasion offered to bet that Chris Linsay's 
dog could not pull him through and across the creek. To the 
creek, at the south side of the town, the crowd repaired, and our 
lawyer was ranged at the end of a rope on one side, and the dog at 
the other end. Enough boys touched the rope on the dog's end 
to make the lawyer go through all right. This man did not stay 
many months, but I learn that he settled down at some other place 
and made a successful lawyer, and at last account was still living. 

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Other Leading Lawyers. 

Further reviewing the history of the leading members of the 
bar, it is proper to state that Judge Andrew K. Dunn was one of 
the first lawyers to locate in Mt. Gilead, having come in April, 
1848, and was present at the first term of court, held in May, 1848. 
He was a native of Knox county, Ohio, and he read law with Judge 
RoUin C. Hurd, of Mt. Vernon, Ohio. He died at Mt. Gilead .in 
1890, aged seventy-one years, after forty-one years of practice. 

James Olds was the son of Rev. Benjamin Olds, a pioneer of 
Westfield township, in this county, and studied law with Judge 
Sherman Finch, of Delaware, Ohio. He came to Mt. Gilead in 
July, 1848. His first case was No. 100 on the docket, and from 
that on he had a large practice and especially in cases stubbornly 

Thomas H. Dalrymple was the son of Charles Dalrymple, a 
pioneer of Chester township and a soldier of the war of 1812. He 
was bom and raised in Chester township. He also studied law 
with Judge RoUin C. Hurd, of Mt. Vernon. He located at Mt. 
Gilead in September, 1848. The Dalrymple family was one of 
eminent respectability. 

These three spent their lives in the practice of the law, and 
each one of them had a fairly lucrative business. They each aspired 
to judicial honors, but the politics of the second sub-division of the 
sixth judicial district was against them. Judge Dunn occupied 
the bench for a short term by appointment of Governor R. B. 
Hayes, the two having been schoolmates at Kenyon College in their 
boyhood days. 

Samuel Kelly was one of the first lawyers in 1848, and was the 
first prosecuting attorney for Morrow county. He served in that 
office from 1848 to 1851. About the close of his term of office 
he moved to Wapakoneta, Ohio, where he died a few years later. 

Judson A. Beebe came to this county about 1849, and in 1851 
was elected prosecuting attorney to succeed Samuel Kelly, and was 
re-elected, holding the office for the next ten years. Judge Beebe 
also gained judicial eminence and was judge of the court of 
common pleas of this district for part of one term. He died at 
Mt. Gilead in 1874. Two of his sons, Henry and James H., also 
became lawyers, of whom I shall write hereafter. 

Bertrand Andrews came to this county in 1849, and for a few 
years settled in Williamsport. Many were the heroic contests 
that **Bert," as he was familiarly called, had before justices of the 

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peace with Harvey Baldwin, an attorney who was well known in 
northeastern Morrow, northwestern Knok and southwestern Rich- 
land counties. Before a justice of the peace a pettifogger can, and 
does, make every sort of untenable claim, and our Harvey was up 
to that sort of business. No more genial and quick witted lawyer 
ever practiced at the bar of Morrow county than Bertrand Andrews. 
On one occasion, it is told, that in a suit before a justice of the 
peace, Mr. Andrews was expected to read the law to the court on 
the point in controversy, and during the recess for dinner Baldwin 
obtained the book and tore therefrom the pages containing the law. 
Andrews when he came to read the law could not find it, and was 
greatly disconcerted. Such a thing did not often happen to Mr. 
Andrews, as he was ready for nearly every emergency. He was 
the amicus curia (friend of the court), and was always ready to 
help his clients out of their troubles, or the court in doubtful or 
difficult cases. Mr. Andrews moved to Mt. Gilead after a few 
years, and became prosecuting attorney in 1865, succeeding Andrew 
R. Boggs, who served from 1861 to 1865. Mr. Andrews served 
two terms, until 1869, and in the closing years of his life was 
honored by being made probate judge of the coxuity by appoint- 
ment. He died at Mt. Gilead, August 8, 1895. He was most 
successful in his appeals to a jury, and won the majority of his 

John J. Gurley located at Mt. Gilead in 1850 and formed a 
partnership with Hon. Thos. W. Bartley and Hon. Samuel J. Kirk- 
wood, both of Mansfield, the firm name being Gurley, Bartley & 
Kirkwood. Hon. Thos. W. Bartley, of this firm, was judge of the 
supreme court of Ohio from February 9, 1852, until February 9, 
1859, and his decisions are voluminous and exhaustive. Hon. 
Samuel J. Kirkwood went to Iowa, and was the first war governor 
of Iowa from 1859 to 1863 ; again served from 1877 to 1881, when 
he became secretary of the interior in President Garfield's cabinet, 
and held that office until 1882. He died September 1, 1894. This 
firm continued only a few years. From 1853 to 1855 Judge Gurley 
served in the state legislature; from 1855 to 1858 as judge of the 
probate court by election ; in 1873 as a member of the constitutional 
convention of Ohio by election; from 1875 to 1877, by election as 
prosecuting attorney of the county ; and from 1886 to 1887 as coun- 
ty auditor, by appointment. He was a very honorable man, dis- 
charged his various trusts with fidelity, and had the confidence of 
the people. He died at Mt. Gilead on the 30th of April, 1887. 
His son, Wm. W. Gurley, became a lawyer, located in Chicago, and 
will be mentioned in a later paragraph. 

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James W. Stinchcomb came to Mt. Gilead from Lancaster, 
Ohio, about 1850, practiced law for several years, and was a mem- 
ber of the firm of Stinchcomb & Sanford, and Stinchcomb, Brum- 
back & Bums. Mr. Stinchcomb returned to his native county be- 
fore the War of the Rebellion, and at its outbreak became captain 
of Company A, and by promotion major of the Seventeenth Regi- 
ment, Ohio Volunteer Infantry. After the war he came back to 
Mt. Gilead and married Mrs. Amanda Kelly McKee, afterward re- 
moving to Nebraska, where he died some years later. 

Henry C. Birumback became a practicing lawyer about this 
time, and about 1870 removed to Effingham, Illinois, where he has 
since died. W. Smith Irwin appears as an attorney at the April 
term, 1852, and continued to practice, at intervals, until 1889. 
He was county auditor from 1859 to the summer of 1862, and 
county treasurer from 1864 to 1865. From August 18, 1862, 
until March 17, 1863, he was lieutenant colonel of the One hundred 
and Twenty-first Regiment, Ohio Volunteer Infantry, and colonel 
of the One Hundred and Thirty-sixth Regiment, from May 2 to 
August 31, 1864. He died at Mt. Gilead, in January, 1889. 
Robert B. Mitchell, for a few years, was a practicing attorney at 
Mt. Gilead, but removed to Kansas in the fifties, and at the break- 
ing out of the Rebellion went into the army and became a major 
general of volunteers. 

Thomas W. McCoy practiced law at Cardington in the early 
history of the county, but left there before the breaking out of the 
War of the Rebellion. James A. Connolly was a partner with 
Judge Dunn before the war, and in 1861 had removed to Illinois. 
Prom that state he went into the army and became the major of 
an Illinois regiment. He has been in the legislature of Illinois, 
and a congressman for several terms from that state. His home is 
now at Springfield, Illinois. 

In addition to those mentioned as having gone into the army 
it is proper to state that Henry C. Brumback became first lieu- 
tenant of Company E, Twenty-sixth Regiment, Ohio Volunteer 
Infantry ; James Olds recruited Company D, and became major of 
the Sixty-fifth Regiment, and Andrew R. Boggs adjutant of the 
One Hundred and Thirty-sixth Regiment. This brings us down to 
the days of the Rebellion, when nearly all law business was sus- 
pended, and debtors were by law exempted from payment while in 
the army and for several months after discharge. 

In reviewing the history of the bar we find that Bertrand 
Andrews had for partners during his practice of forty-six years. 

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Edward R. Riley (who went first to Osceola, Iowa, and thence to 
Portland, Oregon, where he now resides) ; Wm. H. Albach, for one 
year; Disney Rogers for six years (who married Mr. Andrews' 
daughter, Ida, for twenty years has resided at Youngstown, Ohio, 
and has there been advanced to the bench of the common pleas 
court) ; Charles W. Allison, who about 1885 located in Columbus, 
Ohio, and died there in 1890. Charles W. Allison and James H. 
Beebe were among the most talented young men that ever were 
members of the Morrow county bar. D. B. Simms, who died in 
February, 1892 ; and lastly, John W. Barry, now a member of the 

Judge A. E. Dunn was for a brief period a partner of James 
H. Gtodman, of Marion, Ohio; was then with Gilbert E. Winters, 
and the firm name was Winters & Dunn. Mr. Winters went to 
Mansfield, Ohio, and died there soon after the War of the Rebellion. 
James A. Connolly was next a partner (before 1861) as Dunn & 
Connolly. James Marshman was also a partner for a few years. 
After 1861 Judge Dunn had no partners except his own sons, Frank 
K. and Charles J. Dunn, the latter of whom was accidentally killed 
in Toledo a few years since. Frank K., located at Charleston, 
Illinois, where he now resides; was judge of the circuit court in 
his circuit, and is now a justice of the supreme court of that state. 

Hon. Sherman Finch, the law preceptor of Major James Olds, 
was his first partner for a year or two, then the firm was Dalrymple 
(T. H.) & Olds for a short time, and Olds & Terrill (W. L.) for 
several years. In 1861 Elmer C. Chase became a partner, under 
the firm name of Olds & Chase. In 1866 Jabez Dickey came from 
Mansfield and became a partner with Major Olds, under the firm 
name of Olds & Dickey. In October, 1872, Judge Dickey was 
elected prosecuting attorney for this county and served one term. 
Judge Dickey in 1881 was elected common pleas judge and served 
one short and one full term. In 1900 he removed to Toledo, Ohio, 
where he pursued his profession. Major Olds' next partner was 
George W. Fluckey, who was reared in this county and was a 
student under Mr. Olds, and the firm name was Olds & Fluckey; 
later W. R. Baxter married Mamie Olds, and became a member of 
the firm. Mr. Fluckey is also a practicing lawyer in Toledo, Ohio. 
His last partner was his son, Benjamin Olds, under the firm name 
of Olds & Olds. Mr. Baxter is now special counsel for a corpora- 
tion in Canton. 

In the first years of the county's history it seemed to be the 
proper thing for the last preceptor to become the sponsor for the 

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beginning student, so Judge Rollin C. Hurd became partner with 
T. H. Dalrymple for a year or two; then Dalrymple & Boggs 
(Andrew R.) ; then Gurley (John J.) & Dalrymple, and lastly, 
Dalrymple & Powell. The latter is now a member of the bar. 
Judge Judson A. Beebe first had Hon. Charles Sweetzer as his 
partner, but he usually practiced alone. 

The Divorce Business. 

At the May term of court for 1848 (which was the first) sixty- 
two cases were entered on the docket for trial ; but not one was for 
divorce, or for alimony, or for both combined. At the September 
term of that year, forty-six cases were entered, one case of which 
was for divorce and one case for alimony only. At the threii 
terms in 1849 six cases for divorce, one of which was also for 
alimony, were commenced. In 1850, at the February term, two 
cases for divorce were commenced, one of which was dismissed and 
the parties afterward lived together until death parted them. At 
the June term, 1850, out of seventy-four cases for trial, not one 
was for divorce. The divorce business in the courts continued in 
about that proportion for some years, with a loss in population of 
2,400 in 1900, as compared with that of 1850. Our court for 
the year ending June 30, 1901, granted twenty-one divorces, and 
for the year ending June 30, 1902, twenty divorces, which is about 
four times as many according to the population. In 1850 the 
general business of the courts was largely in excess of the business 
now, but the county divorce business is now four times and more 
that of the fifties, and is wholly disporportionate to the population. 

Are those entering upon the marriage relation at this time not 
so conscious of the sacred nature of the marriage contract, and the 
marriage state, as formerly? Are the young people of this age not . 
impressed with the« divine origin of the marriage relation? It is 
possible, yes certain, that divorces are too easily obtained, and our 
courts are too liberal in granting them. Young married people 
rush into court for divorce upon too slight provocation. They 
do not seem to realize what an important thing duty is. The 
stem realities of life come upon them and they are bewildered. 
Their dream of life, formed during courtship, receives a sudden 
shock, and divorce seems the only panacea. 

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Changes in Court Systems. 

In the first years of the history of Morrow county and until 
1852 the court of common pleas had jurisdiction of the same legal 
rights and remedies as now, and also of the probate of wills and 
settlement of estates, which latter functions were transferred to the 
probate court organized under article 15, sections 7 and 8 of the 
constitution of 1851. Prior to 1851 the courts of the state, under 
the constitution of 1802, consisted of the supreme court, courts of 
common pleas of each county and justices of the peace. The courts 
of common pleas were presided over by a president judge, and not 
more than three, nor less than two associate judges. Judges 
James Stewart, of Mansfield, and Ozias Bowen, of Marion, were the 
president judges at different terms in this county until 1852, and 
Stephen T. Cunard, Richard House and Enoch B. Kinsell, the 
associate judges. These three had the distinction of being the 
only associate judges Morrow county ever had. The president 
judges only were lawyers, and the others were chosen from among 
the people for being men of affairs and of good judgment. The 
sessions of court were held in the Baptist church, which stood on 
the northeast comer of the South Public Square until the Court 
House was built in 1852. The old church is now used as a ware- 
house and stands near the Short Line railway passenger depot in 
Mt. Gilead. The district court was authorized under the consti- 
tution of 1851, and consisted of three judges of the court of com- 
mon pleas ; and usually a judge of the supreme court and a judge 
of the supreme court continued to preside down to the Jime term 
of 1871. Until this time the district court gave satisfaction. The 
court records show that from the organization of the county until 
1871, Judges Edward Avery, Peter Hitchcock, Thomas W. Bartley, 
Joseph R. Swan, John Welch, Jacob Brinkerhoff, Luther Day and 
Josiah Scott each presided at different annual terms. 

District Judges. 

On account of the crowded condition of the supreme court 
docket, a judge of that court ceased to preside. The district 
court was not satisfactory after 1871 because the three common 
pleas judges were reviewing the decisions of one of them in what- 
ever county court was held. Ozias Bowen, who became a judge of 
the supreme court of Ohio, and James Stewart were lawyers of 
high legal attainments, and it is not recalled that the associate 

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judges ever disagreed with them, especially on a purely legal ques- 
tion. Judge TStewart was elected common pleas judge under the 
constitution of 1851; he served until February, 1857, and died at 
Mansfield a few years later. 

At the October election, 1856, George W. Geddes was elected 
judge and took his office in February, 1857, as successor to Judge 
Stewart. Judge Geddes was re-elected for a second term, but on 
his third nomination and at the October election, 1866, he was de- 
feated by William Osbom and immediately resigned. Judge Wil- 
liam Osborn was appointed to fill out the term from October, 1866, 
until February 9, 1867, when Judge Osborn entered on the term 
for which he had been elected. The business of the courts of the 
district became so crowded that the legislature passed a law which 
took effect May 8, 1868, granting an additional judge for the sub- 
division composed of the counties of Ashland, Richland and Mor- 
row, and at the October election, 1868, Judge Geddes was elected as 
the additional judge and served nearly five years, altogether filling 
judicial positions nearly fifteen years. Since February 9, 1869 
the second sub-division of the sixth judicial district has had two 
judges. Judge Geddes served until November, 1873, when he re- 
signed to enter the practice of law, and Judson A. Beebe was ap- 
pointed to fill out his unexpired term to February 9, 1874. At the 
October election, 1873, Judge Beebe had been elected judge for a 
full term, which commenced February 9, 1874, and he served until 
August 27, 1874, when he died. He had filled the office with credit 
to himself and to the satisfaction of the public. Thomas J. 
Kenny was appointed to the vacancy and in October, 1874, was 
elected for a full term; was re-elected and served until April 20, 
1882, when, after a short illness, in the prime of his manhood and 
in the vigor of his intellect, he died. He was a genial and social 
man and an upright judge. His life was marred by his con- 
vivial habits, but only occasionally did he allow them to interfere 
with his duties as a judge. At the January term, 1876, court 
had been in session two weeks, and on the third Monday of court 
the judge came on the bench with a peculiar expression — a frown — 
upon his face. The prosecuting attorney, on account of the con- 
dition the court was in, hesitated to try the cases for felony, and, 
where possible, permitted defendants to plead guilty to a lesser 
crime. One defendant was indicted for ** shooting with intent to 
wound,'' and a plea of guilty to assault and battery was accepted. 
The judge, as is usual, asked the prisoner what he had to say why 
the sentence of the court should not be pronounced against him. 

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Mr. Andrews, as the amicus curia, explained that the offence was 
committed on the occasion of the third election of General R. B. 
Hayes as governor of Ohio and that the ** boys'* were having a little 
fun. The judge said: **Mr. Lindsay, owing to the hilarity of the 
occasion I will fine you $5 and costs." A large crimnal docket 
was disposed of in two or three hours. The next morning no judge 
was present for business, and nothing further was done that term. 
Darius Dirlam was elected judge in 1871 and took his oflSce in 
February, 1872, and served nearly the full term when, for business 
reasons, he resigned, and Andrew E. Dunn was appointed to the 
vacancy. Judge Dirlam was reelected as judge at the November 
election, 1901. He is an incorruptibly honest man and judge, and 
honored the high oflSce and filled it with much credit. 

Moses R. Dickey was elected at the October election, 1876; 
was judge from February, 1877; reelected in October, 1881, and 
served until the spring of 1882, when he resigned to go into the 
practice of the law at Cleveland, Ohio, John W. Jenner being ap- 
pointed to fill the vacancy. Judge Moses R. Dickey is a veteran 
of both the Mexican and Civil wars, having served as private in 
Company A, Third Ohio Infantry, from May 27, 1846, until June 
18, 1847, and as lieutenant colonel of the Fifteenth Ohio Infantry, 
three years* service, and served until October 24, 1862. He was 
an upright judge and had an untarnished reputation for honesty. 
He is now past eighty-four years old and has retired from practice, 
full of years and honors. Thomas E. Duncan was appointed to fill 
the vacancy caused by the death of Judge Thomas J. Kenny. At 
the October election in 1882, Manuel May was elected for the full 
term, and in November, 1887, was reelected and served ten years 
as judge. He died during the last year. He was regarded as an 
honest man and an upright judge. Jabez Dickey at the October 
election, 1882, was elected for a short term, and at the next election 
(1883) for a full term of five years. He served with ability and 
credit until February, 1889. At the November election, 1888, 
Henry L. McCray was elected judge. No more genial gentleman 
than he has honored the judicial ermine. At the November elec- 
tion, 1893, he was defeated by Thomas E. Duncan who filled the- 
office with honor. Judge Norman M. Wolfe served two terms, from 
February 9, 1892, until February 9, 1902. Judge Robert M. Camp- 
bell was first elected in November, 1898, defeating Judge Duncan 
for a second term, and was reelected. 

Edwin Mansfield, of Richland county, was elected common 
pleas judge in 1906 and took the office in February, 1907 ; William 

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T. Devor, of Ashland county was elected common pleas judge at 
the October election of 1908, assuming the office in February, 1909 ; 
and these two are the presiding judges. 

Circuit Bench. 

As heretofore stated, the Circuit Court was authorized by law 
in 1884. The Fifth judicial circuit is composed of the counties 
of Morrow, Richland, Ashland, Knox, Licking, Delaware, Wayne, 
Holmes, Coshocton, Fairfield, Perry, Morgan, Muskingum, Tusca- 
rawas and Stark. The first judges were John W. Albaugh, of 
Canton, Charles FoUett, of Newark, and John W. Jenner, of Mans- 
field, who were elected in October, 1884, and took their offices 
February 9, 1885. The governor of Ohio determined by lot the 
terms of these three. Judge Albaugh drew two, Judge FoUett 
four, and Judge Jenner six years, and thereafter a judge was to be 
elected every two years. Each of these judges was reelected on 
the expiration of his said term, for six years. Judge Jenner died 
in November, 1909. The judges since the above three have been 
Julius C. Pomerene, of Coshocton, elected in 1892, without opposi- 
tion, and who died December 23, 1897; John* J. Adams, of Zanes- 
ville, six years; Charles H. Kibler, of Newark, for short term; 
Silas M. Douglas, of Mansfield, six years; Martin L. Smyzer, of 
Wooster, short term by appointment ; John W. Swartz, of Newark, 
short term; Richard M. Vorhees, of Millersburg, elected in 1898 
for six years; Maurice Donahue, of New Lexington, elected in the 
year 1900 for six years, and Thomas T. McCarty, of Canton, elected 
in 1902 for six years. Judge McCarty died in 1907. Frank 
Taggart was elected in 1904. 

The circuit court has given general satisfaction to the members 
of the bar, with slight exception, and only occasionally has a mem- 
ber of the bar been known to revile the court. Most lawyers, if 
they think their cases are not decided according to law, however 
much they may feel aggrieved, quietly take them to the higher 
court, which is undoubtedly the better practice. The habit of 
cursing the court when a case is decided adversely, as formerly 
was too often done, is fortunately going out of fashion. It is 
exceedingly seldom that a case is not honestly decided. The judges 
have been lawyers of talent, honest and of a high order of legal 
knowledge, and the court has been independent, and not subject 
to the influences that were brought to bear on its predecessor, the 
district court. The present judges of the circuit court are Frank 

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Taggart, of Wayne county; Maurice Donahue, of Perry county; 
and Richard M. Voriiees, of Holmes county. 

Resident Practicing Attorneys. 

Resident practicing attorneys are J. W. Barry, R. P. Bartlett, 
William P. Bruce, B. J. Catty, H. H. Harlan, W. M. Kaufman, S. 
C. Kingman, T. B. Mateer, William H. MitcheU, Benjamin Olds, 
L. K. Powell, George P. Stiles, W. P. Yaughan, C. H. Wood, J. C. 
Williamson. Mr. Williamson, who was admitted to practice on 
June 13, 1906, is prosecuting attorney of the county 

It may be well for the benefit of some future historian to give 
a few facts relative to the present members of our bar : Thomas E. 
Duncan was prosecuting attorney from 1869 to 1873. He was ad- 
mitted "to the bar in 1862, then a citizen of Holmes county, Ohio, 
and a native thereof, and that year he located at Cardington, where 
he continued in practice until October, 1878, then removed to Mt. 
Gilead. He was in the state legislature from 1874 to 1878. He 
removed to Coshocton in 1908. 

William H. Albach, a native of Perry township, read law with 
Judge A. K. Dunn; was admitted to the bar June 20, 1864, and 
practiced a few years, but retired from the law and engaged in the 
more lucrative business of inventions. He died June 25, 1910. 

Stephen Cunard Kingman was admitted to the bar June 19, 
1873. He is a native of Lincoln township, and studied law with 
James Olds. 

Asa A. Gardner is a native of Lincoln township, and was 
admitted to the bar June 22, 1876. He was probate judge from 
Pebruary 9, 1870, to Pebruary 9, 1876. He has retired from prac- 

William H. Barnhard, a native of Pranklin township and 
Theodoric S. White and George P. Stiles, natives of Cardington, 
were all admitted to the bar June 22, 1876. White and Stiles both 
studied law with Judge T. E. Duncan, at Cardington. Mr. White 
was prosecuting attorney from 1881 to 1886 and Mr. Bamhard 
held the office from 1886 to 1892. Mr. White died April 8, 1905. 

George B. Thompson, native of Congress township, was 
admitted June 25, 1874. He was county school examiner for many 

Robert P. Bartlett, native of Mt. Gilead ; read law with T. H. 
Dalrymple ; was admitted June 24, 1878, and removed to Carding- 
ton in October of that year, where he practiced nearly seventeen 

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years. He was clerk of courts from February 9, 1867, to February 
9, 1876. He nowresides at Mt. Gilead. 

Major William G. Beatty was also admitted June 24, 1878, 
but never practiced. He died at Pueblo, Colorado, about seven 
years since. 

Louis K. Powell, native of Franklin township, read law with 
Dalrymple and Braden and was admitted June 25, 1878. He was 
probate judge from February 9, 1885, to February 9, 1891, and in 
the state legislature from 1898 to 1900. 

John W. Barry, native of Westfield township, read law with 
Robert F. Bartlett, at Cardington ; was admitted October 31, 1883, 
and for ten years was a partner of his law preceptor. He was 
prosecuting attorney from 1892 to 1908. 

Henry H. Harlan, native of Noble county, Ohio, studied law 
at Delaware, Ohio, with Reid and Powell and was admitted January 
6, 1885. Elected to Ohio house of representatives in 1905. 

William F. Bruce, native of Mt. Gilead, studied law with 
Andrews and Allison, and William P. Vaughan ; native of Lincoln 
township, and now a resident of Cardington; studied law with 
Judge A. K. Dunn. Both were admitted to the bar March 1, 1887. 

Henry Weaver, native of South Bloomfield, is a member of the 
bar and has removed. 

C. H. Wood is a native of Gilead township ; studied law with 
T. H. Dalrymple and was admitted to the bar October 1, 1889. 
He was prosecuting attorney from 1898 to 1904. 

Benjamin Olds is a native of Mt. Gilead; read law with his 
father and was admitted October 9, 1890. 

William M. Kaufman studied law with Judge A. K. Dunn. 
The date of his admission is not known. He is a native of Harmony 

William H. Mitchell is a native of Congress township ; read law 
with Andrews and Allison; and is in practice. 

William D. Mathews is a native of Richland county, Ohio, and 
was probate judge of Morrow county from 1879 to 1885. Previous 
to 1895 he was county judge of Beaver county, Oklahoma. He was 
admitted to practice in Ohio, March 7, 1895, and died February 4, 

ToUa B. Mateer is a native of Gilead township and read law 
with Harlan and Wood. He was admitted in 1901, he was prose- 
cuting attorney for two terms. 

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Made Their Marks Abroad. 

Justice would not be done the profession unless some historical 
account was given of the successful young men, natives of Morrow 
county, who have studied law and been admitted to the bar in the 
county and have taken the advise of Horace Greeley to "Go west 
young man;'* have gone and earned fame and fortune in their new 

Byron Ayres, of Chester township; Ross Bums, of Harmony 
township ; admitted September 11, 1851 ; Samuel N. Wood, of Gilead 
township, admitted June 1, 1854, all located in Kansas in the early 
history of that state. S. N. Wood was murdered in Stevens county 
in 1894. 

James A. Connolly, native of Perr>' township, read law with 
Judge A. K. Dunn; went to Springfield, Illinois, and has been 
honored as a member of the Illinois legislature, and United States 
district attorney and congressman. 

Colonel John S. Cooper, who died November 15, 1907, and 
William W. Gurley, both natives of Mt. Gilead, the latter of whom 
was admitted June 19, 1873, were eminent and are leading lawyers 
of Chicago, Illinois. 

Walter Olds, native of Westfield township, who studied law 
with his brother, Major James Olds, has been the judge of the 
circuit and supreme courts of Indiana and now resides at Fort 
Wayne, that state. 

Colonel Henry S. Bunker, of Cardington township, who died 
March 21, 1900, at Toledo; George W. Fluckey; John A. Garver, a 
native of Troy township ; Albert T. (Joorley, native of Washington 
township, and Thaddeus Powell, of Franklin township, are (except 
Colonel Bunker) practicing lawyers in Toledo, Ohio. 

Caleb H. Norris, a Cardington boy, was judge of common pleas 
and judge of the circuit court in the Third circuit, and resides at 
Marion, Ohio. 

John F. McNeal, native of Washington township, was a leading 
lawyer at Marion, Ohio, and died there. 

William M. Eccles, native of Gilead township, who had 
retired, died on his farm in same township, April 15, 1898. He was 
for many years a sucessful lawyer in St. Louis, Missouri. 

John J. Powell, native of Chester township, was admitted in 
this county, June 2, 1871, practiced at Cedar Rapids, and died there 
January 6, 1908. 

It is within the knowledge of the writer hereof, that the law 

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practice of one of the above non-resident lawyers in a single year 
was more than $30,000. 

Azariah W. Lincoln, native of Franklin township, and Grant 
G. Lydy, of Mt. Gilead, the latter admitted in October, 1889, are 
successful lawyers at Springfield, Mo. 

Captain Sidney A. Breece, late of Cottonwood Falls, Kansas, 
and John D. Poye, of Lima^ both deceased, were native representa- 
tives of old Gilead township families. 

H. S. Prophet, native of Cardington, and for many years in 
partnership with his father-in-law, the late Judge Judson A. Beebe, 
for about forty years has resided and practiced law at Lima, Ohio, 
of which city he has been mayor. 

Fletcher Douhitt, native of North Bloomfield township, prac- 
ticed law for about ten years (1886-96) at Mt. Gilead, removed to 
New Philadelphia, was elected judge of the court of common pleas, 
and died a few years since during his second term on the bench. 

Prank K. Dunn, native of Mt. Gilead, studied law under his 
father and, as noted in a former chapter, was circuit judge in 
Illinois, and resides at Charleston in that state, now a justice of 
its supreme court. 

William K. Duncan, native of Cardington, read law under his 
father's instruction and has practiced law at Findlay for several 
years, and at the November election of 1903 and 1909 was elected 
judge of the court of common pleas. 

Beecher W. Waltermire, native of Harmony township, and 
Thos. H. McConica of Lincoln township, are successful lawyers 
at Findlay, Ohio. 

B. P. James, also a native of Harmony township, is a hustling 
lawyer at Bowling Green, Ohio, and has been in the legislature from 
Wood county. 

W. L. Merwine native of Perry township, Demas Ulery of Har- 
mony township, Lawrence Mead of South Bloomfield township, 
and Preston Heacock and Jay Beatty, of Cardington township, 
are practicing lawyers in Columbus, Ohio. 

Plimpton B. Chase, native of Sparata admitted April 5, 1881, 
practiced several years at Mt. Vernon, Ohio, but had left the pro- 
fession and gone into the more paying business of theatrical 

A. W. Prater, who read law with Judge Duncan and who re- 
sides at Seattle, Washington, and Thos. A. Gruber, who read law 
with Judge Powell, and is located in Caledonia, Ohio, are both 
natives of Canaan township. 

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Seth C. Duncan, of Ashley, Ohio, admitted May 29, 1890; 
Fred D. Oarbison of Edison, admitted June 9, 1892, and Gideon 
M. Sipe, of Utiea, Ohio, admitted June 9, 1892, are all natives 
of Morrow county and lawyers with future flattering prospects. 

JupGBS, Attorneys, Sheriffs and Clerks. 

Probate judges who have held the office in Morrow county are 
as follows: Hiram Peterson, 1852-5; John J. Gurley, 1855-8; Wil- 
liam S. Clements, 1858-63 ; David Richards, 1864-70 ; Asa A. Gard- 
ner, 1870-6 ; Henry S. Beebe, 1876-9 ; William D. Mathews, 1879-85 ; 
Louis K. Powell, 1885-91; Thomas W. Long, 1891-3; B. Andrews, 
1893-4; Arthur S. Banker, 1894-6; Frank B. McMillan, 1896; 
Daniel D. Booher, 1896-7; Walter C. Bennett, 1897-1903; Monroe 
W. Spear, 1903-9; and John W. Glauner, (present incumbent). 

Judge Spear was a lawyer when elected judge in 1902; 
practiced in Morrow county, in 1909-10, and then removed to Cleve- 
land, Ohio. 

Following is a list of the prosecuting attorneys : Samuel Kelley, 
1848-51; Judson A. Beebe, 1851-61; Andrew Boggs, 1861-5; Ber- 
trand Andrews, 1865-9; Thomas E. Duncan, 1869-73; Jabez 
Dickey, 1873-5; John J. Gurley, 1875-7; Charles W. Allison, 1877- 
81; Theodoric S. White, 1881-6; William H. Barnhard, 1886-92; 
John W. Barry, 1892-8; Calvin H. Wood, 1898-1904; Tolla B. 
Mateer, 1904-10; and Carl H. Williamson, 1910 to date. 

The sheriffs who have executed the orders of court in Morrow 
county were: Ross Burns, 1848-51; Davis Miles, 1851-3; S. More- 
house, 1853-5; Abraham Conklin, 1855-9; Elzy Barton, 1859-63; 
John H. Benson, 1863-5; Horace McKee, 1865-9; Stephen A. 
Parsons, 1869-73 ; William C. Manson, 1873-7 ; Dewitt C. Sanford, 
1877-81; Martin G. Modie, 1881-5; Bradford Dowsan, 1885-9; 
James R. McComb, 1889-91 ; Jesse B. Rinehart, 1891-3 ; Thomas F. 
Gordon, 1893-7; Frank Purinton, 1897-1901; Chauncey T. Perry, 
1901-5 ; M. W. Frizzell, 1905-9 ; and Charles B. Chilcote, term ex- 
pires in 1913. 

The clerks of courts who have served in Morrow county are as 
follows : William S. Clements, March 15 to June 1, 1848, and Wesley 
C. Clarke, June 1, 1848, to February 10, 1852, (both appointed by 
the court under the state constitution of 1802) ; Benjamin P. Truex, 
February 10, 1852 to 1859 (elected under the constitution of 1852) ; 

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Samuel Poland and William Smith Irwin, deputy clerks; Samuel 
Poland, clerk, 1854 to 1855; William W. Irwin, 1855 to 1861 
James M. Briggs, 1861 to 1867 ; Robert F. Bartlett, 1867 to 1876 
Daniel L. Chase, 1876 to 1882; Samuel P. Gage, 1882 to 1888 
James E. McCracken, 1888 to 1894; David H. Lincoln, 1894 to 
1900; Budd Bakes, 1900 to 1906; and Charles D. Meredith, since 

Vol. 1—13 

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Schools and Newspapers. 

State School Laws — PiONfiBB Schools — ^Defects in Present 
System — "Lickin' and Larnin' " Teachers — Union Schools op 
Mount Gilead— Superintendents — Distinguished Graduates — 
High School Graduates (1876-1910) — Teachers and Course op 
Study — Hesper Mount Seminary — Jesse Harkness — The Alum 
Creek Academy — Ohio Central College — Press and County 

By Robert F. Bartleti. 

To provide equally for schools in each township of the state, 
congress gave, in 1802, from unsold lands in the present counties 
of Guernsey, Coshoctoil, Muskingum, Licking, Delaware and Mor- 
row, one hundred and twelve and a half square miles for school 
purposes, in the United States Military district, which amount was 
equal to **one thirty-sixth part of the estimated whole amount of 
lands within the tract;" and also gave, for similiar purposes, in 
1807, lands amounting to one hundred and sixty-five square miles 
within the present limit of the counties of Holmes, Wayne, Ashland, 
Richland, Crawford and Morrow. 

State School Laws. 

The first general assembly of Ohio, in March, 1803, provided 
that the sections 16 should be leased for terms not exceeding seven 
years. The conditions required the lessee of each quarter section 
of one hundred and sixty acres to clear, within five years, fifteen 
acres of land and fence the same into three fields : one field of five 
acres to be seeded down ; one field of three acres to set with one hun- 
dred thrifty apple trees, leaving one field of seven acres for tillage. 
Agents appointed by the governor were to make leases, have the 
care of the lands, bring actions for waste of timber, retaining one- 
half of the amount collected and paying over the remainder for the 
use of schools. 


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In 1805, the township trustees were empowered to g^ant leases 
for terms not exceeding fifteen years and enjoined to see that the 
proceeds arising from the leases be duly and impartially applied 
to the education of youths, within the particular surveyed town- 
^ip, in such manner that all the citizens therein may be equal 
partakers of the benefits thereof. Sections 16 have been given for 
the benefit of the original townships, and these were liable to divi- 
sion by the erection of new counties and by the exercise of the 
lawful powers of the county commissioners. 

The present free school system of Ohio may be briefly explained 
as follows: Cities and incorporated villages are independent of 
township and county control, in the management of schools, having 
boards of education and examiners of their own. Some of them are 
organized for school purposes, under special acts. Each township 
has a board of education, composed of one member from each sub- 
district. The township clerk is clerk of this board, but has no vote. 
Each subdistrict has a local board of trustees, which manages its 
school affairs, subject to the advice and control of the township 
board. These oflBcers are elected on the first Monday in April, 
and hold their offices three years. An enumeration of all the youth 
between the ages of five and twenty-one is made yearly. All pub- 
lic schools are required to be iii session at least twenty-four weeks 
each year. The township clerk reports annually such facts concern- 
ing school affairs as the law requires, to the county auditor, who in 
turn reports to the state commissioner, who collects these reports 
in a general report to the legislature each year. 

Those who remember the early school laws of Ohio have noted 
the frequent changes made in them, but the adoption of a new 
constitution gave the state a revised school law, said to be one of 
the best and most perfect within the broad bounds of the Union. 
And from that day to the present, it has kept its place as the best 
and most liberal school law of any of the states. 

PiONBEB Schools. 

The first school taught in Ohio was in 1791. The first teacher 
was Major Austin Tupper. The room occupied was the same as 
that in which the first court was held, and was situated in the 
northwest block-house of the garrison, called the stockade at 
Marietta. During the Indian war, school was also taught at Port 
Hammar, Point Marietta and at other settlements. In the early 
settlement in this part of Ohio, there were many influences in the 

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way of general education. Neighborhoods were thinly settled, 
money was scarce, and the people generally poor. There were no 
school houses, and there was no public school fund, either state 
or county. All persons who had physical strength enough to labor 
were obliged to work. 

A pioneer states that **the school houses of an early day, as a 
general thing, were of the poorest kind. In towns, they were dilap- 
idated buildings, either frame or log, and in the country they were 
invariably of logs ; usually but one style of architecture was used 
in building them. They were erected, not from a regular fund, 
or by subscription, but by labor given. The neighbors would gather 
together at some point previously agreed upon, and, with ax in 
hand, the work was soon done. Logs were cut, sixteen or eighteen 
feet in length, and of these walls were raised. Broad boards com- 
posed the roof, and a rude fireplace and clapboard door, a puncheon 
floor, and the cracks filled with * chinks,' and these daubed over 
with mud, completed the schoolhouse, with the exception of the win- 
dows and the furniture. These were as rude and primitive as the 
house itself. The window was made by cutting out a log the full 
length of the building, and over the opening, in winter, paper, 
saturated with grease, served to admit the light. Just under this 
window, two or three strong pins were driven in the log in a slanting 
direction. On these pins, a long puncheon was fastened, and this 
was the writing desk of the whole school. For seats, they used 
benches made from small trees, cut in lengths of ten or twelve 
feet, split open, and, in the round side, two large holes were bored 
at each end, and in each a stout pin, fifteen inches long, was driven. 
These pins formed the legs. On the uneven floors these rude 
benches were hardly ever seen to have more than three legs on the 
floor at one time. And the books ! They were as promiscuous as the 
house and furnishings." 

Education received the earnest attention of the pioneers of 
Morrow county and at an early day log schoolhouses made their 
appearance, in the different townships, often before churches did. 
The first settlers were too scattering to form a good school district, 
and as there was but little money for the payment of teachers, they 
had to be supported mainly by subscription. Yet, notwithstanding 
all these disadvantages, the interest in education went steadily for- 

The first school in Gilead township was in the Quaker settle- 
ment about 1823. Afterwards there was a school and a log 

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schoolhouse in the eastern part of the township, another in the 
southeastern, and another in what is now Edison. 

The first school in Cardington township was opened in the fall 
of 1823. The house was of hewed logs and was built with great 
care, as it was designed for church purposes as well as school, and 
was erected in 1823. 

Shortly after Enos Miles came to Chester township, in 1815, 
there was a schoolhouse built there. Mr. Miles was a teacher and 
an enthusiast on education, and sold the land upon which the 
building was erected for a pint of oats, so anxious was he for a 
school near his new home. It was of logs and had greased paper 

The first school taught in Westfleld township was in a private 
house at Shaw Town. The first schoolhouse was of logs and was 
built in 1823. 

Schoolhouses were among the first structures built in Franklin 
township, even before the meeting houses, an early settler tells us. 
The first schoolhouse made its appearance as early as 1815. 

There was a schoolhouse built in South Bloomfield township 
in 1819, about a half mile southwest of Sparta. 

Lincoln township's first structure for the purpose of schools 
was built of logs, sixteen by nineteen feet, in 1819, on section 2. 

In 1834 the first school was taught in Congress township. It 
wj(s kept in a small cabin, built for school purposes, not far from 
Williamsport. The first school in Perry township was taught in 
1817, in the Singery settlement. The next schools were in Johns- 
ville and Woodbury. 

The first school house in Washington township was built in 
1825, and has been described as follows: **It was a rough structui 
— round logs * scotched down on the inside,' which means that the 
roughnesses were hewn away after the logs were laid in place; 
puncheon floor, 'slab seats and counters scanty;' fireplace six feet 
wide, at one side of the building, with stick chimney daubed with 
mud, like the chinks between the logs. It was located on the road, 
a little more than a mile north of Iberia." 

The first schoolhouses in the county were built in the most 
primitive style, all were of logs, and the most of them had greased 
paper windows. Even before the people were able to build houses, 
schools were taught in the cabins of the settlers or in any building 
that was found suitable. 

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Defects in Present System. 

The late A. K. Dunn, in his report to the Commissioner of 
Common Schools, speaks thus of the schools of this county: ** Mor- 
row county has made very commendable advancement in the educa- 
tinal advantages afforded to her people, and, although the progress 
made in each succeeding year is not as great as desirable, yet in the 
course of the last twenty-five years the improvement is very obvious. 
Much has been done by way of improving the appearance and com- 
fort of the buildings erected for the use of the public schools, 
although a great deficiency in these respects still exists in many 
districts of the county. The graded schools and schools in special 
districts are well conducted, under the control of well-qualified and 
efficient teachers, by whose efforts the proficiency in the branches 
taught has been made very creditable, and by reason thereof the 
districts are supplied with better qualified teachers than formerly, 
and the standard of qualifications has been gradually raised, from 
time to time, until the teachers and schools of the county will com- 
pare favorably with other counties in the state. 

**A great evil in our county, that requires a speedy remedy, 
is the many small districts, enumerating but a small number oi 
scholars, in many instances not half enough to make a school 
respectable in numbers if all in the district should be in daily 
attendance. In these small districts teachers are usually employed, 
not so much with a view to their qualifications as to their cheapness, 
and to confer a favor on some relative, friend or neighbor. In such 
districts, usually, the teachers who are barely able to obtain fourth- 
class certificates are employed. If these small districts could be 
combined or consolidated in such way as to make each district con- 
tain the necessary number of scholars to form a school lai^ enough 
to generate a spirit of emulation among pupils and teachers, the 
tendency would be to make qualification in the teacher the chief 
object in their employment, instead of low price and favoritism, 
and teachers of fourth-class qualifications would find no place to 
impose themselves on the community. 

**One of the main difficulties in the way of obtaining well- 
qualified teachers is the entire neglect on the part of many directors 
to make a high standard of qualifications a requisite for employ- 
ment, it being sufficient, in the estimation of such directors, that a 
teacher have a certificate to enable him to draw the public money, 
no matter how low the grade. The only remedy for this is in the 
directors and the people in such districts." 

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The first school taught in Whetstone, or Youngstown, was in 
1831, by Mrs. Mary 6. Shadd, and in part of the building at the 
southeast comer of the south public square, now the home of Mrs. 
Judith Heck. 

In 1833 a quite commodious octagonal school building, for those 
times, was built on east Center street, on the lot now^ occupied by 
the office and dwelling of Dr. J. C. McCormi6k, and continued to 
be occupied for school until 1853. The teachers in same, from time 
to time, were P. K. Francis, John Ustick, Miss Barnes, Miss Hayden, 
Joel Bruce, J. M. Rogers, S. B. Morgan, L. B. Vorhies and William 
H. Bums. The writer attended this old schoolhouse in 1846 and 


Erasmus Philipps was a successful teacher and owned a school- 
house on West Center street, and taught a select school. He was a 
severe discliplinarian and his motto was **Lickin and Lamin," and 
**No Lickin No Lamin.'' His scholars all feared him, but he 
''jollied'' them, and many liked him as a teacher. The writer, as 
a small lad, so feared him, that he was never the scholar of '*Ras*' 
Philipps, as he was called. He taught for many years (until about 
1853), moved to Williamsport, and taught there until 1866, when 
he committed suicide. 

Other teachers of select schools were Eli^beth Hicks and Miss 
Mary J. Bartlett, who taught in an old frame building near the 
comer of Center and Walnut streets, in 1845. She is now aged 
eighty-six years, the widow of David M. Fredericks, and resides 
in Lima, Ohio. 

In 1851-3 Mrs. W. S. Spalding had a seminary for young ladies 
in the First Baptist church, which then stood on the northeast 
comer of the South square, and for a year thereafter said church 
was used for the Union school, of which Samuel E. Adams was 

Union Schools op Mt. Gilead. 

The Union schools of Mt. Gilead have borne such an important 
part in the moral and intellectual development of our community, 
and sent out scholars equipped with such literary accomplishments 
and wide influences, that an earnest effort will be made to set forth 
the part they have taken in our historical progress. 

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The first Union school building was erected in 1853-4, on the 
grounds now occupied, and was ready for occupancy by September, 
1854; was razed in 1873 and the present Union school building 
erected at a cost of $24,000. In 1908 the High school building 
was completed at a cost of $13,000. 


The first superintendent was a Mr. Strong, whose mind gave 
way, and he continued only two or three months. This was in the 
fall of the year 1854. William L. Terrill was second superinten- 
dent, and until 1856 ; then William Merrin until September, 1857 ; 
Edward C. S. Miller for 1857 and 1858, and Will Watkins for 1859. 
In September, 1860, Milton Lewis became superintendent and thus 
remained until September, 1875. At that time, Philip H. Roetin- 
ger became superintendent, and in June, 1876, the first class from 
the high school graduated. A list of all subsequent superintendents 
to date, is hereafter given: James Duncan, 1876-7; John Barnes, 
1877-8; Theodore J. Mitchell, 1878-81; Azariah W. Lincoln for 
1882-4; Joseph H. Snyder for 1885-91; Monroe W. Spear for 1891- 
1902; C. H. Winans for 1902-4; C. B. Stoner for 1904-9; Prank 
J. Ryan, present incumbent. 

Distinguished Graduates. 

While Superintendents Terrill and Merrin were men of culture 
and good teachers, the most enthusiasm was created among the 
scholars while Edward C. S. Miller was superintendent in 1857 
and 1858. Most of the young men, yet in their *' teens," three 
years later became soldiers in the Civil war, and their work is 
now done, or they are old men and closing up life's work. Their 
records are briefly traced below. 

Jerry M. Dunn, who became captain in Company C, Fifteenth 
Ohio Volunteer Infantry, and in 1867 was elected to the Ohio 

John S. Cooper left college at Oberlin, in 1861, and became 
sergeant in Company C, Seventh Regiment, Ohio Volunteer Infan- 
try, and was transferred to the United States Engineers' Corps, 
and then to lieutenant colonel. One Hundred and Seventh Regi- 
ment, Ohio Volunteer Infantry, and a leading lawyer in Chicago 
until his death, November 15, 1907. 

William M. Eccles was graduated at Oberlin; served in the 

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Forty-third Regiment, Ohio Volunteer Infantry; was admitted to 
the bar ; practiced patent law in St. Louis, Missouri ; earned a com- 
petency and returned to Morrow county, where he died April 15, 

Byron L. Talmage served three years in Company C, Fifteenth 
Ohio Volunteer Infantry, and is cashier of the First National Bank, 
Richwood, Ohio. 

Robert F. Bartlett served in Company D, Ninety-sixth Ohio 
Volunteer Infantry; was twice wounded in battles, and resides at 
Mt. Gilead. 

Samuel P. Snider became a student at Oberlin and a soldier, 
in Company D, Sixty-fifth Ohio Volunteer Infantry; was twice 
wounded in battles and promoted to sergeant and captain, and 
since the Civil war has served a term in the congress of the United 
States from Minnesota. 

John Wood became a teacher in Indian schools on the frontier. 

Bruce Moore pursued literary studies and is professor in a 
Virginia college. 

All of these were students under Edward Miller. 

Denton J. Snider, a native of Mt. Gilead, recited Hebrew to 
Professor Miller. He served briefly in Company H, Tenth Regi- 
ment, Ohio Volunteer Cavalry and in Company F, One Hundred 
and Twenty-fourth Ohio Volunteer Infantry as second lieutenant. 
He was an intense student and. pursued his literary studies with 
vigor. He gave a course of Shakespearean lectures, and also one 
on Greece before 1879, and the next year lectured at Orchard 
House before the Concord School of Philosophy. At that time A. 
Bronson Alcott, William F. Harris, Reverend William H. Chan- 
ning, Julia Ward Howe, Ralph W. Emerson and other notables 
were lecturers before that school. He tramped through Greece, and 
published in two volumes **A Walk in Hellas;'' also ** Delphic 
Days," a poem; in 1885, a second poem, ** Agamemnon's Daugh- 
ter," and in 1889, **The Freeburgens, " a novel. He is extremely 
metaphysical in his writings, and above the comprehension of com- 
mon mortals. 

Lillian Whiting, in ** Boston Days," makes flattering mention 
of him : **He is too great for any praise of mine." 

The young ladies who attended school under Professor 
Edward Miller were Annie Snider; America Snider (now Mrs. 
Chase), Satt Talmage (now Mrs. J. M. Albach), Anastasia Tal- 
mage (later Mrs. James Olds, deceased), Viola Talmage, Amelia 
Stover, Emma Sayre (now Mrs. N. N. Coe, who was a teacher for 

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many years at Elkhart, Indiana, and Lima and Marion, Ohio), Ann 
Electa Sayre, Xira V. Ensign and Mary Knox Talmage. 

Superintendent Milton Lewis, from 1860 to 1875, gave the 
Union school a high reputation, and several who further pursued 
their studies at college came under his instructions, and among 
others were James 6. Shedd, William W. Gurley ; Prank K. Dunn, 
the latter of whom is now a judge of the supreme court of Illinois ; 
Mr. Gurley, a leading lawyer in Chicago, and Mr. Shedd, at his 
death some years ago a collegiate professor. A later scholar was 
M. Belle Russell-Miles, who took courses in the New England Con- 
servatory of Music, in Boston, and, under Tecla Vigna, at the Cin- 
cinnati Conservatory. Por twenty-two years she has been leading 
soprano in the leading churches of Columbus, Ohio. 

We do not know of any scholars, or graduates, of our Union 
schools who have not done well in life's duties, and many of the 
young lady graduates are wives and mothers, in quiet homes; 
priestesses who minister at those sacred altars. They have not 
made any great stir in the world; but their work is equally im- 
portant with those who have. 

A few who have been unusually successful in professional, 
literary and musical departments, and have reflected credit on 
Mt. Gilead schools, in addition to those already mentioned, require 
to be noticed. 

Henry Byron Newson, of the class of 1876 was graduated at 
Ohio Wesleyan University in 1883 and later at John Hopkins 
University, Baltimore, Maryland, and at Heidelburg University, 
Germany, serving as professor of ancient languages and mathe- 
matics at Kansas State University, Lawrence, for many years prior 
to his death, Pebruary 18, 1910. 

EUor E. Carlisle, class of 1879, took a post-graduate course, 
and has been a teacher at Wellesley College, Massachusetts. 

Annette M. Bartlett Scott, class of 1882, was afterwards 
graduated at the State Normal schools of Lebanon, Ohio, and Os- 
wego, New York, and from April, 1887, for over nine years, was 
the principal of the Normal School for Girls in the City of Mexico, 
Mexico, and later professor of music and mathematics in the State 
Normal school. North Adams, Massachusetts. Her home was Mt. 
Gilead until 1901. 

William P. Duncan, class of 1883, became a lawyer, and has 
been, and is now, judge of the court of common pleas, at Pindlay, 

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Frank Wieland, class of 1886, is an eminent physician in 
Chicago, Illinois. 

Edwin T. Pollock, class of 1887, is an officer in the United 
States navy. 

Frederick N. McMillan, class of 1870, post-graduate at Wooster 
University, 1895, and same year entered McCormick Theological 
Seminary, Chicago. Became minister of Presbyterian church, 
1897; pastor Memorial Church, Dayton, Ohio, for eleven years; 
since November, 1910, pastor of First Presbyterian Church, Walnut 
Hills, Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Raymond Nold, class of 1901, is pursuing musical studies. 

Bert Miller, 1892, is clerk of United States district court. 

Edward M. McMillin attended the Union schools of Mt. Gilead, 
and in 1888 was graduated at Wooster University, and by McCor- 
mick Theological Seminary, Chicago, in 1891. He was first pastor 
at Gibson City, Illinois, same year; then at Adrian, Michigan, and 
for several years has been pastor of the First Presbyterian church 
at East Liverpool, Ohio. 

Corinne E. Russell, a student in Mt. Gilead Union school, 
studied music and voice culture under Professor Hubbard, an 
eminent teacher, of Boston, Massachusetts. She taught one year at 
Athens, Georgia, and now conducts a studio at Springfield, Ohio. 

Irma Talmage, student in the Union schools, graduated at 
Ohio Wesleyan University in 1902, and at Smith's College, North- 
ampton, Massachusetts, in 1903. She has taught at Lancaster and 
Sandusky, Ohio. In the summer of 1910 she was employed, with 
six other ladies, and five men teachers, to take charge of a school 
at Peking, China, by authority of the Chinese government. Part 
of the indemnity paid to the United States government by the 
government of China, on account of the Boxer insurrection, was 
returned to China by the national government, and the money so 
returned was used to found this school at the Chinese capital. 
Miss Talmage is now at Peking, and her resolution displayed in 
this undertaking is most heroic. 

One of the teachers of the primary grade of long ago, said of 
several of her scholars: **I taught them their letters, and to read, 
I am proud of them.*' A teacher looks back with affection to the 
rosy-«heeked children who were so anxious to learn, and to please 
their teacher, and especially so, if they have made good. If they 
have not, the affection remains ; but there is sorrow for the failure. 

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Graduates op Mount Gilead High School, 1876-1910. 

The list of graduating classes of Mt. Gilead High School is 
now given, and also as many teachers who taught in the school, 
as can be recalled. 

The first class graduated was in 1876, under Superintendent 
Philip H. Roetinger. 

1876 — Kate AUison-Heflfernan, Ada Corwin-James, Carrie 
Dalrymple-Powell and Jessie Miles-Jackson. W. P. Bruce at com- 
mencement gave a recitation, **The Curse of Regulus.'* 

1877 — James H. Beebe, Emma Beebe Crocker, Mary Annette 
Bunker Thompson, Belle Loren, Gertrude Mateer-Miles and Alice 

1878— Smith C. Bingham, Cora A. Keyser-Ruhl, Harriet E. 
Place-Reid, Edwin N. Gunsaulus and Henry B. Newson. 

1879 — Ellor E. Carlisle and Frederica I. Andrews. 

1880— Ned Thatcher and John Osbom. 

1881 — Halleck Campbell, Abbie Hales-Crane, Jennie Jinks, 
James W. Pugh, Ernest H. Pollock, Frank Powell, Charles Wiant, 
Tamar Elliott, May Ivey, Carrie McCracken-Pugh, Margaret Pugh- 
Essig, Walter Pollock and George L. Newson. 

1882— Annette M. Bartlett-Scott, Fanny I. Burt, Carrie Chase- 
Pollock, Nellie Gunsaulus-Griflfith, Metta Goorley-McMillin, Grant 
Lydy, Kate Wieland-Ramey, Kittie Van Hom-McLachlin, Hattie 
Boyle, Douglas Beem, Mina Chase- Vaughan, Nellie Goorley, Grant 
Halliday, Hortense Kingman-Foster and Elmer Wood. 

1883 — Walter Andrews, Jennie Carpenter, Albert Meader, 
Sophia Wieland, Anna Loren-Brown, William F. Duncan and Alice 

1884— Kittie Beebe-Diekinson, Nellie Helt-King, Alice Wood, 
Vertie Work, Anna Glathart-McKinstry, Grace Shaw-Laycox and 
Emma Wieland. 

1885 — Frank McGowen, Harriet Gunsaulus-Kennedy, Gertrude 
Mathews-Williams, Kate Ensign Young, Letty Ivey, Ava Shauch-. 
Lefever, Nellie Benedict-Carlisle, Margaret Mateer, Mabel Mozier- 
Storer, Rose McAninch-Balmer, Mame Richardson and Alice Vor- 

1886 — Frank Wieland, Frederick Briggs, Nellie Newson, Lizzie 
Ustick-Garver, Kate Gunsaulus-Copeland, Anna Goorley- Wieland 
and Edna Shauck. 

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1887 — ^William G. Brown, Rebecca Glathart, Stuart Eagleson 
and Edwin T. Pollock. 

1888— Mattie E. Beck, Femer Boyle, Eva Gardner and Fred D. 

1889 — Mattie Mitchell-Bruce, Clara Mozier-Baker, Jessie 
Wright, John Gordon, Clara Goorley-Fogle, Anna Talmage and 
John Mateer. 

1890 — Charles M. Breese, J. Watt Conger, Annis Pollock, 
Frederick N. McMillin, Maude Cooper, John Gouber, Harriet Rey- 
nolds and Edward J. Wieland. 

1891 — Nellie Annett, Grace Eagleson, James E. Vaughan, 
Charles M. Briggs and Mary Loren. 

1892 — Ralph Gage, Bert Miller, Josephine Talmage-Vail, 
Carrie Wieland, Edna Dean Booher- Warren, Maude Smith-Dun- 
can, Bessie K. Talmage-Peck and Albert Wolcott. 

1893 — Alonzo Barnes, Milton Jackson, Frank Goorley, Free 
Miller, Helen Talmage, Paul Carlisle, Keturah Levering, Edith 
Matthews-Barber and M. Rae Purcell. 

1894 — Harriet B. Adams, Grace Goorley, Gertrude Glathart, 
Ralph V. Mateer, Carrie H. Johnson-White, Mary Roberta 
Wheeler-Calender, Ezra L. Rinehart, Ray H. Vanatta, Frances 
Adell Doty, M. Emma Garbison, Josephine Plumb, Lucy Matthews- 
Hyde, Austin Kelly, Georgiana Wood-McCully and Sarah Swingle. 
. 1895 — Bert Bamhard, Bessie Duncan-Shaw, Ada Booker- 
Moore, Margaret Eells-Gillette, J. Ralph Fulton, William W. Ec- 
cles, Henry C. Kelker, Blanche Houck-Breese, Judith Wright-Long, 
Edith Talmage-Dennison, Walter Wood, Minnie Breese, Wilder 
Joy James, Mabel Lewis, Mary Matzer, Laura Rhodebeck-Pierce, 
Belle Talmage-Terry and Allen B. Whitney. 

1896— Martin O. Brown, Glenn Earley, Ed. Hedrick, Hettie 
Holt McClelland, J. Lesley Jackson, Arthur Vaughan, Lloyd De 
GoUey, Mary Eccles-Hobson, Frances M. Furboy-Cummins, Fred. 
Fritsch, J. Wesley Jackson and Joe Walcott. 

1897 — C. B. Emahizer, Helen Miller-Barr and (Jeorge Smiley. 

1898 — Esther Eells-Spellhouse, Carl V. Beebe, Louise Barton, 
George Hickson, Jane Jago-McKinnon, Goldie Orsbom-Doty, 
Clarence C. Whitney, Orva Brown, Bessie Cooper, Maude Gruber- 
Sayre, Anna Lincoln Knapp, Nettie Miller Lockridge, William D. 
Matthews and Mabel Breese-Crawford. 

1899 — C. Simms Brown, Earl A. Bixler, Harry Mozier, Bessie 
McCracken- White, Aura Bennett Smiley, Margaret Boyer-Perry, 
Elizabeth Davis-Peck and Lizzie Newson-Bennett. 

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1900 — Herman Beebe ; Grace Boyer, Mt. Gilead ; Byrd Bomber- 
ger, Nell Burgoyne-Ruhlman, Maude Coe-Phillipps ; Olga Diinn- 
MeCammon, Portland, Oregon; Herbert George, Mary Levering, 
Edwin M. Mathews, Herman Powell; Alice Wilson-Mathews, Mt. 
Gilead ; and Mary Wood. 

1901 — Helen Barton, Helen Cooper, Mt. Gilead, Ohio; Ralph 
B. Howard, Carl Morris, Mt. Gilead, Ohio; Mary Mosher-Jackson, 
Mt. Gilead, Ohio ; Raymond Nold, Newark, Ohio ; Clarence B. Rus- 

1902 — Nelle Bennett-Carlisle; Samuel Bennett, Abbie Bixler, 
Albert Brown, Lewis Case, Reid Howser, Earle Martindale, Grace 
Wingett, Marion, Ohio, and Elba Kingman. 

1903 — Hugh 0. Allison Asa Breese, Faye Cleveland, Edna 
Dumbaugh-Hurdman, Fredericktown, Ohio; Mabel GriflSth, Vada 
Elliot, Nelle Pulton, dead; Bertha Kelker-George ; Harry Kelly, 
Floyd O. Olds, Dwight E. Smith, Xantha Swingle, Henry R. Tal- 
mage and Horace Whitney. 

1904 — Ola Bums, Mabel Brown, Edna Breese-Leitar ; Glenn 
Brown, Harley Gardner, H. Earle GrifBth, Katherine Henry, Her- 
bert Mathews, Ray McParland, Edith Mozier, Minnie McAdams, 
Louis K. Powell, died January 6th, 1905; James L. Russell, Mt. 
Gilead, Ohio; Edith Ramey-Darr, deceased; Mabel Randolph, Day- 
tona, Florida; Mabel Smiley, and Elizabeth White, Mt. Gilead, 

1905 — Ottie Apt, Charles Davis, Anna George-Hatton ; Ila 
Harding-Saw; Frank Howell and Blanche Lefever. 

1906 — J. Ralph McGaughey, John J. Hickson and Lulu Lee. 

1907 — Edith B. Bennett, Elizabeth Bennett, Helen Jerrine 
Booher, Helen E. Breese, Ella Adelia Gardner, Lola M. Howard, 
Laura C. Peters, Helen Josie Ramey, Bertha H. Talmage- Whitney ; 
Mary Clara Terry, Helen T. White, Edna Louise Young, Grover 
Fr6d Clements, Geo. A. Hickson, Chas. F. Hulien, C. Ward McCor- 
mick, Harley D. Miracle, Harry Morehouse and Archie R. Tuttle. 

1908 — ^Zoe M. Armstrong-Kelly; Addie Mae Bachelder, Helen 
Bakes, Edith G. Bomberger, Golda Marie Boyer-Pickett ; Edith 
Paulina Brown, M. Rheta B. Hartpence, S. Guy Hildebrand, Earl 
W. Lefever, Vina V. Lefever, Esther Mae McAnall, Edna Virginia 
Miller, E. Harold Mills, Frank Burr Morton, Phoebe Harlan 
Mosher, Edith M. Peters, Ray W. Pittman, Hazel D. Ramey, Ethel 
Dorothy Whitney, Guy Harrison Whitney, Mary Rebecca Wilson, 
EflBe Muriel Wood, Imo Rose Wright and Clara Louise Young. 

1909 — Ethel J. Breese, Guy G. Brown, Henry N. Case, 

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Raymond 6. Miller, Edna M. Rule, Dottie R. Bowman Caroline J. 
Bird, E. Glenn Pulton, Beryl R. Pugh and Merrill D. Stemtt. 

1910— Edith Breese, Hubert Ashley, Mabel Crawford Charles 
Hiekson, Wilton Jackson, Janet Schaaf, Anene Bowman, Goldie 
Clements, Isaac Hartman, Dale Masters, Mary Pugh and Gladys 
Whitney. • 

High School Teachers. 

Elizabeth Tillotson, Julia Brown-Mateer, Lena Howard-Searles, 
Amanda Brown-Purcell, Mary Miller-Byrd, Albert Miller, Pred 
H. Warren, Sabina Knox-Irwin, Eliza Pant-Bailey, Sadie Powell- 
Howard, Elma Talmage-Barton, Matilda Montgomery-Haines, 
Mary Dunn-Connolly, Hannah Brown, Mabel Rae Purcell, Prances 
Beebe-Prophet, Emma Lord, Edna Dean Booher- Warren, Margaret 
Knox-Talmage, Amanda McKee-Stinchcomb, Mary Andrews-Miller, 
Amanda Dodge, •Mary Shedd-Clark, Emma Sayre-Coe, Margaret 
Sanford-Holt, •Gertrude Mateer-Miles, •Mary Virginia Pogle, 
Minerva Romans, Harriet Gunsaulus-Kennedy, Edna Shauck, 
Emma Boyd Latham, Annie Pollock, Margaret Mateer, Kate Wie- 
land-Ramey, Ethel K. Arbogast, Belta Yockey, Carrie Wieland, 
Blanche Houck-Breese, C G. Leiter, Robert Guinther, C. H. Hen- 
derson, Ina Lanning, Ivah M. Sehenck, Clara Miles, Bessie Wilson, 
Ethel Whitney, Abbie Bixler, Bertha Kelker-George ; Margaret 
Reynolds, Belle Knox-Cook, Hortense Chapin-Spear, Mrs. Ina 
Chapin, Alvin Hen-Richardson, Mary Mateer-Pluckey, Maude Sum- 
mers, Clara Goorley-Pogle, Jessie Miles-Jackson, Alice Osbom- 
Talmage, Ella Allison, Prances Doty, •Nellie Pulton, Laura Powell, 
Belle Lerch, R. 0. Witcraft, •Pay M. Daubenmire, Josephine Kelly, 
Helen Bakes, Clara Young, Madge A. Payne, Lydia Morrow, Ila 
M. Harding-Law, Archie R. Tuttle, E. A. Bixler, Eva Gardner, 
Clara Mozier, Alice Parsons and Susan Wood-Powell. 

Teachers of Music: T. J. Davis, S. C Harding and •W. H. 

Course op Study (Adopted 1904). 

Pirst Year — Preshman. 
1st Semester 2nd Semester 

English I English I 

Algebra I Algebra I 

Physical Geography Botany 


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Latin I 
Arithmetic Review 

Elective — Choose One 

Latin I 

Commercial Arithmetic 

English II 
Plane Geometry 
General History 

Latin II 

English III 

Solid Geometry 
Latin III 
German I 

English IV 

U. S. History 
Latin IV 
German II 

Second Year — Sophomore. 

EngUsh II 
Plane Geometry 
General History 

Elective — Choose One 

Latin II 

Third Year — Junior. 

English III 

Elective — Choose Three 

Algebra II 

Commercial Geography 
Latin III 
German I 

Fourth Year — Senior. 

English IV 

Elective — Choose Two 

Latin IV 
German II 


Algebra I — ^Wentworth's New School, the first eighteen chap- 
ters, five times a week during the year. 

Algebra II — Same text, Quadratics, chapters XIX to XXIV in- 
clusive, five times a week during second semester. 

Plane Geometry — ^Wentworth's Plane and Solid Geometry, 
five books, five times a week for the year. 

Solid Geometry — Same text, three books, five times a week, 
first semester. 

Arithmetic — Wentworth's Advanced Arithmetic, five times a 
week during the year. 

Vol. 1—14 

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Bookkeeping — Business Practice and Commercial Paper, five 
times a week for the year. 


Physical Geography — Davis' Elementary, with experiments, 
five times a week, first semester. 

Botany — Bergen's Elements, Revised, with experiments and 
plant analysis, five times a week, second semester. 

Zoology — Jordan and Kellogg 's Animal Life, with field and 
laboratory work, five times a week, first semester. 

Physiology — Overton's Applied Advanced, with experiments 
as outlined, five time a week, second semester. 

Physics — Carhart and Chute's High School, with experiments, 
i\ve times a week for the year. 


English History — See under English II. 

General History — Myers' five times a week during the year. 

U. S. History — McLaughlin 's History of the American Nation, 
five times a week, first semester. 

Civics — Piske's Civil Government, five times a week, second 


Latin I — Collar and Daniell 's Pirst Latin, five times a week. 

Latin II — Pour books of Cipsar, four times a week ; Dodge and 
Tuttle's Latin Prose Composition, once a week. 

Latin III — Six orations of Cicero, including Pro Lege Manilia, 
four times a week ; D. and T's Composition once a week. 

Latin IV — Six books of Virgil's Aeneid with Prosody and 
Mythology, five times a week. 


English I — Part I of Lockwood and Emerson's Composition 
and Rhetoric, four times a week for the first twenty-four weeks; 
Scott's Ivanhoe to be read outside of class, with weekly class re- 
ports. Careful class study of Eliot's Silas Mamer for the remain- 

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ing twelve weeks; the Merchant of Venice to be read outside of 
class with weekly discussions in class of plot, setting, characters, 
episodes, climaxes, etc. 

English II — ^Parts II and III of S. and B's Composition and 
Rhetoric, four times a week for the first semester, and reports, once 
a week, from the class concerning their study (outside of class) of 
Scott's Lady of the Lake, Coleridge's Rime of the Ancient Mariner, 
and Lowell 's Vision of Sir Launf al. As a preparation for further 
study in English, the class will study Montgomery's English His- 
tory, five times a week, the second semester. 

English III — Part IV, exclusive of chapter XIX, of S. and 
E's Composition and Rhetoric, five times a week for nine weeks; 
Macaulay's Essay on Milton and his Life of Johnson for remainder 
of semester; Tennyson's Gareth and Lynette, Lancelot and Blaine, 
and the Passing of Arthur to be read outside of class. Brander 
Matthews' American Literature five times a week, the second 

English IV — Ilalleck 's History of English Literature five times 
a week, first semester. Burke's Speech on Concilliation with 
America and Shakespeare's Julius Ccesar three times a week, second 
semester, with semi-weekly reports from the class on Sir Roger de 
Coverly Papers, Shakespeare's Macbeth, and Irving 's Life of 


German I — The Shorter Eysenbach five times a week for the 

German II — Easy stories and plays of German literature, drill 
on the rudiments of grammar, and conversational exercises. 

Ohio Central College. 

Ohio Central College was located in Iberia, Washington town- 
ship. Morrow county, a mile and a half west of the Big Pour 
Railroad, on the Mansfield-Marion wagon road and was in operation 
a little more than a quarter of a century. The entire history of 
the institution is marked by five periods. The first two antedate 
the commencement of the college proper. The first period covers 
the brief history of a select or high school, conducted successfully 
by the Reverend J. B. Blaney and Mr. Elliott, and by Josiah Alex- 

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ander and his brother Samuel. At the commencement of the second 
period, in 1849, a lar^ two-stor>' brick building was erected, 
through the liberality mainly of Mr. Hugh Elliott, and the school 
took the form of a young ladias' seminary, Miss Mary J. Haft 
acting as Principal. The Female Seminary, as it was called, soon 
became a mixed school under the care of the Reverend Joseph 
Andrews. This school continuing but a short time, the property 
was sold to Dr. Thomas Mills, and by him transferred to the Synod 
of the Free Presbyterian Church of the United States of America. 
This transfer marks the beginning of the third period. The synod. 


in 1854, obtained from the legislature of Ohio a charter with col- 
lege powers, and the school was organized under the name of 
Iberia College. This college opened its doors to all classes, with- 
out distinction of sex, race or color. This continued till after the 
war of the rebellion, when the Synod of the Free Presbyterian 
Church dissolved, and the college passed under the care of the 
United Presbyterian Presbytery of Mansfield. This marks the 
beginning of the fourth period of the institution's history. This 
period came to a close in 1875. During this time the name of the 
college was changed from Iberia to Ohio Central, 

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Owing to financial embarrassment, the Mansfield Presbytery 
relinquished all control and all claims, and the college property 
was legally transferred in 1875 to a joint^stock company. This 
company framed a constitution and by-laws, providing that the 
college be positively Christian in its management, but not sec- 
tarian. Nine trustees, belonging to three different denominations, 
were chosen, and for the last five years the work has been carried 
on under this new management. Under the administration of the 
Free Presbyterians, a second building was erected, containing 
recitation rooms, rooms for the literary societies, and a chapel. 
The college, with the societies, possessed a library of about four 
hundred and thirty-five volumes; also valuable maps, a mineral 
and geological cabinet, and chemical and astronomical apparatus. 
The campus contained about five acres, nicely situated, with gar- 
dens, shade trees, and grassy lawns. 

Trustees of the college during the Free Presbyterian adminis- 
tration: Reverend Samuel Hindman, Allen McNeal, Richard 
Hammond, Tht)mas S. Mills, M. D., Hon. S. P. Henry, Reverend 
John Rankin, Reverend William Perkins, James Auld, Sr., Archi- 
bald Brownlee, James Morrow, Reverend George Gordon, Reverend 
S. T. Boyd, William Reed, M. D., Reverend M. T. Finney. Trus- 
tees during the administration of the Mansfield Presbytery: 
Reverend R. H. Pollock, D. D., William Dickson, Reverend J. Y. 
Ashenhurst, Archibald Brownlee, John Finney, Matthew Hindman, 
Professor Edward F. Reed, Reverend D. H. French, D. D., Allen 
McNeal, Reverend William Wishart, D. D., Richard Hammond, J. 
J. McClaren, E. Burt, Esq., Reverend W. A. Campbell, Reverend 
W. H. French, D. D., and several others whose names cannot 
be obtained.. Trustees during the last administration: Reverend 
William Maclaren, D. D., Samuel Nesbit, E. Burt, Esq., John Mc- 
Neal, Allen McNeal, Enoch Dunham, John Quay, E. J. Crane Esq., 
John Frater, Reverend John P. Robb, John S. Hunter. 

The first and only president of the college during the time it 
was under the care of the Free Presbyterian Synod was the Rev- 
erend George Gordon, A. M., a man of sterling worth and strong 
convictions. He suffered imprisonment in the city of Cleveland 
for an alleged violation of the Fugitive Slave Law, but before his 
term expired he was released by the authority of Abraham Lincoln, 
President of the United States. Mr. Gordon died in 1868. The 
same year, perhaps, in which President Gordon died, the college 
passed under the care of Mansfield Presytery, and the Reverend 
James Patterson, D. D., was chosen president. Dr. Patterson came 

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from Wilmington, Pennsylvania, where he had been for a number 
of years president of Westminster College. He was president for 
less than a year, and from Iberia he removed to Iowa, and became 
pastor of a church. The Reverend W. H. French was chosen presi- 
dent in 1869, and held the office for about two years. His.successor 
was Professor Ed. P. Reed, A. M. He was president for about 
two years, when he resigned, and accepted a professorship in Mon- 
mouth College, lUinois. John A. Ramsay, A. M., a graduate of 
the Indiana State University, was president pro tempore about one 
year. And with him ended the United Presbyterian control. 

After the reorganization of the college, in 1875, as a non- 
sectarian but Christian institution, the Reverend William Maclaren, 
D. D., was elected president, and held the position one year, and 
then removed to Red Wing, Minnesota. After Dr. Maclaren 's 
resignation, the Reverend John P. Robb, A. M., became president. 

This college was nine miles north of Mt. Qilead. After an 
existence of over a quarter of a century, the school was discon- 
tinued, and the state bought the property for a ** Working Home 
for the Blind.'' This was opened June 20, 1887, with Q. C. Tres- 
sel, of Cleveland, as superintendent, with his wife and daughters 
as assistant. Besides furnishing the buildings, the state supplied 
the equipments, trusting that it could be made self sustaining 
without further aid. It had but few inmates, and was yet experi- 
mental, when it was destroyed by fire in 1894. It was not rebuilt 
and the school ceased to exist. 

Hbspeb Mount Seminary. 

Hesper Mount Seminary was opened in 1843, under the 
auspices of Jesse S. and Cynthia Harkness. The pressing need of 
such an institution gave it a remarkable impetus, and for the first 
twenty years the longest vacation was one week, making an average 
of four terms of twelve weeks each per annum. In 1844 the 
founders purchased land, and in 1845 built a large dwelling and 
boarding house, with a school room. This building was erected 
nearly opposite the Friends' meeting house, where the first four 
terms of the school had been taught. On account of the elevation 
of the site, the name ** Hesper Mount Seminary" was given it. 
The attendance of this school varied from fifty to over one hun- 
dred. The regulations were liberal and benevolent, especially to 
orphans and to the poor who were striving against adverse circum- 
stances to get an education. The health of Mr. Harkness failing, 

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caused the school to be discontinued for six years, and after its 
resumption the terms were limited to three a year. The scholars 
came from nearly every state in the Union. 

The school was discontinued in 1881, after an existence of 
thirty-eight years, and the man who started the school in 1843, 
died in 1909, aged ninety-six years During the last weeks of Mr. 
Harkness' life, the faithful wife, despite her more than ninety 


years, was his almost constant attendant, and after his death her 
strength failed from being overtaxed. The condition of her sys- 
tem made her an easy victim of pneumonia, and she died just two 
weeks after her husband *s death, respected and beloved by all who 
knew her. Life was full of good things for this couple • for a 
remarkable period of years. 

The Late Jesse S. Harkness. 

The following from the Morrow County Sentinel, of October 7, 
1909, is self-explanatory: 

Jesse S. Harkness, Morrow comity's oldest resident, and founder of the 
famous old Mt. Hesper Seminary died at Alum Creek, Peru township, last 
Thursday morning about 8 o'clock. He was ninety-six years of age. For 
some time his condition had been critical and death was not unexpected. 

Among the older citizens of Morrow county no one was better known or 
held a higher place in their esteem. His life was devoted to the establish- 
ment and upbuilding of his schools and all over the entire county and indeed 
the nation are to be found his pupils. They will mourn his death with the 
deepest sorrow but remember with pleasure the instruction and counsel 
given in their younger days by Mr. Harkness and his good wife. 

On Tuesday, September 21st, the couple celebrated their sixty-eighth 
wedding anniversary at the building which was formerly the Seminary, 

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but in which they have made their home since it closed. Many of their 
former pupils were present at this celebration who will remember with 
gratitude the privilege of being present at the last anniversary of this 
remarkable couple, but a few short days before Mr. Harkness was called to 
his reward. 

To tell of the life of Mr. Harkness is to give also the story of that of 
his estimable wife and the history of Hesper Mt. Seminary. 

Jesse S. Harkness was bom in New Hampshire, July 27, 1813; his wife 
in Vermont, January 14, 1818. Then came to Marion, now Morrow county 
in the fall of 1842. For a period of six months immediately following 
they taught school in a house owned by Samuel Peasley, between Mt. Gilead 
and Edison. In the spring of the following year they commenced a school 
in the Friends' brick church on Alum Creek, south of South Woodbury, on 
the Ashley and Marengo road. 


In 1844 Mr. Harkness began the now historic building, on the hill just 
south of the church. It was completed in 1845 and dedicated under the 
name of Hesper Mt. Seminary. For a time the funds from the district 
school and the state were merged for this work and for twenty years the 
couple taught four terms of school a year, but a single week of vacation 
intervening. At the end of twenty years the work was discontinued, but 
in five years was again resumed for several years. The average attendance 
was from forty to seventy-five scholars. At this time the Ohio Wesleyan 
University was just beginning to grow in favor and many students from 
Morrow county institution attended there. 

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In 1853 Mr. Harknees with his brother-in-law S. G. Chamberlain, a 
skilled workman, started a shop for the manufacture of spokes, hubs, wagon 
work, buggies and sleighs. He was the first to use steam power in the 

Afr. Harkness was above the ordinary as a Bible student. He had read 
the Bible by courses one hundred and thirty times and averaged, when in 
health, about thirty-five chapters a day. His life and work will be remem- 
bered by a vast army of students who are now occupying important plans 
in the work of the world. He is survived by a wife who though in her 
ninety-second year is still bright and affable. 

The funeral services were held from the Alum Creek church on Sunday 
at 10 o'clock conducted by the Rev. Isaac Stratton of Columbus. Interment 
was made in the South Woodbury cemetery. 

Thb Alum Creek Academy. 

The Alum Creek Academy was founded in 1875 by Dr. Clay- 
ton W. Townsend, the object being to aflford all the advantages of 
education usually attained in two years at colleges. Dr. Townsend 
opened his school in a room rented for that purpose, but as it pro- 
gressed and the interest in it increased, the room was soon found 
to be too small to accommodate the pupils. The Doctor then 
bought a school house and moved it to the southeast corner of where 
the Ashley and Marengo road crosses the Delaware and Mt. Gilead 
road. It is a very beautiful and pleasant location for a school, 
being upon the west branch of Alum creek on a plateau over look- 
ing the stream and surrounding country. Dr. Townsend refitted 
the school house by an addition in front, making it two stories high, 
and cutting of a recitation room above and below. Under his 
careful and efficient management the school continued to increase. 
After it had been in operation about three years, Dr Townsend 
left, for the purpose of completing his education at Haverford 
College, Pennsylvania, leaving Miss Rachel Ella Levering to succeed 
him as principal. 

The great need of the academy was suggested to Dr. Townsend 
during the interval which occurred at Hesper Mount Seminary, 
and he was assisted by Samuel Levering, who furnished the build- 
ing arid the beautiful grounds upon which it was located. A new 
school building was erected in the early eighties. The present 
principal is Professor Wheeler. 

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Press and County Co-Extbnsivb. 

The history of two of our newspapers is co-extensive with the 
erection of the county in 1848. The Union Register, a paper de- 
voted to the advocacy of the principles of the Democratic party, 
and to general and local views, claims to have been first established, 
and that claim seems to be correct. John B. Dumble, early in the 
year 1848 came from Marion county, and established the Democratic 
Messenger, and published the same for a few years, as the Demo- 
cratic party was then in the ascendency in the county. He was 
succeeded by George W. Sharpe, who died in September, 1854, and 
on his death, his son, George Sharpe, the father of the present mem- 
ber 'of Congress, Hon. William G. Sharpe, edited the paper for a 
few years, and those years covered a period of great political 
agitation and unrest. 

About 1860 Reuben Niblet took charge of the paper, and the 
name was changed to Union Register, and that name has continued 
to this time. William H. Rhodes was proprietor for about one 
year, but was not successful. Judson H. Beebe formed a joint 
stock company and under that arrangement the paper was pub- 
lished for about six years, under the editorial management of Hon. 
H. S. Prophet, a son-in-law of Judge Beebe, and now of Lima Ohio. 
Samuel Shaffer edited the paper for one year, and on October 18, 
1868, Hon. William G. Beebe and his brother, Charles S., took 
charge of and edited the Union Register, William G. Beebe has 
ever since been the editor and proprietor, and has made the publish- 
ing of the paper a successful enterprise. Carl V. Beebe, a son, has 
been associate editor since 1905. 

In the latter part of the year 1848 the Morrow County Sentinel 
was established by David Watt, under the name of the Whig Senti- 
nel. He had come to Mt. Gilead during the campaign for the 
county seat. He was a talented man, and it was thought that his 
brilliancy as an editor would give the paper a good start, and it 
did, although it was a struggle. 

The Free Soilers at that time had to be counted with, and they 
gave the paper their influence. Many Democrats in those years 
broke away from their allegiance to party and about 1854 the 
*'Know Nothings,*' a secret organization for political purposes, gave 
their votes to a new party, and against the Democracy. The 
writer well remembers when he was a lad about fourteen years old, 
that the next morning after the October election of 1854 when the 
*'Know Nothings,'' had gained a surprising victory, (now called 

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a landslide in politics), and he was with his father, and on the way 
to Mt. Gilead father and son met Mr. William Williams, an old 
soldier of the war of 1812, to whose heart Democracy was a very 
dear subject, and Mr. Bartlett said: '*Well Uncle Billy, how has 
the election gone!" and Uncle Billy with great disgust, replied: 
**0h Franklin township has gone all Hellward!'' 

David Watt continued editor of the Sentinel for three or four 
years and sold the paper to William P. Dumble, a brother to John 
B. Dumble, the editor of the Democratic Messenger, and, as the 
struggle for ascendency was now on between these two papers, the 
contest between them was an exciting one. William P. Dumble 
was editor and proprietor for five years, and in March, 1857, sold 
the paper to John W. Grifiith, who is now its senior editor, and his 
son, Harry S. Griffith, has been associated with his father in the 
proprietorship and editorial management since the year 1886. 
Truly, fifty-four years of editorial life entitles John W. Griffith 
to be crowned as a veteran editor. These years have been the most 
exciting and troublous in the history of our country, and during 
nil that period the Sentinel has been loyal to the country and to 
the Republican party. 

In 1854 the name was changed from Whig Sentinel to Mt. 
Oilead Sentinel as the word **Whig,'' was no longer a ** Mascot" 
to bring good luck. In 1860 the name became Morrow County 
Sentinel, and so has remained to this time. 

Harry Earl Griffith, since January, 1908, has been associate 
editor, which makes three generations — grandfather, father and 
grandson — in charge of the Sentinel at this time ; which is a good 

The Morrow County Republican was issued first on July 27, 
1905 ; Oscar A. White editor, and John M. Kinney, publisher. In 
the initial number these sentiments were announced: ** Devoted to 
Morrow county, that it may be loyal; keeping close to the people, 
that it may be useful; defending the rights of citizenship, that it 
may be patriotic. ' ' The paper appealed to the class of people who 
believe that every person ought to have a fair chance in business. 
Oscar A. White remained as editor a little over one year, and then 
A. J. Mercer took charge, as editor and publisher, November 29, 
1906. On January 8, 1908, C. M. and C. H. Bartlett edited and 
published the paper until November 28, 1908, and J. M. Hoflfa has 
since been its editor and publisher. He is a practical printer, 
has a well equipped office and his paper is a credit to himself and 
to the town in which it is published. 

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Demands on the Pioneee Doctor — Early Physicians op the 
CoCnty — Morrow County Medical Society. 

The early physicians of Morrow county shared the hardships 
and privations of the early settlers, joined them in their joys and 
sorrows, helped them to build their rude homes and to defend them 
against the natives of the forest. 

No other class of men have done more to promote the good of 
mankind and develop the resources of a country than the physi- 
cians, and wherever they are found they are uniformly on the side 
of order, morality, science and religion. 

Demands on the Pioneer Doctor. 

It is impossible for us to fully appreciate the primitive manner 
in which the earliest of these men practiced medicine. They had 
to be in a degree pharmacists and practical botanists. Roots and 
herbs were an important part of their armamentarium. Infusions 
and decoctions were the order of the day. The sugar-coated pill 
was then unknown. In fact the life of the modern physician is 
sugar-coated when compared with that of the pioneers. These 
men were obliged to be fertile in resources, apt in expedients and 
ingenious in improvising. 

It was related by Mr. Qeo. S. Bruce that in an early day when 
typhoid fever first became epidemic, every one siezed with the 
malady died, and the doctors in every case resorted to bleeding the 
patient. He became sick and called a doctor who came and said 
**Why you have typhoid fever," and proceeded to get his lancet; 
but Mr. Bruce said, **No you shall not bleed me," and he was the 
first one to recover. 

In looking over the lives of these men we find general char- 
acteristics that are worthy of thought. They were brave and active, 
energetic knd progressive beyond their time. On their lonely 


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travels in the earlier years they had to face the treachery of the 
Indians and the hunger of the wolves. The more the lives of these 
men are held up to view, the more sterling qualities we find to 

It is the purpose of this chapter to preserve a brief record of 
the medical practitioners of the county, so far as is practicable. 

Physicians op the County. 

Dr. David Bliss was the first practicing physician in Morrow 
county. He settled in South Bloomfield township prior to 1820. 
He seemed well adapted for the hardships of a pioneer doctor, as 
he was of robust constitution. For a number of years before his 
death, which occurred before the Civil war, he paid more attention 
to farming than to his profession. 

Dr. Richard H. Randall was the second physician in the coun- 
ty, and located in Mt. Gilead about 1827. He continued the prac- 
tice in Mt. Gilead until 1840, when he removed to Williamsport, 
then to North Woodbury, and subsequently to one of the western 
states, where he died. 

Dr. Alfred Butters settled in Bennington township at a very 
early date and built a log cabin, one corner of which he used aft 
an office. His practice became quite extensive, and his face was 
familiar for miles around. He usually went dressed in a complete 
suit of deer skin. He was very intelligent and a good talker, and 
was in the habit of supplying the preacher's place when that 
dignitary was absent. He preached in his deer skin suit at one 
end of the room, while his rifle, brought with him to church, re- 
mained at the other. One Sunday, in 1819, he started to church 
with his rifle on his shoulder, and, having proceeded about half 
way, saw a large bear in front of him traveling along at a rapid 
rate. He raised his gun and fired and the bear fell dead upon 
the earth. The animal was conveyed to his cabin, and the hunter 
reached the meeting house in time to conduct services. 

Dr. R. E. Lord was an early physician in the county and the 
first in the town of Chesterville. He was a man of rather delicate 
constitution, yet was possessed with enough energy and vim to 
enable him to perform the arduous duties of a pioneer physician. He 
located in Chesterville in 1830, and continued in the profession 
there until 1860, when he withdrew from general practice. He 
died in 1864. Narratives of this doctor's love and sflf -sacrifice 
are yet related. 

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Dr. T. P. Glidden was the first physician to locate in the town 
of Westfield, and he commenced his practice there in 1833. He 
later removed to Cardingrton where he died. 

Dr. Jesse S. Hull settled in North Woodbury in 1842, where he 
practiced medicine until 1857, when on account of failing health 
he retired, and soon after died of lung trouble. 

Dr. L. B. Vorhies was bom at Ithaca, New York, January 18, 
1821. He came to Ohio when a mere lad with his widowed mother 
and located in Morrow county near Williamsport. He was a self- 
made man ; he blazed his pathway through life by his own efforts. 
Receiving a good common school education he taught many terms of 
school in the county; read medicine with Dr. Lewis H. Gary in Mt. 
Gilead, and graduated from Starling Medical College at Columbus, 
Ohio. Dr. Vorhies first marriage in 1848 was to Miss Eliza Straw, 
whose death occurred in March, 1853. Two children were bom 
to them both of whom are deceased. Ada, who died in infancy, 
and William, June 26, 1906. In March, 1854 he was again married 
to Mrs. Emily Cook Morehead. Three daughters were bom, all of 
whom are living. He commenced the practice of his profession in 
the village of Iberia, Ohio, and after a few years' residence there 
moved to Mt. Gilead, where he had an extensive practice, both in 
the town and surrounding country. The doctor was a devoted 
member of the Presbyterian church and a ruling elder at the time 
of his death, which occurred June 3, 1891, at his home in Mt. 
Gilead where he had been a resident for over forty consecutive 
years. The daughters by the second marriage are Mildred Roberta, 
wife of Hon Wm. G. Beebe ; Mary Adella, wife of Professor Parker, 
and Alice Vorhies. 

Dr. Henry H. Shaw, who died of consumption August 20, 
1896, at his home in Mt. Gilead, had practiced at that place since 
being mustered out of the Union army in 1865. He was born in 
Franklin township, this county, in 1825, a son of David and Eliza- 
beth (Hardenbrook) Shaw. Dr. Shaw began the study of medicine 
with the firm of Lord, Swingle & Brown in 1850, and, the partner- 
ship having been dissolved one year later, he was then with Drs. 
Hewitt & Swingle three years. After attending a course of lec- 
tures at Ann Arbor, Michigan, and graduated at the medical college 
of Columbus in 1854, he began the practice of medicine at New 
Hartford, Butler county, Iowa, remaining there until 1859. Prom 
that time until the spring of 1861, he practiced medicine in Mt. 
Liberty, Knox county, Ohio, and then removed to Johnsville, this 
county. In October of that year the doctor enlisted as a private 

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in the One Hundred and Eighty Ohio Volunteer Infantry, Com- 
pany I. About the middle of January, 1865, he was cited before 
the examining board and appointed assistant surgeon of the One 
Hundred and Eighty-Fourth Regiment and held that position until 
mustered out of the service in 1865. Since that time Dr. Shaw 
had followed the practice of medicine at Mt. Gilead. He was first 
married to C. Amanda Chamberlain, a daughter of Squire C. H. 
Chamberlain. Of their four children one daughter, Ola A., who 
is an invalid, is now living. The doctor's second marriage was to 
Mrs. Shipman, who survives him. The funeral services were held 
Sabbath afternoon. Rev. J. T. Lewis of the Baptist church preached 
the sermon, after which the remains were laid at rest with the ever 
impressive Masonic ceremony. The members of Hurd Post and 
W. R. C. also attended in a body. 

Dr. Joseph McFarland, of Blooming Grove, this county, has 
been in practice nearly sixty years. He was born August 29, 1827 ; 
commenced the study of medicine with Dr. John Main, of Mans- 
field, in 1847 and later took a course at the Cleveland Homeopathic 
Medical College, practicing to some extent prior to his graduation 
from that institution February 19, 1852. He commenced his 
permanent practice at Blooming Grove, Morrow county, April 13, 
1852, and has since resided there, active in his profession. Being 
a homeopathist, he did not resort to phlebotomy, even in the pioneer 
days when it was **all the fashion." Dr. McFarland 's cotempora- 
ries were Dr. C. S. Haswell and Dr. Brown, the latter residing at 
Blooming Grove where he settled there in 1852. Later came Drs. 
McCune, Clutter, Russel, Carter, Clouse, Jones, Lewis, Whitney, 
McMillan, Harding and Caris. 

Chesterville was the location of Dr. John McCrory, who came 
in 1840; Dr. Hamilton Main, in 1847, and Dr. William T. Brown, 
in 1849. After about ten years* practice there the health of Dr. 
McCrory failed and he had to discontinue his practice. He died 
in 1872 of cancer. Dr. Main was in active practice until his 
death, which occurred in 1867, of pneumonia. Dr. Brown prac- 
ticed in Chesterville and vicinity until the breaking out of the Civil 
war, when he offered his services as a surgeon and was accepted. 
He died while in the service. 

Dr. A. S. Weatherly located in Cardington about the year 
1862, and began the practice of medicine. He was a man of great 
energy and with mental and social endownments. He died of 

Dr. Eli S. Sylvester settled near Pulaskiville, in 1842, where he 

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practiced his profession for about twenty years. Dr. Cook com- 
menced to practice in the same town in 1870, but after six or seven 
years of service in that line, he turned his attention to the ministry 
and became a minister of the Christian church. Dr. Charles 
Kelly is also worthy of mention, as a local practitioner. 

Dr. D. M. L. Singrey practiced medicine in Perry township at 
an early date and lived on the old homestead where his father had 
settled in 1816. Dr. Thomas Richards was the first practicing 
physician in Sparta. Drs. Patee and Sapp were the first physi- 
cians in Peru township, and Dr. Johns practiced in North Bloom- 
field township. 

Dr. William Farquer settled in Chesterville in 1834, and after 
practicing there for some time removed to Mt. Vernon. Dr. 
Richards was a native of Vermont, and came to Morrow county in 
1830, locating at Sparta, where he was in general practice for about 
ten years, when he removed to the western part of the state. Dr. 
L. H. Corie located in Mt. Gilead about 1838, and in 1854 removed 
to the west. 

Dr. Fred Swingley commenced the practice of medicine in 
Chesterville. He later removed to Mt. Gilead and then to Bucy- 
rus. Dr. John Steikel located in Mt. Gilead in 1832, but did not 
remain long. About the same time. Dr. Welch settled in Mt 
Gilead but he only remained about five years. 

Dr. D. L. Swingley commenced the practice of medicine in 
Chesterville in 1840, and continued for a number of years, when 
he removed to Mt. Gilead in 1863. 

Dr. S. M. Hewett, a native of Vermont, located in Chesterville, 
where he practiced medicine until he removed to Mt. Gilead, where 
he continued the practice of his chosen profession. When the Civil 
war came on he entered the service, and remained in the service of 
his countrj^ until the close of the war. He then located at Cin- 

Dr. L. H. Pennock commenced the practice of medicine at 
South Woodbury in 1843. Being a man of great energy, he soon 
obtained an extensive practice. He later removed to Cardington 
and entered the banking business. 

Drs. White and McClure located at Cardington, and practiced 
medicine there for some years. Dr. White died in 1861. Dr. 
William Geller located at Mt. Gilead in 1840, and after remaining 
about fifteen years, removed to California. Dr. Mansier located 
in Mt. Gilead about the same time. Dr. Frank Griffith commenced 
the practice of medicine at Iberia about 1842, and after remaining 

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there a few years, went west. Dr. William Reed also practiced in 
Iberia at an early day. 

Dr. John Talmage Beebe settled in Mt. Gilead about the year 
1845, where he continued in active professional life until 1864 
when he removed to Iowa. 

Drs. Duflf and Weatherby commenced the practice of medi- 
cine about 1845 at Williamsport. They remained there a year or 
more, when Dr. Weatherby removed west, and Dr. Duflf, after a few 
more years in the neighborhood, removed to Galion, where he died. 
Dr. Eaton settled in Sparta about the year 1842, where he practiced 
for about twenty-five years. Dr. Alfred Bums also located in 
Sparta about the year 1846. where he practiced for about twenty 
years, and died in 1864 of erysipelas. 

Drs. Shaw and Page located in Sparta, the latter in 1843, and 
the former in 1858. Dr. James Page practiced in Sparta but a 
short time, and then removed to Mansfield, where he died. Dr. 
Shaw's health gave way and he died in 1864 of consumption. 

Dr. Samuel Page located at Pagetown in about 1839. He con- 
tinued there in practice for thirty years, when he turned his atten- 
tion to other pursuits. Dr. Doty located at Westfield in about 
1859. Later he went into the army, where he died. Dr. George 
Granger, who became a physician of that place in 1838, died at Mt. 
Gilead in 1860 while county treasurer, and Dr. E. Luelln, who 
studied with him and was his partner has died but recently. Dr. 
J. M. Lord, a son of Dr. R. E. Lord, commenced the practice of 
medicine in Chesterville in 1862, and continued until 1870, when he 
died of pulmonary hemorrhage. Other practitioners at that plact 
who may be mentioned : Drs. W. C. Hodges and J. D. Varney. 

Dr. Newcomb located in Johnsville about the year 1842, ana 
after about ten years practice there removed to Westerville. Dr. 
H. H. Shaw located at Johnsville in 1858, where he continued to 
practice until 1865, when he removed to Mt. Gilead. Dr. Denison 
settled at Johnsville about the time Dr. Shaw moved to Mt. Gilead. 
Dr. Rhul, Sr., practiced for a number of years in North Woodbury, 
and his son. Dr. Rhul, Jr., located at West Point in 1877. Dr. 
Howell located at Williamsport in 1868. Dr. H. R. Kelley located 
in West Point in 1856. Later he removed to Galion. Dr. James 
W. Williams commenced the practice of medicine in Chesterville 
in 1864. About the same date. Dr. Whitford located in Chester- 
ville. Dr. J. A. Thoman located at Williamsport in 1876. 

Dr. Calvin Gunsaulus commenced to practice at Sparta in 1864. 
He later removed to Mt. Gilead. Dr. Bliss, Jr., a son of Dr. David 
Vol. 1—15 

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Bliss, commenced the practice at Sparta in 1862. Dr. Bushrod 

D. Buxton located here in 1871, and Dr. J. H. Tinis is also well 
known to the fraternity. Dr. H. S. Green located in Cardington 
in 1868 and Dr. J. L. Williams at the same place in 1876. Dr. H. 

E. Conner located in the same town in 1877. Dr. J. N. Thatcher 
located at Denmark in 1870. Dr. Miller commenced the practice at 
West Point. Dr. Tucker located in Mt. Gilead about the year 1865, 
where he is still residing. Dr. Coble commenced his professional 
career in Johnsville in 1868. Dr. Morgan located at Westfield, and 
Dr. W. C. Bennet in Iberia, in partnership with Dr. Wm. Reed. 
Dr. P. C. Shaw located at South Woodbury in 1870, and Dr. T. J., 
Williams at Marengo in 1875. Dr. Merriman also settled in 
Marengo, as well as Drs. C. M. Eaton and F. E. Thompson. Dr. 
A. D. James commenced the practice of medicine in Mt. Gilead, in 
the spring of 1880, in partnership with Dr. D. L. Swingley. Dr. 
Howard commenced his labors at Marengo about 1876. Dr. S. 
Shaw located in Marengo in 1870. Dr. Aaron Neflf established a 
good practice at Williamsport. Dr. Paxton practiced at Iberia 
in its early history and among its other worthy practitioners may 
be mentioned Drs. J. M. Briggs, T. S. Mills and Di B. Virtue. 

Dr. Charles Kelley began his practice in 1846 at Williamsport. 
He later removed to the neighborhood of Mt. Gilead and then re- 
moved west. Dr. J. L. Graves is also identified with medical prac- 
tice at Williamsport. Dr. John Ressley practiced medicine at 
Cardington for thirty years or more. Dr. J. W. Russell, Jr., 
located at Johnsville in 1859, where he practiced until his health 
failed him. Dr. Alf McConica prticticed in South Woodbury 
until his health failed, when he removed west, where he died. Dr. 
J. P. Vigor located at Levering Station — now Edison — in 1878. 
Drs. W. H. Lane and S. Ewing commenced their practice at Card- 
ington, about 1875-6. Dr. J. M. Randolph commenced practice 
in the neighborhood of Marengo in about 1840. 

Dr. Isaac H. Pennock practiced at Cardington from 1863 to 
1875; other practitioners worthy of mention, Drs. Theodore Glid- 
den, G. G. Hackedorny, J. L. Williams, Z. M. Clyne, C. H. Neal and 
Joseph Watson. Dr. McClemand located near Bloomfield in 1842. 
He was followed by Drs. Hubbell, Mendenhall and Hess. 

This list of pioneer physicians is as complete as possible, and 
any omissions which may be noted have occurred, not intentionally, 
but from lack of information. 

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Morrow County Medical Society. 

A medical society was formed in Mt. Gilead about the year 
1850. A general call of the physicians of the county had been 
made, and the following physicians responded : Drs. I. H. Pennock, 
H. R. Kelley, Hamilton Main, Charles Kelley, S. M. Hewitt, W. T. 
Brown, James M. Briggs and D. L. Swingley. After some pre- 
liminary work, an organization was effected and Dr. J. M. Briggs 
was elected president. A number of meetings were held, but 
finally the organization failed to be kept up. 

In 1867, the old society having been declared dead, a new one 
was organized, with new constitution and by-laws. The follow- 
ing officers were elected : Dr. I. H. Pennock, president ; Drs. J. M. 
Lord and D. L. Swingley, vice presidents, and Dr. A. S. Weather- 
by, secretary. 

The society continued to flourish, until the failure of Dr. 
Weatherby's health rendered him unable to attend the meetings. 
An indifference then grew up on the part of the members, and on 
the 14th of July, 1870, the last meeting of the association was held, 
at which there were present but five members. Another meeting 
was appointed for the 25th of August, but when the day came, 
there was not a quorum present, and further effort to keep the 
society alive was abandoned. 

It seems that after a lapse of nearly five years, a few of the old 
members met at the court house for the purpose of again re- 
organizing the medical society of the county. The old constitu- 
tion and by-laws of the previous association were adopted with few 
amendments, and the following officers elected : Dr. Gunsalus, presi- 
dent; D. L-^^ Swingley and D. A. Howell, vice presidents; H. S. 
Green, secretary; and H. H. Shaw, treasurer. The next meeting 
was at Cardin^n, August 19, 1875. There seems to have been 
another break in the society, as the next meeting after this was 
held in August, 1877. This meeting took place in Cardington, 
and, upon again organizing a medical society, proceeded to elect 
officers, as follows: Dr. H. S. Green, president; Drs. Connor and 
Tucker, vice presidents; Dr. J. L. Williams, secretary; and Dr. 
Gunsalus, treasurer. The old constitution and laws were again 
adopted for their government, and used until June 7, 1878, when 
a new constitution was adopted. At the meeting in October, 
1878, the following officers were elected: H. S. Green, president; 
Drs. Gunsalus and Miller, vice presidents ; Dr. Williams, re-elected 
secretary, and Dr. Tucker, treasurer. The meetings of the society 

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now occurred rej^larly, and, at the next annual meeting, Dr. 
Miller, of Iberia, was elected president, and Dr. Williams re-elected 

The society now seems to be permanently established, and at 
the recent meeting (March, 1911) the following officers were 
elected: J. C. McCormick, president; E. C. Sherman, vice presi- 
dent; J. H. Jackson, secretary; and R. C. Spear, treasurer. Dr. W. 
C. Bennett was selected as delegate to the state meeting to be held 
in June. 

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First Forest Lands Taken Up — Clearing opp the Forests — 
First Permanent Settlers — Whetstone Laid Out — The Young 
AND Harris Families — How the Pioneers Lived — ^Nathan 
NiCKOLs, Jr., and Descendants — Other Pioneer Families and 
Citizens — Distant Produce Markets — Mt. Gilead as it is — 
Railroads and Industries. 

By, Robert F, Bartlett 

At the commencement of the nineteenth century the lands 
which afterwards constituted Morrow county were one vast un 
broken forest, and Mt. Gilead was not yet founded. The forestb 
in the vicinity were very remarkable on the second quarter- 
section, east of that on which the village is now located, 
and being the northeast quarter section 1, township 14, and range 
21, on the hills north of Sams creek, was the center of the mosv 
gigantic yellow poplar forest trees ever found in Ohio, among 
the beech, and hard maple trees. These poplar giants on this 
quarter section stood every ten or twelve rods apart, and were from 
three to seven feet in diameter, and from sixty to seventy feet 
without limb. 

First Forest Lands Taken Up. 

When the writer was a small lad, he frequently went through 
this forest, and was greatly moved by the magnificence of these old 
trees. His maternal grandfather, Nathan Nickols, Jr., of Loudoun 
county, Virginia, entered or bought this, and the quarter section 
next west, among other lands, from the United States, about 1823, 
and on the 30th day of July, 1829, the first quarter section named, 
containing the big trees, was aparted, or set off to the writer's 
mother, as a part of her ancestral estate, and appraised at $125. 
Asa Mosher, Charles Webster, and Abraham Newson, who were 
among the first settlers, were the commissioners who made this 


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On the hills southeast of Mt. Gilead and south of Sam's creek, 
were mainly beech, and sugar trees, an occasional poplar and 
many very large white oak trees. Further eastward one mile 
were many chestnut trees, of large size, in the woods. Westward 
the forests were chiefly walnut, burr oak and elm trees. All the 
forests were unbroken and uncleared, in the year 1800, herds of 
deer, and wolves, an occasional bear, and flocks of wild turkeys 
roamed through these forests, and were game for the Indians, and 
the earliest white settlers who came a few years afterwards. To 
the west of Morrow county, as it exists, lay the prairies or Sandusky 
plains, partly in Marion and Crawford counties. 

From ** Howes* History of Ohio," we learn that Mt. Vernon 
was laid out in 1805, Delaware in 1808, Marion in 1821 and Bucy- 
rus in 1822, all by the owners of the land. Newark was laid out 
in 1801 and the first hewed log house built on the public square in 
1802. Mansfield was settled about 1809 and two block houses were 
built near the public square in 1812. So it is a historic fact that 
the county which is now Morrow was, in 1820, an unbroken forest. 

The first settlers endured great hardships and privations, and 
it is almost beyond belief how they existed for the first few years 
after their arrival in the woods. They had only the bare necessi- 
ties of life. They were favored by the abundance of game, and 
they were trained to be good marksmen with a rifle. Two men at 
Whetstone, Lewis Hardenbrook and John Nickols, were noted 
hunters. The first thing to be done, was to clear away the trees, 
and build a cabin of logs, which was usually located near a natural 
spring of water. Then a patch, or a few acres, were cleared, 
usually along a creek, where the soil was the richest for com, 
potatoes, buckwheat and other crops, as the clearing up process 

Clearing off the Forests. 

A description of the process of clearing oflf the forests, and 
producing the fertile farms that we now see throughout the country, 
may be of interest to this generation. In that day timber trees 
were of small value and the problem was, how to get rid of them 
the most easily; for settlers wanted the lands cleared as quickly 
as possible for crops. 

First a few acres up to twenty or twenty-five, were in 
common parlance ** deadened." That is, the owner, his stalwart 
sons and hired ** hands," went into the woods, and with axes (in 

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July or Augrust) ** girdled'' each tree by cutting a ring around it, 
through the bark. Very frequently, the leaves on the trees thus 
girdled, wilted and turned yellow and sere, before frost came, the 
same fall of the year. The following spring very few trees came 
out in leaf, most of them dead and beginning to decay. Then the 
trees were chopped down and cut into convenient lengths for log- 
ging, or two dry logs were placed across a third log, and the latter 
was **ni^ered" off, or burned oflf. In the meantime the ** brush," 
or limbs of the trees, were burned in **brushheaps,'' and the 
** deadening" or ** clearing" made ready for the '* log-rolling," to 
which all the neighbors were invited, and a regular '*frolic" was 


On the day fixed the neighbors came with yokes of oxen, and 
occasionally teams of horses, and log chains, and the clearing was 
divided into two or three sections as nearly equal as possible. 
Leaders were then chosen, and the men divided into sides, or par- 
ties; each side was assigned a section and the fun commenced. 
The members of each party exerted themselves to the utmost to 
first finish their section, and build the most log heaps. Usually 
all was hilarious, and the work done in good humor, but sometimes 
a fist fight occurred. 

Down to 1840 a full whiskey bottle was expected at every 
** log-rolling" or com husking, but on the eighth day of April, of 
that year, a half dozen of immoderate drinkers met together in 
Baltimore, Maryland, and, pledging each other to total abstinence 
from intoxicating drinks, started the **Washingtonian Temperance 
Movement," which in the next few years swept over the country, 
and checked the custom of having whiskey at log-rollings, com 
husMngs, and other frolics. The last log-rolling the writer at- 
tended was, as water boy, when he was nine years old, and upon 
that occasion his father told the neighbors, when invited, that if 
he could not have a log-rolling without whiskey he would not have 
one. He had the log-rolling. That was all within two miles of 
Mt. Gilead. During the two or three years that a ** clearing" was 
in operation, the ** deadening" was a lair for rabbits, opossums and 
other ** varmints." 

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First Permanent Settlers. 

The first settler near Mt. Qilead was Lewis Hardenbrook in 
1817, and his brother Ralph came soon after and they built a cabin 
on the one hundred and sixty acres of land immediately south of 
Mt. Qilead, which includes the Agricultural Society Fair Grounds 
and hills beyond, as well as all the land east to the Sunbury road. 
These two men cleared off this farm. Their father, Lodwick Har- 
denbrook, a soldier of the Revolution, had entered this land from 
the United States. It is the southeast quarter of section 2, township 
13, range 21. Lodwick Hardenbrook sold this farm, in 1823, to 
Nathan Nickols, Jr., of Loudoun county, Virginia, for $1,100, and 
conveyed it to him by deed bearing date February 24, 1826; 
acknowledged before Isaac Blazer, justice peace, of Marion county, 
Ohio, with Joseph Worsley and Abraham Hardenbrook as witnesses. 
Lodwick Hardenbrook died February 14, 1845, aged nearly ninety 
years, and his grave is in the old cemetery at Mt. Gilead. 

Asa Mosher ana Jonathan Wood came to the township in 1818, 
and settled about two miles south of the location of Mt. Gilead, 
with large families, and commenced the Quaker settlement. Isaac 
Dewitt came in 1819, and was afterwards in his own house, killed 
by lightning. 

Before the year 1825, nearly all of the following settled in 
the vicinity of Mt. Gilead: Allen Kelly, Samuel Straw, William 
and James Montgomery, John Hardenbrook, Isaac Blazer, James 
Bennett, Charles Roswell and Marvin S. Webster, James Beatty, 
Joseph Worsley, Henry Ustick, Alban Coe, John and Albert 
Nickols (these last three in 1823), Abraham and Joseph P. Newson, 
Fred Loy, James Johnston, Sarah Campbell, Rufus Dodd, Hiram 
Channell, Allen Eccles, Alexander Crawford and Eli Johnston. 
These settlers came from Pennsylvania, Virginia, New Jersey, New 
York and Maryland, and the New England states. 

About these times Jonathan Chapman, called Johnny Apple- 
seed, was a visitor to every settlement in central Ohio. 

Whetstone Laid Out. 

In September, 1824, Judge Jacob Young, of Knox county, Ohio, 
was the owner of the quarter section of land on which the village 
is now mainly built. On the 30th day of that month he laid out 
eighty lots, about the south square, and the plat of these eighty was 
bounded on the north by Center street; on the east by a line ex- 

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tended south from Walnut street and the length of two lots east 
of the South square to the old cemetery ; on the south by the alley 
running west, and by South street to Rich street ; and on the west 
by Rich street. The first addition of seventy lots including the 
North public square, was by Henry Ustick, who was a prominent 
man. Because the village was laid out by Jacob Young, it was called 
Youngstown until 1823, when on the petition of a majority of its 
citizens, the Ohio legislature changed the name to Mt. Gilead, 
which name was suggested by Daniel James, a native of Londoun 
county, Virginia, wherein was a town of that name. 

Jacob Young, the founder of the village, has yet many 
descendants living in it, and it is proper to give his ancestry, in 
one line, as far back as is known. 

James Harris, one of Jacob Yoimg's great-grandfathers, was 
born at the City of Bristol, England, about the year 1700, and 
about the age of twenty-five came to the state of New Jersey, 
and there married a Miss Boleyn. To them, at Essex county. New 
Jersey, one daughter and six sons were born. One of the latter 
was George Harris, who was a soldier in the Continental army in 
the American Revolution and at the battle of Monmouth. The 
daughter was Abigal Harris, and she married Nathaniel Mitchell, 
at Essex county. New Jersey, August 30, 1752 ; five daughters and 
three sons were born. The oldest of these was Hannah Mitchell, 
born August 26, 1753, and she married John Young at Essex 
county. New Jersey. Of their eight children was Jacob Young, 
bom in Essex county. New Jersey, November 27, 1774, and the 
founder of Mt. Gilead. The family of John and Hannah Mitchell 
Young came to Knox county about 1803. Mary Young, a sister 
to Jacob married Robert Dalrymple. 

The Young and Harris Families. 

Jacob Young of this sketch, married Tryphena Beers, and to 
them eight children were born, one of whom, Susan, married 
Aaron N. Talmage. To them were born Ann Eliza, who married 
Thomas H. Dalrymple, of Mt. Gilead; Maria, who married Lewis 
H. Rowland, of Mt. Gilead; M. Burr Talmage, president of the 
National Bank of Morrow county; and Cornelia R., who married 
Jacob W. Dalrymple, and they reside at Montrose, Colorado. 

Abigail Harris Mitchell first came from Essex county, New 
Jersey, to Washington county, Pennsylvania, and thence to Knox 

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county, where she died March 21, 1822, aged ninety-one years, at 
the home of her son, William Mitchell. 

The Dalr3anple families, of Morrow county, are descended 
from Mary Young, a sister to Jacob Young, the founder of Mt. 
Gilead, who married Robert Dalrymple, and are of the Harris 
blood. The foregoing family history is largely obtained from the 
history of the Harris family, published in 1888 by Sarah J. Harris 
Keifer, Green Springs, Wisconsin. 

Two other families of Mt. Gilead are descended from James 
Harris through George Harris, his son, and the Revolutionary 
soldier, and brother to Abigail Harris Mitchell, named above. 
George Harris, son of James Harris, of Bristol, England, married 
Hannah Tunis in Essex county. New Jersey, about 1745, and to 
them eleven children were born. In 1787 he moved with his family 
to Washington county, Pennsylvania, and there his daughter, 
Pamelia Harris, was bom October 17, 1788. There she grew to 
young womanhood, and March 4, 1813, married Joseph Miller, 
a soldier of the War of 1812, and to them were bom one daughter, 
and six sons. Two of these sons came to Mt. Gilead, in an early 
day (Nehemiah and William), and there they died and their child- 
ren reside, viz: Mrs. Robert P. Bartlett and Mrs. Lemuel H. 
Breese, daughters; and Gilbert E., John F., Parker J., William 
Edwin, and Melville D., sons of Nehemiah and Plympton T., son 
of William. 

Early Postmasters and Letters. 

Charles Webster built the first cabin in Mt. Gilead in December, 
1824, on the northeast corner lot of the South public square, and 
he and Ann Worsley, a native of England, were the first couple to 
be married in Gilead township. She died in 1833. He was the 
first postmaster in Whetstone, and had the postoffice in his cabin. 

The mail which consisted of letters only, was carried once a 
week from Mt. Vernon to Marion, and back. Papers in those early 
times were distributed from the printing office. That is, subscribers 
called for them or they were distributed by the printers. No en- 
velopes were used for letters until 1847. The letters were written 
on a sheet of foolscap paper, then folded over lengthwise, about 
one-third of the width from each side; then the ends were tucked 
in, one in the other, and sealed with a sealing wax wafer. The 
address, the post mark, and the amount of postage (which was from 
five to twenty-five cents, according to the distance and to the num- 

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ber of sheets in a letter) were all endorsed on the letter. Postage 
was not required to be prepaid, until 1855. Postage stamps were 
first used in 1847. If the sender did not pay the postage, on let- 
ters sent previous to 1855, then the receiver of the letter paid it. 
The postmaster frequently charged postage on his book account, if 
it was not paid in money, which was scarce, or in produce. 

In 1845 postage was reduced to five cents for three hundred 
miles and under, and ten cents for greater distances. In 1851 
postage was made three cents for three thousand miles, prepaid, 
otherwise five cents; and was doubled for greater distances. In 
1863 postage on letters was made three cents per ounce, and in 
1883 two cents. 

The writer has a letter postmarked from Mt. Gilead, April 6, 
1832, written by his grandmother, Sarah Thomas Nickols, to her 
mother, Martha Davis Thomas, in Virginia, on which the postage 
is eighteen and three-fourth cents. 

John Roy was the second postmaster, at Mt. Gilead, and the 
postoflfice was in his store on the south side of the South square. 

How THE Pioneers Lived. 

In December, 1824, when Charles Webster built the first cabin 
in Whetstone, a few settlers had bought lands in the woods in the 
vicinity, and they all helped each other, to build, and in every 
other way. For many years it was an ideal society as ever existed 
in any country. The simplicity of the lives of these settlers was 
complete. The outfit for settler was a rifle with flint lock musket 
(no percussion caps yet), bullet molds and lead; an axe, frow, saw 
and auger, maul and iron wedge. 

That the girls and boys of this generation may, as nearly as 
possible, know how their ancestors lived and struggled to make this 
country what it is, let me describe the building of a cabin, which 
was the initial work. When a cabin was to be built, the settler 
cut the trees of uniform size into lengths he desired his cabin to 
be, usually about thirty feet long, with width of from twenty to 
twenty-five feet. These logs were dragged up to the place where 
the cabin was to be built, where four granite boulders, or ** nigger- 
heads,** were imbedded in the ground for the four corners of the 
building. Then two logs laid lengthwise were fitted on these corner 
stones ; both ends of each were beveled to present a right angled 
upper edge and the two cross, or end logs, were cut so that the cut 
would dovetail or fit these beveled upper edges of the ends of the 

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lower logs. Then the logs, or sleepers for the floor, were notched 
in. At each comer of the cabin was a man to fashion each log; 
as the other helpers pushed it up on skids, laid up for that purpose. 
After the first log, as each tier of logs went up, spaces were left 
for doors and windows, as well for an immense fireplace and outside 
chimney. At the top of the first story joists were notched in for 
an upper floor, and the tiers of logs carried a few feet higher for 
the upstairs. Then the gable ends were carried higher, and joists 
of smaller logs to sustain the roof were notched in until finally 
the ridge-pole was reached. Clapboards constituted the roof, and 
they were weighted down by heavy-weight poles, held in place every 
two or three feet by blocks of wood. Nails were not to be had, and 
the weight poles answered to hold the roof on. 

The floors were made of * puncheons." And what are punch- 
eons you ask? I go to Webster's Dictionary, and I find several 
definitions, with meanings widely different, but one peculiar to the 
United States. It says: **A split log, or heavy slab, with the face 
smoothed; as, a floor made of puncheons." Webster quotes, as 
his authority, a noted American lexicographer. You may believe 
they were not very smooth floors, but very solid. 

A ladder was the means of reaching the upstairs, through a 
comer space in the upper floor. The outside chimney was, at 
bottom, built with stones or bog ore, and the top, with rough 
puncheons, and daubed with clay mortar. No panes of glass were 
to be had, and oiled paper or skins of animals were made trans- 
lucent to let in some light. Then the spaces between the logs were 
chinked and daubed with clay mortar, and the cabin was finished. 

No people were more happy and contented than the pioneers 
in the forest, notwithstanding their privations. Both sexes wore 
coon-skin caps, and moccasins; the women linsey-woolsey dresses 
and the men buckskin breeches. 

In later years a hewed log house was a luxury. No lumber 
was to be had, and saw mills became a necessity and there was one 
or more on every stream. Grist mills, as they were then called, 
were very important. Henry Ustich built the first one, also a 
sawmill on Whetstone creek, southwest of the village. William 
Timanus also built both a grist and sawmill on Whetstone creek, 
northeast of the village, and later Richard and Nathan Howe built 
a flour-mill east of the village, on Sam's creek. William Cooper's 
mill was built still later, and there was also also a sawmill, the 
water power of which came from the dam for Cooper's mill. The 

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mills of Nathan N. House and William Cooper are yet in operation, 
but of the others scarce a vestipre remains. 

No leather was brought in and as a result tanneries were built 
in every neighborhood; two at Whetstone, one at Kelly's, two miles 
east» one at Cardington and others elsewhere. To these the settlers 
took their skins to be tanned, and after several months got their 
leather and took it to the shoemaker to have shoes made for the 
family, or to the harness maker for harness. It was better than 
is now made in the great tanneries, at Napa, California, Chicago, 
Illinois, and other places south and east. 

A woojen mill was built on East Marion street about 1835, by 
Manna Thompson, and the motor power was a tread wheel about 
forty feet in diameter, set some eighty-five degrees from the per- 
pendicular and operated by a span of horses tied to a bar, who 
walked and thus ran the wheel. To this mill the settlers took their 
wool and received rolls for spinning, or cloth for garments. It was 
operated first by Thompson ; then by Cooper and Sackett ; and last 
by Stevenson and Meeker, with improved motor power. That old 
tread- wheel was a wonder in the writer's boyish eyes. About 1866 
this old woolen mill was converted into a carriage factory, operated 
by James and William M. Carlisle, and destroyed by fire about 

Nathan Nickols Jr., and Descendants. 

Referring to the earliest settlers, Nathan Nickols, Jr., came 
from Loudoun county, Virginia, in 1823, on horseback and bought 
of Lodwick Ilardenbrook, a soldier of the Revolution, the southeast 
quarter of section 2, township 13, range 21, which was partly cleared 
by Lodwick *s sons, Lewis and Ralph, for the consideration of 
one thousand one hundred dollars. This one hundred and sixty 
acres lies immediately south of Mt. Gilead. Nickols also entered 
from the United States, section 1 in same range and township, 
lying east of section 2, and other lands amounting in all to nine 
hundred and sixty acres. He returned to Virginia and the same 
year his sons, John Nickols and wife, and Albert Nickols and 
daughter, Ruth and her husband Alben Coe, Sr., came to Whet- 
stone and settled on those lands. 

John Nickols and wife located on the one hundred and sixty 
acres next east from Whetstone, where he built a cabin on the west 
side of Whetstone creek on the hill and near a spring of water, 
about fifty rods north of the East bridge. Alben Coe, Sr., and 

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wife built their cabin on the one hundred and sixty acres which in- 
cludes the stone quarry. Albert Nickols settled on the southeast 
quarter of section 1 and each of these three children accepted the 
one hundred and sixty acres settled on as his patrimony. John 
and Albert were rovers, and in a few years sold out, and both went 
to Missouri. John, in 1847, and Albert, in 1848, were soldiers in 
the war with Mexico. 

Nathan Nickols, Jr., the father, came again in 1825, returned 
again to Virginia, and died suddenly in Londoun county that 
state March 21, 1827, leaving his widow, Sarah Thomas Nickols, 
and twelve children, three in Ohio, and nine in Virginia. He was 
a slaveholder, and owned two slaves, but by his last will freed them 
and they were brought to, and were settled in Belmont county, Ohio. 

The heroic conduct of the widow in this emergency, fairly 
illustrates the heroism of the mothers of those times. Nathan had 
planned to emigrate to Ohio, and to give each child one hundred 
and sixty acres of land. The widow was advised to give up the 
emigration, but she said **she believed Nathan had divine guidance 
in making his plans, and she would do her best to carry them out," 
and during the summer of 1827 she loaded the remaining nine 
children (the youngest of whom was only one year old) into 
covered wagons, with provisions for the journey of many days ; took 
the road west through Smeker's Gap, in the Blue Ridge Mountains, 
and came through the Allegheny mountains, from Cumberland, 
Maryland, on the National road, to the Ohio river; and thence 
through an almost trackless forest to Whetstone, and the **Land of 

The widow, soon after her arrival, had a brick house built, 
on the spot where John Dawson's house is now located, for which 
Nathan, in his last will, bequeathed one thousand dollars. She 
caused to be planted, west of the house, an orchard of apple trees, 
got from the nurseries of ** Johnny Appleseed;" and from one of 
these trees, the apple of choice flavor, called **The Mt. Gilead 
Beauty," was produced and propagated by Charles Albach and 
other nurserymen. of Mt. Gilead. The widow also bought of the 
United States an additional eight hundred acres of land, making 
1,760 acres, all owned in the family in the vicinity of Whetstone, 
or Youngstown. 

Massey Nickols, who married Norval V. Hiskett, February 
12, 1829, got her one hundred and sixty acres in the north part of 
Cardington township, and the land is now owned by the heirs of 
Prank Romans, deceased. On July 30, 1829, a further division 

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was made among the other children by Asa Mosher, Abraham New- 
son and Charles Webster, appraisers. 

Sarah Nickols, who married Abner M. Bartlett, November 9, 
1837 was given the northeast quarter of section 1 (House's mill dam 
later), and the great poplar forest, appraised at one hundred and 
twenty-five dollars. 

Harriet Nickols, who married Rev. Robert P. Hickman, April 
14, 1831, was given the northwestern quarter of section 8, range 20, 
township 17, appraised at two hundred and thirteen dollars and 
fifty cents. It is now Jack Gordon 's home farm. 

Ann Nickols. who married Jacob Painter, December 3, 1833, 
was given the northeast quarter of section 7, range 20, township 17. 

Margaret Nickols, who married Abraham Coe, November 5, 
1829, was given the northwest quarter of section 26, range 17, 
township 5, appraised at two hundred and thirteen dollars ; her son, 
George 0. Coe, now owns one-half of his mother's ancestral estate, 
and her grand daughter, Ella Detwdler, the other half. 

Martha Nickols, who married Preston J. Prierad, July 16, 
1835, was given the southwest quarter of section 26, range 17, 
township 5, appraised at two hundred and thirteen dollars. After 
marriage they sold out and went to Tipton, Iowa. This one hun- 
dred and sixty acres is now owned by William L. G. Taber. 

Mary Elizabeth Nickols, who married Joel R. Bartlett, April 
13, 1843, was given the southeast quarter of section 15, range 17, 
township 6, one mile north of Cardington, appraised at one hun- 
dred and ninety dollars. This one hundred and sixty acres was 
owned in part by W. R. Burr. 

All of the foregoing marriages were near Mt. Gilead, at the 
old homestead, except the last which was solemnized at the home of 
a sister in the village. Two of the four sons remained to be pro- 
vided for. Nathan got, by devise in his father's will, the ances- 
tral homestead next south of Mt. Gilead, at the death of his mother, 
June 23, 1839; and George was given the money and bought his 
one hundred and sixty acres of land one mile east of Cardington, 
where he died, September 18, 1885. 

Sarah Thomas Nickols, faithfully carried out the plan of her 
deceased husband and each of these twelve children were given one 
hundred and sixty acres of land. 

Twelve grandsons of this pair, and nine husbands of grand- 
daughters, served their county in the Civil war on the Union side ; 
two gave their lives and four were made cripples for life. 

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Other Pioneer Families and Citizens. 

In the spring of 1825, Abraham Newson and wife, Lucy 
Friend Newson, came to Whetstone from Maryland, and settled one- 
half mile southeast of the village on the northwest quarter of sec- 
tion 12. He became the owner of large tracts of government land 
in the vicinity. The sons were John, Joseph, Preston, Henry, 
Abraham, Jr., and Nelson and the daughters, Louisa, who mar- 
ried James Madison Talmage; Elizabeth, who married Benjamin 
Hall ; Nellie, who married Horace McKee ; and Lucy, Jr., who mar- 
ried D. T. A. Goorley. 

Many descendants of Abraham and Lucy Newson yet reside 
in our community. The original pair and their sons and daughters 
are all dead, except JJucy Groorley, and Abraham Newson, Jr. 
Abraham Newson was the largest man that ever lived in Morrow 
county ; his greatest weight was 427 pounds. 

Other large and influential families were those of Allen Kelly, 
Samuel Straw, John Blakely, William Montgomery, James Mont- 
gomery, William Goorley, William Foy, Amos Critchfield, Joseph 
P. Newson Sr., Jacob Cooper, Isaac Cooper, Elias Cooper, Alfred 
Breese, Charles Breese, Luther D. Mozier, James Pulton, Joseph 
Sayre, Alexander Crawford, Richard House, Nathan House, John 
Shaw, John Weaver and John Mateer. 

George D. Cross was justice of the peace over forty years, in 
Mt. Gilead. 

Charles Russel and family came from Loudoun county, 
Virginia, in 1830, and after a brief stay in Belmont county, Ohio, 
came to Whetstone in 1832 and bought out Ruth and Alben Coe, 
Sr., who owned the stone quarry and farm. There, Russel and 
family resided until his death, December 21, 1871. He was a 
soldier in the war of 1812. There were two daughters, Sarah, who 
married George W. McCall, and Mary, who married Hosea Bige- 
low. The seven sons were Francis M., Robert, Leedom, Burr, 
Barton S., Charles and John W. 

David Talmage was an early settler and shoemaker in Mt. 
Gilead, and his children were Aaron N., David Smith and Maria. 
The last named married Elias Cooper, and died May 26, 1910, at 
Mt. Gilead, in the ninety-second year of her age, having lived there 
seventy-four years. 

William Cooper was one of the early settlers and came in 
1829. He built the flour mill near the south bridge and in Sep- 
tember, 1862, it was burned, and he again rebuilt the one now in 
Vol. 1—16 

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use. His sons were James, now deceased, and E. F. and Calvin, 
yet living. Of the daughters, Mary married Joseph MeCurdy 
(now deceased) ; Elvira first married John R. Lanious, and after 
his decease. Dr. Nathan Rucker; and Ella became the wife of 
George Jago, and is now deceased. 

Other prominent and influential citizens among the many who 
settled in Mt. Gilead before 1848, were Leve Thurston, James S. 
Drimble, Joseph B. Lyon, who built the first brick building, a 
shoe maker's shop on the corner of South Main and South streets; 
Andrew Donau, who built the first brick dwelling in 1842, standing 
and in good repair, on the corner of West Marion and Rich streets ; 
C. 0. Van Horn, Henry Snider, John R. Snider, Abner M. Bartlett, 
Charles Byrd, Elzy Barton, Joseph D. Rigond and W. S. Clements. 

By 1880 Whetstone had four cabins and five frame houses, 
and the population was estimated at sixty. In 1850 the census of 
Mt. Gilead reported 646; in 1860, 789; in 1870, 1,087; in 1880, 
1,262; in 1890, 1,329; in 1900, 1,528, and 1910, 1,673. 

Distant PRODrcE Markets. 

Before 1846, produce of the farmers had to be hauled away by 
teams to market; there was but little demand for produce, and the 
price was too low to pay. An instance, eggs were two cents a 
dozen, and butter was six cents per pound. As late as 1845, John 
Weaver, and his son-in-law, David Bailey, loaded each a Conestoga 
wagon, from the store of J. D. Rigour and Company, on the north 
Sfjuare, witli produce, and, with five horses (two spans and a leader) 
hitched to each wagon, started on their journey across the Alle- 
gheny Mountains to Cumberland, Maryland. 

The writer was then a lad of i\ye years old, and that train of 
two great Conestoga wagons, and ten horses, with harness that near- 
ly covered them, made an impression on his mind that he cannot 
forget while reason remains. 

After 1847 and until 1852, farmers in Morrow county hauled 
wheat to Mansfield, and to Milan, for fifty cents per bushel and 

The first storekeepei* at Whetstone was John Roy. and he came 
from New Jersey in 1827. He was followed by R. and N. House, 
in 1832, who four years before had a store at Jamestown, or Kelly's 
Corner, two miles east of ]\[t. Gilead. Richard House continued 
his business until 1872. Other storekeepers were James Shaw, 
C. K. Lindsey, J. D. Rigour and Company, and James S. Trimble. 
Thev came before 1848. 

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In November, 1844, in honor of the election of James K. Polk, 
of Tennessee, to be president of the United States, the residences 
and business places of the Democrats of Mt. Gilead were illumi- 
nated by placing two or more rows of lighted tallow candles across 
the front windows, for an hour or two after night fall. 

It was for the few years preceding 1848, agitated and proposed 
to form a new county, with Mt. Gilead as the county seat, out of 
portions of adjoining counties, and that representatives, especially 
Hon. Barnabas Burns, senator from Richland county, vigorously 
opposed the foundation of a new county. But the realization of 
the ambition of those who wanted a new county, as well as the 
celebration at Mt. Gilead, which commemorated the events, have 
already been described. 

Mt. Gilead As It Is. 

The substantial business blocks erected on North Public equare, 
erected by Mark and Perry Cook, commenced in 1894 and ended 
with the Masonic Temple block in 1899, and the business blocks, 
residence flats and offices erected by Dr. Nathan Tucker, commenced 
in 1900 with the erection of his laboratory and ended in 1907 with 
the erection of the cement block building at the corner of Main 
and Center streets. Dr. Tucker has spared neither pains nor ex- 
pense to make his improvements of the most durable and substantial 
character. He became a citizen of Mt. Gilead in 1866, and for 
several years life was a struggle, but he has now prospered beyond 
his most sanguine expectations, and his generosity is e(|ualed by 
his success. 

Other citizens have erected residences in the last sixteen years 
(after removing the old houses to vacant lots and repairing them) 
with modern improvements of hot air, steam and hot-water systems 
of heating, as well as gas and electric lighting, that have also 
tended to make ^It. Gilead an ideal \nllage. About the only old 
building dating back to 1845 is the agricultural store-room, on the 
northeast corner of North square, erected in that year. 

Railroads and Industriks. 

As the railroads of Mi. (rilead and Morrow county have 
immeasurably contributed to the local, industrial and commercial 
well-being of the people, a brief history of their development is 
here given. Sometime after the organization of Morrow county and 

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the erection of Mt. Gilead as the county seat, railroad building was 
agitated, the project being to build a road from Cleveland to Colum- 
bus, passing through Mt. Gilead, and the \'illage was asked to sub- 
scribe for the enterprise. Fifty thousand dollars worth of stock 
was at once taken and the line surveyed. But the managers 
desiring to make sure against failure on the part of the subscribers, 
went to Mt. Gilead, as to other towns, to get security for the sub- 
scription ere work was commenced. But the Mt Gilead people, 
thinking that the road would go through their town anyway, tem- 
porized and the railroad oflScials left the town in disgust. Going to 
Cardington, they did not meet with much success as to the taking of 
stock there, for the town was small and the inhabitants were not 
wealthy. However, John Shunk, who kept a hotel there, suggested 
that the contemplated route be changed and suggested that if they 
would follow the line surveyed in 1830, for the Ohio canal, they 
would save nearly as much as the Mt. Gilead subscription. This 
line would pass two miles west of Mt. Gilead. The line was there- 
fore agreed upon and work commenced upon the road at once, to 
the chagrin and disappointment of Mt. Gilead. When the road 
was built a station was located two miles west of Mt. Gilead, which 
is now called Edison. The road was completed and the cars com- 
menced to run in February, 1851. 

In getting the railroad, Cardington secured a better prize than 
Mt. Gilead did in becoming the county seat. Although the Cleve- 
land and Columbus railroad, now known as the Big Four, was com- 
pleted and doing a fine business, it was two miles from Mt. Gilead. 
After a while the matter was agitated of building a spur from the 
railroad to Mt. Gilead, and for that purpose an ** Enabling Act," 
was passed by the legislature, by which a vote was taken for a tax 
of $18,000, an amount that was supposed to be sufficient to build 
the road, but this was found insufficient, and an additional $3,000 
was voted afterwards. These sums built the road and made it 
ready for rolling stock, which was put on 'by the railroad, in con- 
sideration of a lease given to that road for twenty years by the 
board of trustees of the Short Line, as the spur is called. Its 
construction has been of advantage to Mt. Gilead and the sur- 
rounding country. 

The Toledo and Ohio Central railroad was projected in 1868, 
but a number of years elapsed ere its completion. This road runs 
from Toledo south through Mt. Gilead. 

Quite important industries, which have been in operation for 
many years and have been successful, are the tile factory and the 

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tile and pottery works. They were originally established, in 1875, 
by B. B. McGowen, Smith Thomas and William Wilson, as the Mt. 
Gilead Tile Works, which have passed through the ownership of 
several parties. In recent years the manufacturing of pottery 
articles has been added to the making of tile. About 1907 the 
plant was burned, but has been rebuilt on a larger scale and is now 
doing a prosperous business under the management of Walter S. 
Emerson, as president. The plant is located along the Toledo and 
Ohio Central and Short Lone railroads, west of Mt. Gilead. The 
incorporators are Walter S. Emerson, J. R. Seitz, R. B. McMillin, 
Jesse Smith, Judson Wilhelm and Ralph Buck. The plant is 
valued at $15,000 and stock on hand at $22,000. 

Since the spring of 1879 tile works east of the village have 
been owned and operated by B. B. McGrowen and Son, and for a 
time William W. McCracken, deceased, was a part owner and part- 
ner. This is also a prosperous enterprise. 

The most substantial improvements in Mt. Gilead have been 
made in the last twenty-seven years. 

In 1883 the Hydraulic Press Manufacturing Company was first 
organized, and from a modest beginning has become a large and 
flourishing industry. We give herewith an authentic history of it. 

The Hydraulic Press Manufacturing Company, located at Mt. 
Gilead, is the largest and most important manufacturing industry 
that has existed in Morrow county to this date. 

The company was originally incorporated under the name oi 
**The Hydraulic Press Company. '* The date of incorporation was 
January 1, 1883. The first directors were M. Burr Talmage, A. 
Q. Tucker, James Carlisle, Joseph H. Pollock, Silas M. Brown, 
W. W. McCracken, John F. Bowen, Robert Brocklesby, James M. 
Albach, Neely Noble, Minor Harrod, William Carlisle, G. V. Smith, 
J. E. Davis and W. J. Campbell. The first oflScers were James Car- 
lisle, president; Minor Harrod, vice president; E. C. Chase, 
secretary; J. H. Pollock, assistant secretary; and R. P. Halliday, 

The inception of the design of a press operated on the hydraulic 
or hydrostatic principle for cider making purposes was in the 
mind of Mr. A. Q. Tucker during the year of 1867, who then lived 
on his farm adjoining the village of Gilead Station, now Edison, 
Ohio. The first conception of a hydraulic cider press originated 
with Mr. Tucker while engaged in the excessively hard labor of 
expressing cider on a screw press, in the autumn of the year named. 

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This slow and laborious process caused him to devise a quicker and 
easier process, apd the application of the hydraulic principle was 
the result. 

Mr. Tucker told a number of his friends of his ideas and 
stated to them that his inventive genius was not such as to enable 
him to work out all the details. 

Ten years later, in 1877, another man — a mechanical genius — 
Silas M. Brown, from the state of Indiana, happened into the 
livery stable of Hod McKee at Bellefontaine, Ohio, one day, with 
a small but crude model of a hydraulic cider press. Mr. McKee 
was a former citizen of Morrow county, having been sheriflP of the 
county at one time. He was also a friend and acquaintance of 
Mr. A. Q. Tucker and knew of his efforts to design a hydraulic 
cider press. Mr. McKee made Mr. Brown acquainted with Mr.* 
Tucker's efiForts, which prompted Mr. Brown to call on Mr. Tucker 

To anyone knowing an3rthing about the requirements of the 
great strength of all parts used in the construction of a hydraulic 
press, a brief description of one or two features of Mr. Brown's 
model will be at once amusing and interesting. Instead of the 
double strength iron pipe and fittings to convey the water from 
the water supply box to the hydraulic cylinder, a rubber hose 
similiar to that used on an infant's nursing bottle was used. 
The water box was a tin spice can. 

However, the model showed the general design of a cider press 
as well as the hydraulic principle and its application to a machine 
for cider making purposes. The practical and business mind of 
Mr. A. Q. Tucker, combined with the mechanical and inventive 
mind of Mr. Silas M. Brown, resulted in a practical and suc- 
cessful press being designed. 

The patterns and castings for the first press were made 
under the supervision of Mr. Brown at Peoria, Illinois. These 
were shipped to Gilead Station, where the wood and frame work 
were made in the saw mill plant belonging to A. Q. Tucker and G. 
V. Smith, where the press was erected and tested. The public 
took a keen interest in the building and testing of this press. 
When the day arrived to start the press a number of farmers with 
loads of apples and a great gathering of people from all parts 
of the county and from other points were present to witness 
the demonstration. The test proved the machine to be a great 
success, notwithstanding the usual prophecies to the contrary. 

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None of those bringing apples brought enough barrels to hold their 

A number of patents were taken out on this machine. Messrs. 
A. Q. Tucker and 6. V. Smith immediately bought Mr. Brown's 
interest in the patents for Morrow county and Marion county. 
Later these two gentlemen became owners of the patents for the 
state of Ohio. 

Messrs. Tucker and Smith had the next press built in the 
shop of the Columbus Machine Company, Columbus, Ohio. The 
following year these gentlemen had ten presses built by Squire and 
Homer, founderymen and machinists at Galion, Ohio. 

The sale and operation of these presses demonstrated the 
practibility of the machine. It was then determined by the 
owners of the patents, Messrs. Brown, Tucker and Smith, that 
additional capital was required to develop the business and an 
agreement was reached to form a stock company. The first com- 
pany was organized in 1883, through the efforts of Mr. A. Q. 
Tucker, among the citizens and business men of Mount Gilead 
and vicinity. 

The Hydraulic Press Company, thus organized, came into 
possession of all the patents for the United States of America. The 
business was first organized with a capital of twenty thousand 
dollars. Not much business was done in 1883, as the year was 
spent in erecting buildings and installing machinery. A few 
presses were built in 1884, but most of this year was spent in 
perfecting the press. In 1885 the company manufactured the 
perfected press and at the end of that year declared a dividend 
of ten per cent on the stock and credited ten per cent to a surplus 
account. The business continued to be profitable and successful. 
The year of 1886 showed a net profit of seventy-five per cent of 
the original capital stock. This amount was placed in the surplus 
fund to enlarge the capital. The year 1887 started in with bright 
prospects, but about August 13th of that year the entire plant was 
destroyed by fire, together with a stock of eighty presses. Only 
twenty-one presses had been shipped out before the fire. A loss 
of fifty thousand dollars was sustained with an insurance of 
nineteen thousand, three hundred. 

The company was then reorganized under the name of The 
Hydraulic Press Manufacturing Company, with a capital stock of 
$100,000, $60,000 of which was paid up. $35,000 of this amount 
was stock turned over to the members of the old company for its 
patents, good will and salvage, which left a working capital of 

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but $25,000. The members of the old company not only received 
more stock in the new company than they held in the old, but were 
paid dividends from the collection of old accounts and notes of the 
original company to cover a large share of their original investment. 

The Hydraulic Press Manufacturing Company was incorpor- 
ated under the laws of the state of Ohio on October 17, 1887. The 
incorporators were T. H. Dalrymple, R. P. Halliday, William Car- 
lisle, W. W. McCracken and M. Burr Talmage. The first directors 
of the new company were A. Q. Tucker, M. Burr Talmage, James 
Carlisle, J. H. Pollock, W. W. McCracken, J. M. Albach and Wil- 
liam Carlisle. The first oflScers were M. Burr Talmage, president 
and general manager; Joseph H. Pollock, vice president; C. C. 
Wheeler, secretary; R. P. Halliday, treasurer; James Carlisle, 

The credit for the early success of this business is largely due 
to Messrs. A. Q. Tucker, James Carlisle and M. Burr Talmage. 
These men were among the original incorporators of tl^ parent 
company. Mr. James Carlisle, the president of the first company 
and superintendent of the reorganized company, was largely re- 
sponsible for the planning and building the factory and the instal- 
lation of the machinery in it. He had much to do with the early 
development and perfecting of the press and had charge of the 
manufacturing end of the business until he met his death in the 
service of the company on August 16, 1892, by falling from a 
runway from the second story of one of the warehouse buildings 
while assisting in loading a heavy piece of machinery. 

Mr. A. Q. Tucker, the founder of the business, did the pioneer 
work on the road. He personally introduced the machine into 
every fruit-growing section of the United States and Canada, with 
the exception of the extreme northwest. He traveled over most of 
the territory with horse and buggy and carried a small working 
model with him, with which he showed thousands of people for the 
first time the principle of hydraulic pressure. It was through the 
same tact, ability and perserverance that Mr. Tucker has displayed 
in successfully handling other affairs that the manufactured pro- 
duct of this company was first introduced. He still holds a large 
investment in the company and is a member of the board of 

Mr. H. Burr Talmage has remained the president and a 
member of the board of directors of the company from the date of 
its reorganization. He also has a lar^ investment in the business. 
He has more years to his credit in the active service of the company 

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than any other man. For more than fifteen years he had the re- 
sponsibility of the business as general manager. In this capacity 
he was responsible for the general policy, conduct and operation 
of the business. During his active period he had charge of the 
correspondence and managed the finances of the business through 
many trying periods. The business paid good dividends and 
credited substantial amounts to the surplus account for many 
years until all amounts paid for patents had been charged off and 
a cash capital of $100,000 and a surplus account of more than 
$50,000 evidenced a cash investment as against the original cash 
capital of $25,000 before referred to. 

Like other enterprises the business reached a stage in its 
existence when it could not be operated by old methods. This 
period was reached during the years of 1900 to 1902. In order 
to instill new life into the business and modem methods in manu- 
facturing and management, which were apparently necessary to 
meet competition and the demands of the trade, the controlling 
stock passed into new hands and younger blood and energy were 
infused into the business about this time. 

A new order of things was brought about under the supervision 
of Prank B. McMillin, who was put in charge of the company's 
affairs for the purpose of modernizing the entire business. Mr. 
McMillin, when a very young man, became identified with the 
business as a stockholder in 1877. He was elected as a director 
in 1900, and became actively engaged in the business as assistant 
general manager in 1902. The following year he was elected 
assistant general manager and secretary, and shortly thereafter 
became general manager and secretary, which positions he now 
holds. Under the regime of Mr. McMillin the position of super- 
intendent was merged with that of general manager, so that he 
had the responsibility of the entire business and is entitled to the 
credit for the successful development and extraordinary expansion 
of it within the last decade. 

Mr. McMillin was a young man of unusual attainments. He 
had made a success of a retail business which he had built up by 
sheer pluck and hustle from a very meagre beginning, and brought 
to the Hydraulic Press Manufacturing Company's business the 
training, skill, care and untiring industry by which every depart- 
ment was systemized and thoroughly organized. He quickly took up 
and mastered the mechanical features and to his skill as an organ- 
izer is due the present development of the factory and the extensive 
line of machinery now being manufactured. He is now the largest 
holder of common stock in the company. 

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During the past ten years the business has made greater 
progress than any previous time. During this period the company 
has paid dividends each year and at the same time has expended 
large amounts of money in developing the business, which has 
resulted in the present plant being the largest and best equipped 
factory of its kind in the United States. During recent years the 
entire plant has been overhauled and a number of new buildings 
have been added. A great number of new and modem machines 
of the largest and best types have been added to the equipment, 
which has more than doubled the capacity of the factory. The 
company now generates electricity in its own power plant, with 
which all machinery is operated and the entire plant and oflSce 
building are lighted. Compressed air is used for riveting, chip- 
ping and cleaning. Electric and yard hoists are used for handling 
heavy machinery. In fact, every modem device to save labor and 
to produce the best work at the least cost has been installed. 

An effective sales and engineering organization has been 
developed, with headquarters at the home office. The company now 
has over 600 machine specifications, 6,000 drawings and 5,000 
foundry patterns. The plant covers thirteen acres of ground and 
consists of fourteen buildings, with seventy thousand feet of floor 

Presses are now being manufactured with a pressure capable 
of fifteen to fifteen hundred tons and weighing from five hundred 
pounds to fifty thousand pounds each. The quality and variety of 
work turned out would be a credit to any factory in the United 
States. A large force of skilled mechanics and a competent office 
force are employed, who form a most desirable class of citizens of 
Mt. Gilead. 

While the present business is the outgrowth of the one well 
founded and wisely handled during its early history, it is far 
beyond anything the founder ever expected it to be. The original 
business contemplated the manufacture of cider presses and cider 
makers' supplies only, while now, presses for almost every con- 
ceivable purpose requiring high pressure are manufactured and 
shipped to the four quarters of the earth. Presses are now manu- 
factured for making powder, laying veneers, pressing grease from ' 
packers' tankage and city garbage, lard from hog cracklings, tal- 
low from beef cracklings, oleo and stearin from tallow, cementing 
double leather belts, pressing water from tanned hides, baling 
waste, hemp and paper, gin and warehouse cotton compresses, 
emery wheel presses, die presses, forming presses, trunk veneer 

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presses, presses for finishing worsteds, woolens and silks, concrete 
and cement block presses, floor tile presses, vanilla extract presses, 
flange presses, wheel presses, presses for tufting, upholstering, cider 
and grape juice presses, etc., etc. Presses are designed and built 
on order of the customer for any special purpose required. 

A large line of hydraulic high pressure pumps are manufac- 
tured to meet the requirements of all kinds of high pressure work. 
The company also manufactures a complete line of cider and vine- 
gar makers* supplies, including steam evaporators for making cider 
jelly, steam apple-butter cookers, cider pasteurizers, cider pumps, 
grinders, vinegar generators, etc. 

Various members of the oflSce force have made a specialty of 
particular subjects pertaining to different lines of the business 
using their machinery and equipment. Books have been written 
and copjrrighted on the subjects of manufacturing cider jelly, cider 
vinegar and pasteurized cider. The company is also an authority 
on veneer manufacturing, shrinking and finishing worsteds, woolens 
and silks, and a great many other subjects of equal importance. 
An analytical laboratory with a chemist in charge has been es- 
tablished in the company's oflSces. The company has a branch 
warehouse at Suflfem, New York, a short distance out of New York 
city, and a branch office at the same place, also branch offices at 
New York city and Chicago. 

The capital and surplus of the company is now $225,000. In 
addition to this the business has invested $100,000 in patterns and 
drawings, which amount is not carried in the company's assets. 
The present officers and directors are : M. Burr Talmage, president ; 
Mell B. Talmage, vice president; Prank B. McMillin, general man- 
ager and secretary; Harry B. McMillin, treasurer; A. Q. Tucker, 
W. E. Miller, W. J. Simms, W. G. Beebe and J. L. Swingle. 

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Eablt Business Men — Mayors and Municipal Matters — 
Memorial Day and Soldier Dead — ^Mt. Gilead As It Is — ^Rail- 
roads AND Industries — Banks op Mt. Gilead. 

By Robert F, Bartlett. 

Upon the organization of Morrow county and the location of 
the county-seat at Mt. Gilead, in 1848, there came an influx of 
citizens and an impetus was given to building. 

The ** American House" was built in 1846 by C. K. Lindsey, 
who was the first landlord, but only for a brief time when the gold 
fever seized him and he went to California. The next landlord of 
the ** American'' was Albert German, who was followed in turn by 
Frederick A. Miller, Sr., Jacob Baughman, Thomas Patterson and 
others. For the past year the building has been occupied by the 
Republican Printing Company. 

For a few years in the fifties there was a hotel on the comer 
where the building of the National Bank of Mt. Gilead now stands, 
and kept successively by Dewitt C. Webb and by F. A. Miller, Sr. 
It burned and was not rebuilt, as a hotel. 

The '* Globe hotel'' on North Main street was built in 1869, 
by J. F. Stone, who was its landlord for several years. Then L. 
Harvey Baughman rented the hotel and later became its proprietor. 
He died in 1909, and later the property was sold. The ** Globe" 
is now kept by G. J. Smith. 

Early Business Men. 

In 1853 James S. Trimble built the brick residence on 
spacious grounds on Iberia street, now occupied by Perry Cook 
and wife, and our townsman, Mark Cook, made his home with 
them. Mr. Trimble, for many years prior to 1852, was one of Mt. 
Gilead 's most energetic business men in the drygoods line and in 


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produce. After 1852 he had a warehouse on the railroad at 
Edison, and also a warehouse, and bought grains at Richwood, and 
added a private bank to his business in Mt. Gilead. A. 0. Shurr 
was the cashier of this bank for many years, followed by John 
P. Miller and his son, A. J. Trimble, as cashiers, until in April, 
1878, when through no fault of his, but through his misfortune in 
the failure of other merchants and dealers, Mr. Trimble failed in 

About 1852, General John Beatty, now of Columbus, and 
Major William G. Beatty, deceased, were clerks in Mr. Trimble's 
drygoods business on South Main street. The store, in a frame 
building, afterwards burned, its site being now occupied by the 
dry goods store of White and Brainard, for many years the home 
of Mr« Trimble on Iberia street, was the best in Mt. Gilead, and is 
yet one of the finest. Mr. Trimble was bom in Mt. Vernon in 1818, 
and died in Mt. Gilead in 1889. 

After the year 1848 the drygoods stores were respectively 
kept by R. House and Company (1832-72) and J. D. Rigour and 
Company, until about 1854; C. H. Chamberlain and Company, 
until 1867; Miles and Pogle and Miles, Barton and Miles, and 
White and Brainard, from 1882, and the Mt. Gilead Dry Gtoods 
Company, succeeded by A. A. Whitney and Sons, and Sherm, 
Jackson and Company and L. E. Jackson, the last four being in 
operation at this time. 

Mayors and Municipal Matters. 

Of the very earliest mayors of Mt. Gilead there is no record, 
and the oldest persons living cannot recall anyone before 1848, 
and there is no legend giving an account of one although the 
village was incorporated in 1839. The first known mayor was 
Jonathan S. Christie in 1848 ; then Samuel Bushfield, 1849 ; James 
W. Stinchcomb, 1850 and 1851 ; Thomas H. Dalrymple, 1852 and 
1853; Robert B. Mitchell, 1854; S. M. Hewitt, 1856; William Welch, 
1857; Silas Holt, 1858; John D. Poy, 1859 and I860; James S. 
Trimble, 1861 and 1862; James M. Briggs, 1863; Bertrand An- 
drews, 1864; E. C. Chase, 1865; W. H. Albach, 1866 (six months) ; 
Bertrand Andrews, 1866 (for six months) ; Lyman B. Vorhies, 
1867; Pletcher Douthett, 1868; Andrew D. Braden, 1869-70; 
Thomas H. Dalrymple, 1871-75; D. D. Booher, 1875-78; Joseph 
Hathaway, 1878 ; Louis K. Powell, 1879 to 1883 ; W. Smith Irwin, 

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1883 to 1887; John A. Garver, 1887 to 1889; William P. Bruce, 
1889-90; George W. Pluekey, 1891-1892; George W. Gunsaulus, 
1893-4; Ben Olds, 1895 to 1899; William P. Bruce, 1899 to 1907; 
John R. Carpenter, 1908-9; William Kaufman, 1910-11. 

We notice the introduction of the wonderful agency, the tele- 
phone, which has so affected our business relations, and annihilated 
space, that the old manner of doing business has undergone an 
evolution, and is very much revolutionized. In 1883 the council of 
Mt. Gilead gave permission to several enterprising men from Car- 
dington to erect poles for a telephone line through Mt. Gilead. 

The business has developed and enlarged into the Morrow 
County Telephone Company, with exchange number 13 at Mt. 
Gilead, and 2,312 telephones in the county. Nearly one-half of 
the families in the county and most of the places of business, 
enjoy telephone service. The president of this company is A. A. 
Whitney ; vice president, V. W. Peck; directors, W. P. Bruce. C. W. 
Schaaf, John W. Qlauner, Z. D. Vail, Perry Cook, Prank L. Beam 
and Mark Cook. 

It is proper to note here, that in the development of the 
transmission of messages by electricity Mr. Guglielmo Marconi, on 
a trip from Europe to Argentina, South America, took with him 
on his voyage a receiving instrument and a kite, and made arrange- 
ments for the transmission to the ship, of messages from the 
stations at Clifden, Ireland, and Glace Bay, Nova Scotia. The 
kite was flown by means of very long wire, the inventor receiving 
messages by this means (wireless) from a distance of over thirty- 
five hundred miles, in the daytime. Greater distances of transmis- 
sion are believed to be possible. 

The science of electricity has not yet reached its greatest 
development, and the writer believes that women and men are no^ 
living, who will stand back to back, each with a receiver to his ear, 
and a transmitter to his mouth, and talk on the telephone to each 
other, around the world. Electricity carries sound on a wire, at 
the great rate of 288,000 miles in a second, which is twelve times 
around the world. Truly space, to the finite mind, is annihilated. 

In 1894, under the mayoralty of Hon. W. P. Bruce, the paving 
of the city streets was commenced ; first, on the North square and 
adjacent portions of streets and that of West High and Main, 
from South ridge to the north line of the village ; Rich street from 
the Short Line depot south to Marion street ; Marion east to River 
Cliff cemetery; Vine from East High to Union, and last by Center, 
from Rich east to River Cliff cemetery (in the summer of 1910). 

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The cost of these paved streets has been paid back to the property 
owners in the rise of real estate along the line of the streets, 
and soon after the first streets were paved the citizens of other 
thoroughfares were clamorous for a like improvement. 

In the year 1893 an electric light plant wa& established and 
electric lights have been luxuries that our citizens have enjoyed. 
Later, in 1902, a water-works system was installed and a water- 
tower or stand-pipe built, and the pumping system connected with 
the power-house in the electric light plant. Pure water is pumped 
from wells near the plant, which thus far have given an inexhaust- 
ible supply for fire-extinguishing and other purposes. 


In 1909 a general^ sewerage system was established in two 
divisions, determined by the nature of the land surface, and addi- 
tions are in contemplation. 

The improvements in River Cliff cemetery are important and 
require our notice. In the year 1881 Dr. David L. Swingley 
erected a modest vault for family use, and in 1883, Dr. Isaac H. 
Pennock and John W. Ramey each built a similar structure. In 
1884 Samuel P. Brown and Thornton L. James jointly erected a 
double mausoleum for the interment of members of their respective 
families, in the central part of the cemetery, and in 1886 the public 
receiving vault and chapel was built by the village. In 1902 

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Captain James K. Ewart built, of pressed brick, a very fine man- 
soleum at a cost of over thirteen thousand dollars. In the summer 
of 1910, A. J. Durkee constructed a public mausoleum at a great 
cost, with 270 crypts, or compartments therein, for the care of the 
dead and to be purchased by individuals. This mausoleum is to be 
sustained by the money derived from the sale of the crypts. 

Memorial Day (1910) and Soldier Dead. 

Meradrial Day has been observed for many years, and we 
describe the proceedings in 1910, and give a list of soldiers' graves 
in the cemetery occupied by our deceased comrades up to that 

Decoration Day (1910) was fittingly observed by the citizens 
of Mt. Gilead. The town was beautifully decorated with flags and 
bunting. The windows of the stores were decorated in red, white 
and blue and the houses showed signs of patriotism. Crowds of 
people began to flock into to^^Ti about noon and by one o'clock the 
streets were crowded. 

The G. A. R's, Sons of Veterans and the Woman's Relief 
Corps lined up on the square and, headed by the band, marched 
to the schoolhouse where the children of the grades were all lined 
up. A large American flag was presented to the school board by 
the W. R. C. and G. A. R's. Daniel Booher, making the presenta- 
tion speech, asked that the teachers tell the scholars of the brave 
deeds done, requesting them to teach the children to have respect 
for the old soldiers, living or dead. 

Professor Ryan accepted the gift and thanked the donors in 
behalf of the faculty, school board and scholars. Everything he 
said was appropriate for the occasion. 

The flag was then hoisted while every one stood with uncovered 
head and the band played, **The Star Spangled Banner." Then 
the children sang ** Columbia, the Gem of the Ocean." They went 
to the opera house to hear Judge Colonel Dodge give an address. 

Rolland Clevenger and Miss Barton, each sang solos. Mrs. 
Maud James sang a beautiful solo ; until about a year ago she was 
leading soprano in one of the large church choirs in Columbus. 
Guy Whitney, in a very pleasing manner, gave Lincoln's Gettys- 
burg address. 

After the program at the hall, they went to decorate the graves. 
At the cemetery Attorney Barry gave a fitting address and the 
graves of the soldiers were decorated. 

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Following is a list of the soldiers buried in River Cliflf and 
Old Cemetery, Mt. Gilead: 

Alexander Kingman, 2d Mass., Revolutionary war. 

Lodwiek Hardenbrook, Revolutionary war, old cemetery. 

Henry Albaugh, War of 1812. 

William Addlesperger, War of 1812. 

Charles Carpenter, War of 1812, old cemetery. 

Abraham Hardendorf, War of 1812. 

Charles Mann, War of 1812. 

Cornelius Russell, War of 1812. 

Charles Russell, War of 1812. 

William Montgomery, War of 1812; old cemetery. 

James J. Runyan, Mexican war and Co. A, 20th regiment, 
0. V. I. 

Thomas Turner, Mexican war and Co. B, 43d 0. V. I. 

Lyman M. Courtright, Co. I, 3d O. V. I. 

Daniel J. Long, Co. I, 3d 0. V. I. 

C. L. Van Brimer, Co. I, 3d 0. V. I. 

William H. Wood, Co. I, 3d 0. V. I.. 

Abner Ustick, Co. K, 4th 0. V. I. 

John G. Byrd, Capt., Co. C, 15th 0. V. I. 

Jeremiah M. Dunn, Capt, 15th 0. V. I. 

Marshall S. Byrd, Co. C, 15th 0. V. I. 

Cyrus C. Clark, Co. C, 15th 0. V. I. 

Mortimer F. James, Co. C, 15th O. V. I. 

Jacob Karr, Co. C, 15th O. V. I. 

Richard L. Wrenn, Co. C, 15th O. V. I. 

George C. Earley, Co. C, 15th 0. V. I. 

Isaac W. Knepper, Co. G, 20th O. V. I. 

David W. Bloxham, Co. G, 20th O. V. I. 

William C. Manson, sergeant, Co. G. 20th 0. V. I. 

William W. McCracken, 2d lieut. Co. A, 20th 0. V. I. 

Charies W. Hotchkiss, Co. A, 20th 0. V. I. 

George Coleman, Co. A, 20th 0. V. I. 

Henry C. Shaw, Co. H, 25th 0. V. I. 

Washington Gardner, Co. G, 26th 0. V. I. 

Henry G. Shedd, Co. E, 26th 0. V. I. 

Socrates Shaw, Co. E, 26th 0. V. I. 

Andrew M. Smith, Co. E, 26th 0. V. I. 

James R. Goodman, Co. E, 26th O. V. I. 

Marcus A. Boner, Co. E, 26th 0. V. I. 

John Derr, Co. E, 26th 0. V. I. 

Vol. 1—17 

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Thomas S. Rogers, Co. E, 26th O. V. I. 
Israel Reed, Co. E, 26th 0. V. I. 
John W. Emerson, Co. E, 26th 0. V. I. 
Charles G. Prentiss, Co. E, 26th O. V. I. 
William II. Leonard, Co. C, 32d 0. V. I. 
Jacob Y. Apt, Co. C, 33d 0. V. I. 
Robert D. Clutter, Co. K, 38th 0. V. I. 
William M. Eccles, Co. K, 43d 0. V. I. 
Henry W. Breese, Co. B, 43d and Co. K, 174th O. V. I. 
William Work, Co. B, 43d and Co. C, 136th O. V. I. 
James Heffelfincrer, Co. B, 43d 0. V. I. 
August Mathews, Co. B, 58th 0. V. I. 

George H. Hales, corporal, Co. C, 64th and Co. B, 163d 0. 
V. I. 

James Olds, major, 65th 0. V. I. 

John S. Talma^^e, lieut., Co. D, 65th 0. V. I. 

William P. Stevens, Co. D, 65th 0. V. I. 

Lyman B. Vorhies, surgeon, 68th 0. V. I. 

Thomas England, Co. H, 69th 0. V. I. 

Caleb B. Ayres, lieut. Co. G, 81st O. V. I. 

Richard S. Laycox, principal musician, 81st 0. V. I. . 

George Fry, Co. K, 81st 0. V. I. 

Davis E. James, Co. F, 81st O. V. I. 

Silas Holt, lieut., Co. C, 85th O. V. I. 

James T. Livingston, Co. C, 88th 0. V. I. 

William Coc, Co. I, 88th O. V. I. 

William Babcock, Co. G, 88th 0. V. I. 

John A. Craven, Co. K, 88th O. V. I. 

Levi Harvey Bnugliman, Co. F, 88th 0. V. I. 

Stephen A. Parsons, Co. D, 90th 0. V. I. 

George N. Clark, adjutant, 96th 0. V. I. 

Thomas Litzcnburg, lieut. Co. I), 96th and 136th O. V. I. 

William W. Reed, 1st corp. 96th 0. V. I. 

Isaac Ely, corporal, 96th 0. V. I. 

Isaac N. Miracle, 96th 0. V. I. 

George W. :\rontgomery, 96th O. V. I. 

William H. Dalrymple, 96th 0. V. I. 

Lemuel II. Brecsc, 96th 0. V. I. 

Milton Parks, (^o. I, 120th O. V. I. 

William Smith Irwin, lieut. col. 121st and col. 136th 0, V. 1 

Paul C. Wheeler, Co. G, 121st 0. V. I. 

Samuel W. Trowbridge, Co. A, 135th 0. V. I. 

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JcFeph Hartpenre, Co. C, 136th O. V. I. 

Lacy Truex, Co. C, 136th O. V. I. 

Thomas J. Davis, Co. P, 136th 0. V. I. 

J. Wilson McCracken, Co. P, 136th 0. V. I. 

Joseph Laycox, Co. P, 136th 0. V. I. 

Simeon W. Preston, Co. G, 136th 0. V. I. 

Robert Brocklesby, Co. G, 136th and Co. I, 88th 0. V. I. 

Peter W. Young, Co. G, 136th 0. V. I. 

Perry Parks, Co. G, 136th 0. V. I. 

Mahlon Irey, Co. G, 136th 0. V. I. 

William Wheeler, Co. G, 136th 0. V. I. 

J. Hamilton Burns, Co. G, 136th 0. V. I. 

John E. Smith, Co. G, 136th 0. V. I. 

John Smith, Co. G, 136th 0. V. I. 

John Comley Baxter, capt. Co. G, 136th and Co. G, 187th 0. 
V. I. 

Enoch P. George, Co. G, 136th 0. V. I. 

Samuel R. Barton, Co. G, 136th 0. V. I. 

James W. Clements, Co. G, 136th 0. V. I. 

James E. Burr, Co. G, 136th 0. V. I. 

George Powell, Co. C, 136th 0. V. I. 

Isaac Blackford, Co. A, 136th 0. V. I. 

George Livingston, Co. I, 136th 0. V. I. 

Ray Livingston, son of George, Spanish war. 

John B. Farley, Co. G, 136th 0. V. I. 

John Feld, Co. A, 174th 0. V. I. 

George W. Wrenn, Co. A, 174th 0. V. I. 

Dewitt C. Webb, Co. K, 174th 0. V. L 

Ira B. Parley, Co. K, 174th and Co. G, 136th 0. V. I 

Leander E. Parsons, Co. K, 174th and Co. G, 136th 0. V. L 

Samuel Andrews, same. 

William D. Mathews, private, Co. F, 88th and Co. B, 87th; 
sergeant, Co. C, 86th and lieut. Co. G, 178th. 

Dr. Henry H. Shaw, private Co. I, 180th and surgeon 184th 
0. V. L 

Martin V. Headington, Co. I, 180th 0. V. I. 

James R. Craven, Co. G, 187th 0. V. I. 

Charles W. Purcell, Co. G, 187th 0. V. I. 

John Henrv' Purcell, Co. — , 136th 0. V. I. 

Randolph L. Ileaton, Co. B, 2d 0. H. Art. 

William H. Bamhard, Co. I, 2d 0. H. Art. 

Thomas J. Manahan, Batteries K and H, 5th artillery, U. S. A 

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Greorge Burgoyne, 1st Ohio Indpt. Batty. 
James J. Vanllorn, colonel, 8th U. S. I. 
Albert Germain, musician, 19th U. S. I. 
Alfred McDonald, Co. K, 9th 0. V. C. 
Levi Dewitt, Co. K, 2d Cal. Cavalry. 
Daniel Beers, Berdan's Sharpshooters, N. Y. Vol. 
Elijah Barnes, Co. I, 101st Ind. V. I. 
David Thompson, Co. I, 134th Ind. V. I. 
William P. Dumble, Co. M, 4th Tenn. Cav. 
A. B. Lerch, 57th Pa. Infy. 

William Lautsbaugh, Co. A, 101st and Co. P, 158th Pa. V. I. 
Prank T. Obey, Pa. Regt. 
Jonathan Hildebrand, Co. D, 103d Pa. I. 
Claudius Knox, army telegrapher. 

J. M. Andrews, Capt. steamboat on Ohio and Mississippi rivers 
during war. 

John P. Adams, died in Philippines. 
Edmund L. Baxter, Co. G, 187th O. V. I. 

Prominent Men and Women. 

Bennington township : Bernard M. GriflBs, Jesse Mason, Major 
Harry Johnson, William H. Kennedy, William Taylor, Pletcher 
Dewitt, David D. Ross, John Allison, Morgan Howard, Monroe 
Williams, Sophronia Babcock, B. B. Lewis. Dr. Jesse B. Culver, 
Henry E. Sherman, S. B. Smith, Edwin Howes, Alvin Philipps, 
Lafe S. Dudley, S. H. Rush, Henry Cooley, Dr. P. E. Thompson, 
J. A. Noe and Isaac W. Rush. 

Cardington township: Dr. Henry S. Green, William P. 
Vaughan, George S. Singer, Hon. Walter W. Vaughan, Henry S. 
Mooney, Frank C. Shaw, Dr. Florence Smith-White, Hon. Henry 
Retterer, Simon C. Bennett, H. C. Hartsook, C. H. Hartsook, 
James Slicer, M. G. Wells, D. W. Hartsook, George Sellers, John 
Sellers, H. W. Benson, N. W. Smith, Professor F. H. Pliekinger, 
Presley Curtis, A. E. Curtis, William Singer, Robert W. Long, 
Hannah Pringle, Wilson Werts, Moses C. Rogers, James Drury,' 
Henry Carter, A. M. Rose, Dr. E. C. Sherman, A. W. James, 
Henry Ruhlman, Harry Mills, J. G. Mills, V. W. Peck, E. M. 
Willetts, J. C. Underwood, Dr. C. H. Neal, E. Winebar, E. Burt, 
E. Bitzer, J. W. Shaw, J. A. Leutz, Dr. M. B. Walters, Inez Neal, 
Etura V. Long, J. P. Brollier, A. L. Campbell, Gideon Mosher, A. 
Steger, H. S. Drury, P. M. Curl, Otho Curl, E. S. Curl, W. R. Burr. 

Digitized by 



Claude Thompson, Charles Ossing, Eunice K. Sanderson, Ada 
Tyree Mary Benson, R. A. Beatty, M. D. Miller, Gillian White- 
Shaw, Elizabeth Shiink, Margaret R. Stark, John Truesdell, R. P. 
Chase, Adin Salisbury and Gibson Mosher. 

Canaan township: Harrison Kinneman, John Clouse, Wash- 
ington Harris, Jeflferson Harris, Samuel Worden, Gilbert Martin, 
Z. L. Mills, J. W. Sexton, Clark Cox, J. R. Lyon, Henry Lepp, 
William Lepp, Wilson Lefever, David Peigley, Prank Lefever, 
George Kellog, A. M. Smith, Sheridan Cox, L. W. Wilson, George 
Gruber, Thomas Ewers and P. D. Riddle. 

Chester township : J. C. Swetland, John McClausland, William 
S. Shaffer, Irad Struber, George Orr, J. E. Dalrymple, Pitt 
Struble, Dr. J. W. Williams, John Williams, Dr. W. C. Hodges, 
David Dwyer, W. L. Smiley, J. L. Denman, George Rogers, Eliza 
Rogers, N. V. Runyan, C. W. Emerson and W. B. Burt. 

Congress township : Newton Rule, Henry Shire, John Warner, 
Henry Trimble, R. P. Kelker, E. A. Peoples, P. M. Goodrich, B. 
J. Potts, J. D. Maxwell, Denton Brewer, S. T. Poland, William 
W. Russell, Dr. J. L. Greaves, Joseph Zeger, George Lemon, Jona- 
than Brewer, R. L. Moflfet, H. L. Galleher, E. Emahizer, Arthur 
Hershaw, George Jennings, Hull Bates, C. D. Dice, S. T. Rhode- 
beck, Chester Rhodebeck and Calvin Hull. 

Gilead township: James M. Albach, Louis K. Powell (judge), 
J. W. Berry, William P. Bruce, H. H. Harlan, William H. 
Mitchell, C. H. Wood, S. C. Kingman, William M. Kaufman 
(mayor), B. Olds, T. B. Mateer, P. B. McMillin, H. B. McMillin, 
M. Burr Talmage, Dr. N. Tucker, Dr. W. B. Robison, Dr. J. C. 
McCormick, W. C. Bennett, W. L. Case, Mrs. Alice N. Case, Viola 
Talmage, Mrs. Sarah M. Miller, Mrs. Sarah L. Miller, Mrs. Hester 

A. Andrews, Dr. R. C. Spear, Dr. R. L. Pierce, Dr. B. D. Buxton, 
J. C. Williamson, (prosecuting attorney), Budd Bakes, C. R. Mere- 
dith, William P. Wieland, C. B. Chilcote, William G. Beebe, Harry 
S. Griffith, J. W. Griffith, Mrs. J. W. Griffith, Robert P. Bartlett, 
Mrs. Robert P. Bartlett, J. M. Hoflfa, G. A. White, A. A. Whitney, 
C. L. Russell, B. S. Russell, Dr. George H. Pugh, J. C. Miracle, L. 
H. Ashley, S. W. Wilson, Walter Emerson, A. B. Johnson, G. W. 
Chipps, Reverend J. R. Carpenter, S. P. Gage, J. G. Russell, C. C. 
Wheeler, 0. J. Miller, W. E. Miller, P. J. Miller W. C. McParland, 
C. W. McParland, Nancy Geller, Mary J. Byrd, Panny B. Ball, 
Albert G. Gardner, Professor P. J. Ryan, C. D. Smiley, A. H. 
Breese (postmaster), H. G. Peters, T. J. Litzenburg, J. B. Shaw, 

B. B. McGtowen, D. D. Booher, Judge J. W. Glauner, Prank Miller, 

Digitized by 



William Wood, Thomas A. Wood, Mary S. Secies, William Brooks^ 
Captain L. M. Cunard, L. C. Lyman, C. R. Mozier, N. N. Mosher, 
Robert Mosher, I. T. McLain, T. N. Hickman, Hicks Mosher, 
Joseph Mosher, Mrs. Sue M. Russell, Mrs. C. C. Wheeler, George 
K. and Belle Poye, Mr. and Mrs. Morris, J. W. Ramey, Clark 
Hershner, Mrs. Sarah Bailey and Perry Cook, 

Franklin township: E. S. Hartpence, F. P. Morrison, George 
T. Barnes, N. F. Barnes, A. J. Gordon, J. B. Penman, Lafe Gates, 
W. S. Hartwell, Joseph Groves, Milton Groves, Ira M. Luk, Fred 
Gale, Thomas F. Gordon, J. N. Talmage, M. W. Frizzell, Charles 
Carson, George P. Markley, and Horatio Markley. 

Harmony township: George W. Hiskett, Gteorge W. Jordon, 
John Wright, N. N. Green, Denton Chilcote, Eli Barry, Perry 
Turner, Charles Brown, D. D. Jones, Wajme McCracken, H. H. 
Williams and L. Gorsuch. 

Lincoln township : R. M. Dick, William H. Russell (postmaster, 
Fulton), Dr. John Caris, C. C. Smith, J. A. Click, D. Denzer, J. 
W. Vaughan, S. P. Brown, P. M. Carpenter, C. P. Ossing, Joseph 
Russell, Lafe Burke, D. P. Dick, J. S. Buck, S. D. Powell, A. J. 
Battey, George Yake, H. R. Jones, Robert Gardner, E. Y. ICing- 
man, I. D. Bennett, Gteorge Charles and I. J. Wiseman. 

Perry township : Jedidah Baker, L. Dennis, Seymour Whitney, 
Claude Coe, H. W. Snyder, J. W. Thuma, Byron Levering, M. L. 
Sowers and E. C. Snyder. 

Peru township: S. H. Baldwin, George J. Wood, Thomas 
Wood, O. D. NeiU, John Osbom, D. Dennis, L. Whipple, Harper 
Fleming, O. A. Lee and Isaac Clark. 

North Bloomfield township: Frank Rinehart, Dr. Joseph 
McParland, D. K. Baggs, S. B. Appleman, H. E. Dudley, George 
Coulson, Sam Richardson, William Kerr, J. S. Burt, Joseph 
Yeager, S. W. Bear, P. H. Garverich and Levi Warner. 

South Bloomfield township: Warren Swetland, W. L. Swet- 
land, C. L. V. Herrod, D. Potts, Jesse Sellars, S. B. Marvin, W. C. 
Austin, W. C. Barre, Sally I. Brown, E. C. Harris, S. D. Lyon, 
Washington Ramsey, D. S. Hopkins, Miller Riley, T. Hicks, Smith 
Sears, Clark Sears, L. C. Mitchell, Mell Conway and Mrs. Frank 

Troy township: William A. Ferguson, George W. Hershner, 
George W. Ross, Levi Texter, Edward Meckley and S. P. StuU. 

Washington township : John McNeal, Samuel Nesbitt, William 
Goorley, William A. Braden, D. M. Douglas, S. P. Jones, J. J. 
Maidens, S. Nelson, Clem McAnall, George Lepp, W. P. Blaney, 
A. B. Newson, W. A. Irwin, A. M. Cox and J. C. Thomas. 

Digitized by 



Westfield township: Reuben Aldrich, Felix B. Shaw, 0. B. 
Richardson, A. M. Beatty, Robert Beatty, J. B. Gulp, F. M. Cur- 
ren, Stephen Curren, John Ruggles, E. M. Conklin, J. C. Luellen, 
Lafe Carpenter, Wilbert Granger, Solon Granger and C. S. 

The Morrow County Doublb-Headed Baby. 

On October 12, 1870, there was bom in Peru township, Morrow 
county, one of the most remarkable double-headed children ever 
known. It consisted of two perfect children from the heads to the 
umbilicus, or navel, which was in common. From this point the two 
united in one body, the intestinal and secretory and excretory or- 
gans were common to both. The genital organs were those of a 
female. On one side were two well-formed legs, extending from 
the side of the body at an equal distance from each head, and at 
right angles to the body, perfect in all respects with the exception 
of a slight twist in one of the feet. At the other side of the body 
there was a double leg or rather two legs united into one ; this also 
extended at right angles from the body. This double leg termi- 
nated in a double foot on which were eight toes and two heels. 

At birth the child weighed twelve pounds. The mother was 
healthy and was not aware of any circumstances to account for the 
peculiar form of the child. From its birth both parts were as 
healthy as the average infant. The parts were named Mina and 
Minnie respectively. The circulation of the blood at the two ex- 
tremities of this double child was independent. The pulse at the 
wrist of one set of arms had been found to beat six beats faster 
than that of the other. The prick of a pin or pinch of the shoulder 
of one was not noticed by the other. Sometimes one was asleep 
while the other was awake. The appearance of the child was not 
at all repulsive, for both faces were bright, intelligent and pleasing. 

The mother of the child was Ann Eliza Finley, and was born 
in Ohio in 1836. She was a robust woman, quiet and self possessed 
in manner. She was married to Joseph Finley in 1859, and her 
husband later served as a Union soldier in the war of the Rebellion. 

Previous to the birth of this double-headed child, the parents 
had two daughters and one son, and afterwards a daughter; none 
of these had anything peculiar in their organizations. When about 
five months old the child was taken on a tour for exhibition to the 
eastern cities, and was also exhibited and examined at several medi- 
cal colleges. 

Digitized by 



It died at Boston, Massachusetts, July 18, 1871, just nine 
months and six days after its birth. A few days previous to its 
death Mina had an attack of cholera infantum, but had partially 
recovered when Minnie was attacked with the same complaint, and 
was seized with an attack of vomiting and gradually sank until 
7 :15 in the evening, when she passed away, and was followed just 
one hour later by Mina. 

The Banks op Mt. Qilead. 

The first move in the banking business was in the early fifties. 
When John Shauck, Richard House, A. K. Dunn and W. Smith 
Irwin, of Morrow county and a few others from Richland county 
formed a banking company which continued a few years, and was 
merged into the Granite Bank at the southeast comer of Main and 
Center streets; this was also called the banking house of Richard 
House and Company, of which Richard House was president and 
W. Smith Irwin, cashier, and was a bank of deposit and loans. 

The First National Bank of Mt. Gilead was organized in 
December, 1863. Dr. James M. Briggs was the first president and 
he so remained until 1880, with an interval of two years. He had 
come to Mt. Gilead from Iberia in the fall of 1860. Richard John- 
son House was the first cashier. It was the first bank of issue and 
number 258. J. J. Cover was president for 1865, and Judge A. K. 
Dunn for 1866 ; William P. Bartlett, of Chesterville, was president 
from 1880 until his death in July, 1885, and Robert P. Halliday 
was cashier and Ralph P. Miller teller for about fifteen years. 

The charter was renewed in 1883, at the end of the twenty 
years limit, and in 1903 the institution reorganized under the name 
of Mt. Qilead National Bank. William Hull was president during 
1884 and 1885; Allen Levering 1886 to 1890; William M. Carlisle 
from January, 1890 to January 1900, since when Henry H. Har- 
lan has served as president. John G. Russell became cashier 
February 1, 1890, and was continued as such until January 1, 
1909. C. W. Shaaf became assistant cashier in 1896 and on Janu- 
ary 1, 1909, was promoted to his present position as cashier. 

The present officers and directors are herewith given: H. H. 
Harlan, president; Mark Cook and J. G. Russell, vice presidents; 
C. W. Schaaf, cashier; G. H. Whitney, teller. Directors: H. H. 
Harlan, Mark Cook, Dr. N. Tucker, Dr. W. C. Bennett, Perry Cook, 
J. G. Russell and 0. J. Miller. 

The last bank statement indicates that the resources of the 

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Mt. Gilead National bank amount to $533,829.61; that its capital 
stock is $50,000; surplus and undivided profits, $42,476.01, and 
deposits (both individual and demand), $391,358.60. 

The National Bank of Morrow county was established in 1880, 
and Mr. William H. Marvin, of Cardington, was the first president ; 
Qeorge N. Clark, first vice president, and M. Burr Talmage first 
cashier ; followed by William W. McCracken, X. C. Stewart, Qeorge 
Wolcott, David V. Wherry, Samuel P. Gage and Harry B. McMillin 
(the last since 1904). On the reorganization in 1900, forty per 
cent on the capital stock of $50,000 was divided among the stock- 

M. Burr Talmage has been president since 1893. Since the 
reorganization in 1900, with capital of $50,000, according to its 
last statement its resources amount to $558,593.55; surplus and 
undivided profits, $48,104.62; deposits (individual and demand), 
$390,488.93. The present board of officers and directors are as 
follows: M. Burr Talmage, president; Mell B. Talmage, vice presi- 
dent; H. B. McMillin, cashier, who are, with Dr. N. Tucker, J. C. 
Criswell, H. S. Cruikshank, A. A. Whitney, C. H. Wood, W. E. 
Miller, A. V. Miracle and B. B. Lewis, also directors. A dividend 
of six per cent is paid annually. 

The officers and directors have the confidence of the public, 
and the bank is enjoying a high degree of prosperity. 

The Mt. Gilead Savings and Loan Company is connected with 
the National Bank of Morrow county, as its business is transacted 
at the same offices, and its officers and some of its stockholders are 
interested in both institutions. Its paid-in capital and surplus is 
represented as $50,000 in 1905. It was organized in February, 
1887, and its officers claim that not a dollar has ever been lost for 
a depositor, and the business of the company has shown constant 
growth. Pour per cent interest is paid on deposits. H. B. Mc- 
Millin has been executive officer for twenty years last past, its 
officers and directors, as a whole, being as follows: W. E. Miller, 
president; W. L. Case, vice president; Mell B. Talmage, treasurer; 
Harry B. McMiUin, secretary; N. Tucker, M. D., C. H. Wood, F. 
B. McMillin, J. W. Wood and E. H. Pollock. 

According to its last statement its assets total $77,661.31; 
yearly receipts, $58,111.66 ; cash on hand, $14,928.62. 

The Peoples' Saving Bank Company was organized in April, 
1904. William M. Carlisle was elected president, and remained as 
such until 1911, when he voluntarily retired, and Dr. W. B. Robi- 
son was chosen. Samuel P. Qage was elected cashier on the organi- 

Digitized by 



zation in April, 1904, and yet retains that position. The standing 
of this bank is the strongest evidence that these men have the 
confidence of the public and merit it. The Peoples' Savings Bank 
Company was the leader in the payment of interest on deposits. 

Officers and directors: Dr. W. B. Robison, president; W. M. 
Carlisle, and Dr. N. Tucker, vice presidents; S. P. Qage, cashier; 
A. C. Duncan, assistant cashier; Z. A. Powers, teller; A. B. Comins, 
Dr. J. C. McCormick, W. H. Brown, J. M. Albach, S. C. Kingman, 
C. L. Russell, J. L. McCamman, A J. Gordon, W. P. Blaney, M. 
L. Phillips, A. T. Mann and H. G. Peters. 

Digitized by 




Presbyterian Church in Mount Gilead — The Methodist 
Church — The Baptist Church — Universalist Church — Protes- 
tant Episcopal Church — Church op Christ, Scientist. 

By Robert F. Bartlett. 

Mount Gilead is a moral and a high-minded community, the 
outward and most striking manifestation of this feature of her life 
being the religious, charitable and benevolent organizations which 
have flourished in her midst these many years. Her churches took 
root over eighty years ago, and Odd Fellowship appeared as the 
first of the secret and benevolent societies more than three-score 
years ago. Presbyterian and Methodist were founded as nearly 
cotemporanious forces in the spiritual advancement of the people 
of Mt. Gilead and vicinity, as will be seen from the subjoined 
sketches of the local churches. 

Presbyterian Church in Mt. Gilead. 

Reverend Henry Shedd, was the pioneer missionary and 
pastor, and founded Presbyterianism in Mt. Gilead. He came in 
1829, as a missionary, and two years later, on March 2, 1831, a 
church was organized at the home of George D. and Ann R. Cross 
of twenty-six members namely: — James and Lydia Bennett; John 
and Ann Hardenbrook; Henry and Abigail Ustick; John and El- 
mira Roy; Thomas and Sarah Mickey; William N. and Elizabeth 
Mateer, and John and Jane Mateer (all married couples) ; Eliza^ 
beth Johnston, May Eccles, Margaret Moriarty, Ann R. Cross, 
Joanna H. Giles, Jane Cooper and Mary G. Shedd (wives) ; Hannah 
Softly, Sarah Campbell, Margaret Maginnis (widows) ; and Joseph 
Axtell and John Ustick. 

It was called the Presbyterian church of Morrow (the name of 
the township) and in October, 1835, the Presbytery changed the 
name to **The First Presbyterian Church of Mt. Gilead.'' 


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Prom this beginning of the twenty-six pioneers in 1831, the 
society built a small frame church in 1845, and in 1910 there existed 
a membership of 340, with a house of worship (erected in 1883) of 
brick and a fine pipe organ. 

Reverend Henry Shedd graduated at Dartmouth College, 


Hanover, New Hampshire, in 1826, was one in a class of thirty- 
six, of which Hon. Salmon P. Chase was a member, and became the 
most illustrious minister of the Mt. Gilead Church. In 1829 he 
graduated from the Theological Seminary at Andover Mas- 
sachusetts; was licensed to preach by the Presbytery of 
Newburysport, Massachusetts, in Park Street church, Boston, 
and came immediately as missionary to Mt. Oilead in 
April, 1829. In a sermon preached by him on April 5, 1864, 

Digitized by 



he said: **My location was fixed in the eastern part of Marion 
county in the beech woods, in a place now called Mt. Qilead. It 
was a new, wooded, muddy country, without roads or bridges or 
any improvements, except little openings here and there in the 
dense forests, with the hospitable new comers in their log cabins, 
connected together by trails or blazed paths. 

There was preaching in Henry Ustick's mill, in Lewis 

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United Church. 

Henry G. Blayney, 1866-67. Milton McMillin, 1867-74. 

Chas. B. Barnes, 1874. T. K. Davis, 1875. 

W. S. Eagleson, 1876-92. Chas. M. Prazier, 1893-99. 

Wm. Houston, 1899-1911. M. T. Ward, 1911, (Present 


The Methodist Church. 

The Methodists were the first in the forest in this section, and 
the Reverend Russell Bigelow was the pioneer evangelist of the 
Methodist church to preach to the settlers who came to Whetstone 


and vicinity, and the very first services were held in 1828 at the 
houses of Joseph P. Newson and James Beatty. During the year 
1829 a society was formed and the erection of a church building 
was soon commenced, located on the east side of Rich street and 
south of Marion street, being completed in 1832 and continuing to 
be the place of worship until 1845. Some of the men who formed 
that society and built the first church have children and grand- 
children and great-grandchildren living in our midst, and a few 
of the original members and founders of that church society were 
James Beatty, Alben Coe, Sr., Ruth Coe, John and Tacy Nickols, 

Digitized by 



Albert and Rachael Nickols, Preston J. and Martha Friend, Roswell 
Webster, Charles C. and Ann Webster, Marvin G. and Maria 
Webster, Abraham and Lucy Newson, Joseph and Susannah New- 
son, Philip Thomas and wife, George Merrill and wife, Charles 
Mann, Abraham arid Margaret Coe, Nathan Williams, a Mr. Calla- 
han and wife, Isaac Bennett and Obediah Mosher. 

The Methodists then had the custom of having tickets of 
admission to their love-feasts, and no one could be admitted without 
a ticket to present to the doorkeeper. In time this was done away 
with and the church became more liberal. These cnistoms were 
prior to 1850. Isaac Bennett, Jr., a member of this church, became 
a preacher and was assistant pastor on the circuit before 1836. 
Joseph Newson, son of Joseph P. Newson, also became a preacher 
of this church. 

In April 1844, a much larger and more commodious church 
building was commenced on the lot on which the brick structure 
stands on East High street. It was during the building of that 
church that the writer, then a boy of four years, stood with his 
mother on the sidewalk to watch the men erect the bents of the 
frame, and saw Charles Byrd, the master builder, stand on a tie 
and shout his commands to the men, as he was carried up with the 
bent, or part being raised. 

By 1844 the church membership was largely increased, under 
Zephaniah Bell and Silas Ensign, the first circuit riders on this 
circuit (which was a large part of what is now Morrow county) and 
Samuel Allen and others. Some of the most prominent citizens 
of the village became members, among whom were : Solomon Geller, 
Charles Byrd, Richard and Nathan House, Henry and John R. 
Snider, Aaron N. and James Madison Talmage, John H. Young, 
Levi Thurston, Craven 0. Van Horn, Elzy Barton, Elias Cooper, 
William Linn, Abner M. Bartlett, Jonathan S. Christy, William 
S. Clements and Benjamin Hull and their wives and Nancy Gel- 
ler. Later accessions were: William H. Bums, Thomas H. 
Dalrymple, Judson A. Beebe, William Welch, Henry C. Brumback, 
Andrew R. Boggs, Barton S. Russell, A. E. Hahn, John Comley 
Baxter, Abner Ustick, Benjamin Fogle, C. D. Ensign and Henry 
G. Talmage, with their wives. 

After 1853 the church was separated from the circuit and was 
made a ** station,' in church parlance. 

In 1899 a fine new brick church, with art memorial windows 
dedicated to pioneer members, was built on East High street, on 
the location of the church of 1844, under the pastorate of Austin 

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Philpot, and was dedicated March 4, 1900. In August of that year 
an appropriate pipe organ was placed therein. The church has 
now a membership of three hundred and sixty-two, and is in a 
highly prosperous condition, both spiritually and financially, under 
the pastorate of Reverend Schuyler E. Sears. 

The Methodist church, in its long line of circuit riders, and 
preachers and its membership, has been one of the enlightening 
Influences in this community. 

The circuit riders were as follows: 1829-30 — ^Zephaniah Bell 
and Silas Ensign. 

1831 — John C. Havens and Harry Camp. 

1832— Abner Goflf and George Smith. 

1833 — Samuel Allen and George Smith. 

1834— Samuel Allen and J. B. Kellam. 

1835 — James Wilson and Isaac Bennett. 

1836 — Zephaniah Bell and Silas Ensign. 

1837— E. Day and 0. Hinman. 

1838-9— Samuel Lynch and Rowland Hill. 

1840— Samuel P. Shaw and Ira Chase. 

1841— John Blanfield and J. Orr. 

1842— Wesley C. Clark and J. Orr. 

1843— Wesley C. Clark and J. Freece. 

1844— S. M. Allen and W. M. Spoflford. 

1845— J. M. McMahon and M. T. Ward. 

1846 — Hobart G. Dubois and Philip Plummer. 

1847— Hobart Dubois and J. C. Orr. 

1848-9- S. H. Alderman and J. C. Orr. 

1850-1— Oliver P. Burgess. 

1852 — Oliver P. Burgess and J. H. Hutchinson. 

1853— John Mitchell and D. M. Conant. 

1854 — S. Newton, on the station. 

1855 — ^Austin Coleman. 

1856— Cadwallader H. Owens. 

1857-8— Hobart G. Dubois. 

1859-60— Chester L. Poote. 

1861 — Loren Prentiss. 

1862-3— John A. Berry. 

1864-5— D. D. T. Mattison. 

1866— William Conant. 

1867— George Mather. . 

1868— William Jones. 

1869-70— George Ball. 

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1871— John Whitworth. 
1872-3— Robert McCaskey. 
1874-5— Israel H. MeConnell. 
1876-7— Orlando Badgley. 
1878-9— Andrew Pollock. 
1880-1— A. Nelson. 
1882-3— J. P. Brant. 
1884-5— G. W. Huddleston. 
1886-90— S. T. Dunbar. 
1891-2—0. A. Reeder. 
1893-5— W. D. Gray. 
1896-1901— Austin Philpott. 
1901-3— Robert H. Balmer. 
1904— Elvero Persons. 
1905— B. J. Mills. 
1909— Schuyler E. Sears. 

The Baptist Church. 

Early in May, 1846, a Baptist church was organized at Mt. 
Gilead, with the Reverend Benjamin H. Pearson as pastor, and 
meetings were held in the Presbyterian church once a month for 
a year. In 1849 the Reverend Pearson preached one-half of the 
time only, being, at the same time, pastor of the Franklin Baptist 

In 1847 the building of a church, with the aid of friends, was 
commenced on the northeast comer of the South Public square. 
The organization struggled along until 1853, when it disbanded. 
In the meantime the building had been rented, first, for a seminary 
for young women, by Mrs. W. S. Spaulding, and then to the county 
commissioners, and courts were held therein until 1850. The build- 
ing is now the warehouse of Wagner Brothers, near the Short Line 

After the church had been disbanded and apparently dead, the 
Reverend William Branch, pastor at Bryn Zion, reorganized the 
church with nineteen members, viz: Reverend William Branch, L. 
C. K. Branch, Simeon Herrick, Mary A. Barton, Anseville C. Gur- 
ley, David Auld, Lovina Auld, Charles Carpenter, Eliza Darling, 
Joseph Waldorf, Esther Hershner and John E. Smith. The 
church was admitted to the Mt. Vernon Association in September, 
1854, and was called the Mt. Gilead Baptist church. 

In 1856 a frame church building was erected on the lot on 
Vol. 1—18 

Digitized by 



West High street now occupied by the new and commodious brick 
church erected in 1907-8, and dedicated July 16, 1908. This brick 
church building is the finest in Mt. Gilead, and, together with pipe 
organ, cost nearly $30,000, one-half of which was contributed by 
Dr. Nathan Tucker, through whose generosity the society was able 
to build such a church. Present membership, 262. The following 
list of pastors shows that several months and sometimes a year 
intervened between them. 

Benjamin H. Pearson, fall of 1845-50. 

William Branch, December, 1853 — January 25, 1855. 

E. D. Thomas, January 25, 1855— April 1, 1858. 
A. Pratt June 1859— March, 1861. 

J. G. Bowen, Afay, 1861— May, 1863. 

Lyman Whitney, July, 1864— March, 1865. 

Charles Morton, November, 1865 — March, 1866. 

S. T. Bostwick, April, 1867— November, 1867. 

Wateon Clark, January, 1868— June, 1869. 

J. B. Hutton, November, 1869— May, 1871. 

D. B. Simms, May, 1872— October, 1878, 1881, 1884. 

A. J. Wiant, November, 1878— May, 1881. 

A. B. Banker, 1885-7. 

F. W. Creamer, August, 1887-89. 

J. Tudor Lewis, June, 1889— December, 1898. 
J. N. Hollingsworth, May, 1899— September, 1900. 
J. S. Cleveland, November, 1900— January, 1903. 
Benjamin P. Tilley, March, 1903— June, 1906. 
Otis Green, October, 1906— June, 1906. 
John W. Craig, January 1, 1911. 

The Universaust Church. 

The Universalists of Mt. Gilead and vicinity held occasional 
services in the court house and succeeded in creating much interest 
This culminated in organization of a society and the erection of a 
house of worship, the church, which exists to-day as an exponent 
of the liberal faith. The building was dedicated January 27, 
1861, and on the 27th day of May, 1861, the church was legally 
organized with twelve persons as charter members. Many others 
have united with this church, until they have a long list of mem- 
bers, some of whom are found in the various parts of the county. 
The church has seventy resident members in Mt. Gilead. In 1865 
the church purchased a pipe organ, the only one in the village for 

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many years. The organ is in good condition to-day and is still 
used at tbe church services. 

In 1867 this church entertained the State Convention ol 
Universalists. At that meeting there were over one thousand visi- 
tors. In 1908, the church again entertained the same convention. 

The Sunday school has always been a prominent feature in 
this church. It was the first to introduce a Christmas tree as a 
part of its work. Only two Christmas seasons have passed without 
a tree. 

For pastors, this church has had some of the prominent men 
of the denomination, as follows: 

George R. Brown, January 27, 1861. 

H. R. Nye, April 1, 1863. 

J. W. Henley, January 1, 1866. 

W. B. Woodbury, January 1, 1867. 

Marion Crosley, November 1, 1869. 

G. W. Crowell, December 1, 1870. 

E. Morris, January 1, 1872. 

N. S. Sage, March 16, 1873. 

Frank Evans, April 1, 1878, major 81st Regiment, O. V. I. 

H. L. Canfield, September 30, 1881. 

M. D. Shumway, December 1, 1882. 

S. P. Carlton, January 1, 1885. 

William Tucker, January 1,, 1889. 

J. F. Carney, May 21, 1893. 

Lottie D. Crosley, June 1, 1896. 

G. H. Ashworth, May 1, 1901. 

Lewis Robinson, July 31, 1902. 

N. C. Dickey, October 31, 1903. 

John R. Carpenter, the present pastor. 

Charter members : Smith Thomas, Elizabeth Thomas, Elizabeth 
A. House, John J. Gurley, Abraham Coe, Henry Lambert, H. J. 
Lambert, Sarah Dawson, Charlotte Dawson, Mary J. Turner and 
Catherine Talmage. 

Protestant Episcopal Church. 

The first service of the Episcopal church was conducted by the 
Reverend William Brown then rector of Grace church. Gallon, now 
bishop of Arkansas. The services were held in Levering hall, at 
7 :30 P. M., April 7, 1888. Hester A. Andrews was the only com- 
municant until the first confirmation class of May 1, 1891, which 

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consisted of the following persons : Amelia Brainerd, Jennie Burns, 
George F. Walcott, Albert Volney Walcott and Fannie Walcott. 
Previous to this confirmation, a baptismal service had been held in 
the Universalist church, on July 6, 1890. 

Application for admission as a mission station under the name 
of the Church of the Transfiguration was made May 1, 1891, 
signed by thirteen persons. This application was duly accepted. 
The parish now has about thirty-five communicants, and they hope 
to soon build a church. 

Church op Christ, Scientist. 

The first Christian Science service held in Mt. Gilead was in 
1902, when two ladies met in the home of one, every Sunday morn- 
ing, to read the lesson sermon. Others soon joined and in 1907 
a society was organized, composed of eight members, viz: Barton 
S. Russell, Malinda C. Russell, Carrie D. Powell, Sarah H. Albach, 
C. L. Russell, Sue C. Russell, Ada G. Jackson and M. Belle Miles. 

At the present time (August, 1911) the society of Christian 
Scientists is holding services and Sunday school every Sunday 
morning, and a testimonial meeting Wednesday evening. 

They also maintain a reading room and library that is 
equipped with literature pertaining to Christian Science, which is 
free to all who wish to use it. 

It is the consensus of opinion among the people who have 
observed the lives of Christian Scientists that they endeavor to live 
that higher life that is above the observance of the mere letter of 
the law; that life which is the spirit of the law, and it stands for 
equity, justice, mercy and lov#. 

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First Lodge (Odd Fellows) — Other Odd Fellow Bodies — 
The Masons in Mount Gilead — Patriotic Societies — Knights op 
Pythias — Sketch op Pythianism — Literary Clubs — Mount 
Gilead Free Public Library — Temperance Movements. 

By Robert F. Bartlett, 

We enter upon the duty of briefly giving the history of the 
fraternal, social and benevolent orders of our village, and as Mt. 
Gilead Lodge, No. 169, Independent Order of Odd Fellows, was 
instituted October 26, 1850, and was the pioneer, we give it first. 
Its five charter members were William Johnson, John W. Place, 
Joseph D. Rigour, David Smith and James R. West. 

First Lodge (Odd Fellows). 

The institution of the lodge was by William C. Earl, sovereign 
noble grand, and Alexander E. Glenn, grand secretary. 

Its first officers were John W. Place, noble grand; Joseph D. 
Rigour, vice grand; David Smith, financial secretary and treasurer; 
William Robbins became recording secretary. 

For many years the lodge struggled for existence and at one 
time was in danger of having its charter revoked, but it held on to 
its work and now enjoys an era of genuine prosperity, and a mem- 
bership of one hundred and seventy-seven. 

James G. Miles, who came by transfer card, is the oldest Odd 
Fellow in Morrow county, and was made such in May, 1852. Bar- 
ton S. Russell was initiated in the lodge December 27, 1857, and 
Elias Francis Cooper, who died February 27, 1911, was initiated 
a few days later, and each was promoted to all the lodge honors. 
In 1876 the spacious and commodious hall and anterooms in Van 
Horn block were completed and occupied. 

In 1880 the lodge had fifty-six members, and for that year its 
officers were John W. Galleher, N. G.; John G. Russell, V. G.; 
George Jago, R. secretary; E. F. Cooper, financial secretary, and 


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James G. Miles, treasurer. Brothers J. Rufus Miles and Ralph P. 
Miller have been promoted to be grand masters of the Grand Lodge 
of Ohio. 

The elective oflSeers of the order at this time are: John W. 
Cook, N. G. ; Frank J. Ryan, V. G. ; Edward J. Wieland, recording 
secretary; Charles C. Wheeler, financial secretary, and B. H. Mas- 
ters, treasurer; Clayton James, chaplain; O. S. Wagner, warden; 
D. D. Booher, George J. Young and William P. Wieland, trustees. 

Otheb Odd Fellow Bodies. 

Morrow Encampment, No. 59, I. 0. O. F., was instituted 
December 29, 1853, by Henry Lamb, D. G. P. and A. K. Foote, 
Grand Scribe. The charter members were Joseph D. Rigour, 
David L. Bartlett, Stephen Casey, Daniel L. Case, Stephen More- 
house, and James W. Stinchcomb. The first cheers were Joseph 
D. Rigour, C. P.; James W. Stinchcomb, S. W.; Stephen Casey, 
treasurer, and Stephen Morehouse, scribe. 

In 1880 there were twenty-six patriarchs, and the encamp- 
ment o£Scers were: H. Campbell, C. P.; James G. Miles, H. P.; 
Howard M. Whitby, S. W., George Jago, scribe, and William 
Jacobs, treasurer. There are now seventy-two members in the en- 

Past Grand Patriarch John A. Garver is now representative 
to the Sovereign Grand Lodge. The present officers are: E. B. 
Russell, C. P. ; John W. Cook, H. P. ; J. A. Powers, S. W. ; E. J. 
Wieland, recording scribe; W. C. Barre, financial scribe; B. S. 
Russell, treasurer; C. R. Meredith, J. W.; J. M. Conger, C. W. 
Schaaf and E. J. Wieland, trustees. 

Mt. Gilead Sunnyside Rebecca Lodge, No. 352, was instituted 
August 15, 1892, by Grand Master W. W. Bowen, assisted by 
Galion Rebecca Lodge. The charter members were sixty-six, as 
follows: Ralph P. Miller, Alexander E. Hahn, Louisa Hahn, Ferd 
Brown, Martha Brown, Frederica Andrews, Walter 0. Andrews, 
Samuel Andrews, J. W. Busby, Gtertrude Busby, Frank B. Mc- 
Millin, Alice K. McMillin, Fred Truex, Birdie Truex, Belle Miles, 
J. R. Miles, John A. Garver, Lizzie U. Garver, M. W. Spear, Hor- 
tense Spear, E. N. Bogle, Estella Boyle, S. C. Kingman, Mary King- 
man, T. W. Long, H. S. Griffith, Mary A. Miller, A. D. James, Addie 
James, D. H. Lincoln, Sylvia Lincoln, E. E. Neal, Emma Neal, 
Joseph Watson, Catherine Watson, Maggie B. Watson, Davis E. 
James, Jemima E. James, W. J. Simms, Emma Simms, Florence 

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Johnson, Lyde Wheeler, Charles C. Wheeler, James B. Lewis, Anna 
Lewis, Max Brown, E. F. Cooper, Florence Cooper F. J. Cooper, 
M. J. Griffith, Mame Baxter, Mary J. Byrd, A. A. Whitney, Ella 
A. Whitney, B. A. Barton, Elma Barton, T. S. Rogers, N. E. 
Rogers, Margaret Mateer, Nellie Griffith, Addie Vanatta, E. B. 
Vanatta and Abbie Dawson. 

The first corps of officers was Louisa Hahn, N. G. ; Mary A. 
Miller, V. G.; Hortense Spear, R. S. ; Alice Gage, F. S. ; Sylvia 
Lincoln, treasurer; Margaret Mateer, Lizzie C. Garver and Mary J. 
Byrd, trustees. 

The following are the past noble grands: Louisa Hahn, Mary 

A. Miller, Mary Kingman, Emma Simms, Alice Gage, Emma Neal, 
Lizzie U. Garver, Helena Mooney, Hortense Spear, Anna Lewis, 
Lura Jackson Fowble, EUq A. Whitney, Clara Dumbaugh, Mary J. 
Byrd, Emma Wieland, Minnie Dumbaugh, Anna Heaton, Carrie 

B. Ells, Nettie Wieland, Melinda Russell, Mabel Lewis, Rose Dum- 
baugh, Jennie Shaw, Mayme Bennett-Beebe, Laura Pierce, Nellie 
Jackson, Faith Barnes, Flora Billett, Ella Griffis, Eldegerte Breese, 
Laura Chipps, Mary Booher, Emma Doty, Nona Laycox, Vertie 
Russell and Anna Johnson. 

The present officers are: Elizabeth Schaaf, N. G. ; Blanche 
BroUier, V. G.; Elizabeth Clark, R. S.; Flora Billett, F. S.; 
Florence Wieland, treasurer and Lola Wolford, Lizzie Gardner and 
Laura Fowble, trustees. 

Mrs. Hortense Spear was president of the state assembly in 

The number of members in good standing is 202, and the lodge 
is very prosperous. 

The Masons in Mt. Gilead. 

The Masonic Order is the most ancient of all the fraternal 
bodies and its origin is shrouded in mystery. 

Before King Solomon was, and the temple built by him at 
Jerusalem, it seems to have existed. It is claimed by good authority 
that Moses was a grand master mason. The conception of Free 
Masonry is of a world-wide brotherhood. 

Mt. Gilead Lodge No. 206, F. and A. M., was instituted 
October 24, 1851. The charter members were Wesley C. Clark, 
James W. Stinchcomb, Andrew K. Dunn, John B. Dumble, Andrew 
Poe, Theodore P. Glidden, Israel Hite, Judson A. Beebe and 
Stephen T. Cunard. 

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Wesley C. ClaA was the first worshipful master; James W. 
Stinchcomb, the first senior warden and Andrew K. Dunn, first 
junior warden. The charter is signed by W. B. Hubbard, grand 
master, and B. P. Smith, grand secretary. 

The first meeting was held January 6, 1851, the lodge having 
been organized under dispensation at that time and chartered in 
October, 1851. Other officers elected: Theodore P. Glidden, first 
treasurer; Andrew Poe, first secretary; John B. Dumble, S. D. ; 
Judson A. Beebe, J. D. ; and Israel Hite, tyler. Andrew K. Dunn 
was the second master, and James W. Stinchcomb, the third, and 
then Andrew K. Dunn served as master for eighteen successive 
years, followed by Ross Burns, John E. Smith (two years), Allen 
Levering, (two years), James G. Miles (three years), William C. 
Wilson, Charles W. Allison, Geo. Burgoyne, W. L. Case, Jas. W. 
Pugh, John P. Bowen, Salo Cohn, J. Charles Criswell Charles L. 
Russell, J. J. Kreisel, William P. Wieland, Walter C. Bennett, Wil- 
liam Dean Matthews, John R. Carpenter, John Hickman, Dwight E. 
Smith and James P. Bennett. Other officers now in service: I. 

B. White, S. W. ; Homer J. Canady, J. W. ; A. Leon White, treas- 
urer ; Harry S. Andrews, secretary ; H. R. Talmage, S. D. ; H. 0. 
Allison, J. D. ; Ralph E. Shaw, tyler; Edward J. Wieland and Harry 

C. Little, stewards, and W. D. Matthews, E. B. Russell and D. E. 
Smith, trustees. The number of members is 124. David Smith 
Talmage was the first person made a mason in Morrow county, 
since then Mt. Gilead Lodge No. 206 has admitted 312 masons to 

Gilead Chapter, No. 59, Royal Arch Masons, was instituted 
October 16, 1854, and these were its charter members : A. J. Smith, 
Judson A. Beebe, Wesley C. Clark, James W. Stinchcomb, Andrew 
K. Dunn, J. D. Vore, William H. McKee, Sylvester M. Hewitt, C. P. 
Shurr and David L. Swingley. The officers elected on the organi- 
zation were: Wesley C. Clark, H. P.; James W. Stinchcomb, king; 
and A. K. Dunn, scribe. The first meeting was held December 7, 
1854, and Dr. Isaac H. Pennoch was the first person advanced to 
the honorary degree of a mark master. 

The present number of members is sixty-five, with the follow- 
ing officers : George L. Clark, H. P. ; William Dean Matthews, king ; 
Harry C. Little, scribe ; Homer J. Canady, C. of H. ; C. D. McBain, 
P. S. ; Hugh 0. Allison, R. A. C. ; D. E. Smith, 3rd V. ; Harold C. 
Johnson, 2nd V. ; I. B. White, 1st V. ; Horace W. Whitney, treasurer 
Henry R. Talmage, secretary; Ralph E. Shaw, guard. 

Burgoyne Chapter, No. 178, Order of the Eastern Star, was 

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instituted February 29, 1904, by Brother John Blythe, installing 
officers who, with Evelyn Chapter No. 146, 0. E. S. of Cheeter- 
ville, Ohio, performed the installation ceremonies. The number of 
members installed as charter members was forty-eight. 

The first elected officers were: Mary B. Dalrymple, worthy 
matron (and reelected) ; William F. Wieland, worthy patron; Net- 
tie Wieland, assistant matron; Sue C. Russell, treasurer; Mayme 
E. Bennett-Beebe, secretary; Anna C. Johnston, conductress, and 
Ella E. Whitney, assistant conductress. The number of members at 
the present time is one hundred and three. 

The past grand worthy matrons are Mary B. Dalrymple, Nettie 
Wieland, Anna C. Johnston, Lida M. Bowen, Laura Pierce, and 
Carrie C. Smith; past worthy patrons, William F. Wieland, 
Charles A. Ruhlen, E. J. Wieland, and Jas. W. Pugh. The pres- 
ent officers are: Emma B. Neal, W. M. ; Lawrence Henderson, W. 
P.; Mabel Griffith, A. M.; Ella E. Whitney, treasurer; Elmora B. 
Conklin, secretary; Florence Wieland, conductress; Vertie Russell, 
assistant conductress; Marion Smith, warden; Gertrude Kline, 
chaplain ; Laura Pierce, pianist ; Edgar N. Neal, sentinel. 

From organization of the first lodge in 1851, until in 1863, 
the Masonic Orders occupied rented halls in Mt, Gilead, and then 
the hall in third story of the Granite block, which was their home 
until September 21, 1899. On that date the hall in Masonic 
Temple block was dedicated at which time C. L. Russell was 
worshipful master, and the same has since been occupied by the 
different branches of the order. In the fall of the year 1910, 
the hall was remodeled and improved and is now the best hall in 
the county. 

Patriotic Societies. 

The Grand Army of the Republic holds in its organization 
the memory of all that is heroic in war ; the inspiration to patriot- 
ism; and all that inspire men to stand between a foe and their 

On August 19, 1881, was organized Hurd Post, No. 114; so 
named for a heroic young soldier from Mt. Gilead, Alfred H. 
Hurd, a first sergeant in Company C, Fifteenth Regiment, Ohio 
Volunteer Infantry, who died June 14, 1864, from wounds re- 
ceived at the battle of Dallas, Gteorgia. The post was mustered 
by Colonel H. A. Brown, mustering officer, and the following were 
charter members: W. Smith Irwin, 121st Regt. Infy; William W. 

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McCracken, 20th Regt. Infy; Daniel D. Booher, 4th Regt. Infy; 
Andrew J. Gordon, 31st Regt. Infy; William D. Matthews, 178th 
Regt. Infy; Simeon W. Preston, 136th Regt. Infy; Isaiah Pinyerd, 
96th Regt. Infy; Martin G. Modie, 12l8t Regt. Infy; Thomas 
Litzenburg, 96th Regt. Infy ; William H. Briggs, 96th Regt. Infy 
John P. Bowen, 95th Regt. Infy; Abner Ustick, 4th Regt. Infy 
S. W. Trowbridge, 135th R^gt. Infy; Isaac Eley, 96th Regt. Infy 
John S. Derr, 26th, Regt. Infy ; John W. Emerson, 26th Regt. Infy 
Jas. T. Pureell, 93rd Regt. Infy ; John S. Talmage, 65th R^gt. Infy 
James Olds, 65th Regt. Infy; John B. Gatehell, 55th Regt. Infy 
Fred A. Miller, 3rd O. V. I. ; Junius B. Shaw, 65th Regt. Infy. 
Charles S. Miller, 9th Cav. ; William F. Wilson, 20th Regt. Infy. 
George Fry, 81st Regt. Infy.; William C. Wilson, 3rd 0. V. I. 
Ross N. Mateer, 121st Regt. Infy. ; Lemuel H. Breese, 96th, Regt 
Infy. ; Wm. S. Furbay, 3rd Cav. ; Isaac M. Dewitt, 96th Regt. Infy. 
B. B. McGowen, 174th Cav. Regt. Infy; Gilbert E. MiUer, 65th 
Regt. Infy. ; Bradford Dawson, 136th Cav. Regt. Infy. ; James E. 
Duncan, 166th Regt. Infy.; Samuel Andrew, 174th Regt. Infy.; 
and George Burgoyne, 1st Infy. Battery. 

Every one of the above was an Ohio soldier, thirty-six in 

The officers of Hurd Post first elected were as follows : William 
D. Matthews, P. C ; John F. Bowen, S. V. ; Gilbert E. Miller, J. 
V. ; Daniel D. Booher, Adgt. ; Wm. H. Briggs, Surg. ; Abner Ustick, 
chaplain; Bradford Dawson, Q. M. ; Martin G. Modie, O. D. ; Fred 
A. Miller, 0. G. ; B. B. IVIcGowen, S. M. ; James T. Pureell, Q. M. 
S. ; George Burgoyne, assistant inspector; James Olds, aide de 

The following comrades were promoted to be post comman 
ders, viz: Gilbert E. Miller, 1882; L. M. Cunard, 1883; W. D 
:vratthews, 1884; William C. Wilson, 1885; James E. McCracken 
1886; Thomas S. Rogers, 1887; Charles C. Wheeler, 1888 
Abner Ustick, 1889; Junius B. Shaw, 1890; Milo L. Adams 
1891; Asa A. Gardner, 1892; James J. Runyan, 1893; B. B. Mc 
Gowen, 1894; Daniel D. Booher, 1895; James M. Moody, 1896 
Samuel Virtue, 1897; William 11. Barrham, 1898; George B 
Thompson, 1899; R. L. lleaton, 1900; Robert F. Bartlett, 1901 
George Burgoyne, 1902; Daniel 1). Booher, 1903; R. G. Laycox, 
1904; Bernard M. Griffis, 1905; Geor^^e II. Hales, 1906; Samuel 
Virtue, 1907; Lemuel II. Breese, 1908; Robert T. McKibbin, 1909; 
James M. Conger, 1910; and Clareniont C. Smith, 1911. 

For about six years the post assembled at Odd Fellows and 

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other rented halls. In February, 1886, Lovel B. Harris, a farmer 
and old citizen of Mt. Gilead, (but then of Upper Sandusky, 
Ohio,) a friend of the ex-soldier and a liberal man, gave to the 
post the sum of five hundred dollars, and March 1, 1888, the 
Woman's Relief Corps was organized. The corps raised another 
five hundred dollars and soon thereafter G. A. R. Hall was pur- 
chased with these moneys, and said hall is therefore owned jointly 
by the Woman 's Relief Corps and the post. There are seventy mem- 
bers in good standing in the post itself. 

The Woman's Relief Corps, No. 215, auxiliary to Hurd Post 
No. 114, was organized March 1, 1888, and was mustered by Mrs. 
Edith P. Sweeny, of Wooster, Ohio, mustering officer, with forty- 
nine charter members. The corps was incorporated March 27, 
1891, by Elsie McCracken, Julia Bowen, Ida J. J. Beebe, Gertrude 
Mateer and Candace Hales. The charter members were Celia 
McCracken, Candace Hales, Eveline Mateer, Elizabeth Preston, 
Jane Pinyerd, Mary Blair, Lyde Wheeler, Julia Bowen, Evaline 
Burt, Fanny I. Burt, Fanny Hales-Litzenburg, Grace Shaw-Laycox, 
Harriet Laycox, Mona Laycox, Mary Whinoy, Clara Laycox-Dam- 
baugh, Lou Burgoyne, Mary McCracken, Elsie McCracken, Mattie 
Sipes, Vi Ealey, Edith Earley, Mary Cunard, Elizabeth Wilson, 
Laura E. Shaw, Anna Irwin-Olds, Lenora Shauck, Ilittie Shauck, 
Edna Shauck, Elizabeth Ilildebrand, Delia Miller, Lyde Garven, 
Minnie Hales-Caton, Sarah Penh, Angeline Fry, Gertrude Mateer- 
Miles, Margaret Mateer, Ola Shaw, Ida Jolmson-Beebe, Anna 
Lewis, Mary Booher, Julia Garbison, Lizzie Ustick-Gan^eri, Prede- 
rica Andrews, Maud Wheeler, Alice Annett, MoUie Hildebrand, 
Carrie Pugh and Elizabeth Parsons. 

The past presidents are Emeline Mateer, Lyde Wheeler, Elsie 
McCracken, Julia Bowen, Lydia Adams, Mary Booher, Lizzie IT. 
(larven, Lou Burgoyiie, Alice Case, Anna Heaton, Bird Truex, 
Laura E. Shaw, Harriet Livingston, Samantha Virtue, Elmora 
Conklin, Ella Griffis, Ida J. Beebe, Fanny Litzenburg, Rosa 
Mayer, Viola Ashley, Frederica Andrews and Margette C. Mat- 
thews, the last one of whom was re-elected and is now president. 
In all the yeare since its organization, March 1, 1888, the Woman's 
Relief Corps of Hurd Post has been an efficient auxiliary in the 
truest sense of the word. 

Lemuel II. Breese Camp Xo. 64, Sons of Veterans, was insti- 
tuted June 9, 1909, with twenty-seven charter members to-wit : W. 
Leroy Furlong, D. H. Shields, J. Carp. Bockoven, William Edwin 
Breese, Albert W. Breese, L. W. Breese, George B. Reed, Bruce 

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Presbom, Charles A. Ruhlen, J. Robt. Shaw, Prank J. Ryan, Albert 
Whitoey, H. J. Canady, H. R. Talmage, Walter S. Emerson, W. 
S. Jackson, William England, Hubert P. Ashley, J. W. Thompson, 
J. R. Carpenter, Ben Olds, C. W. Gordon, Roy L. Pierce, J. H. 
Kelly, Chester D. Ullom, J. A. Teeple and T. H. B. Teeple. The 
charter is signed by R. J. Williams, division commander. The 
first commander of the camp was John R. Carpenter, the second 
Prank J. Ryan, and the present incumbent, Albert W. Breese. 

The present membership is forty-eight. The heritage that 
comes to any camp of Sons of Veterans is one of the greatest of 
earthly inheritances. As I look over the list of sons of this 
camp, I perceive that some of them can say: **My father fought at 
Shiloh;*' others that, **my father died at Gettysburg or Vicks- 
burg, or Chickamauga ; " or that **he bore grievious wounds, and 
carried scars to his grave, received at some of those great battles." 

Knights of Pythias in Mt. Gilead. 

In historical order, Charles H. Hull Lodge, No. 195, Knights 
of Pythias, of Mt. Gilead, Ohio, was instituted May 24, 1885. It 
was named for the deceased young Pythian Knight, and older 
half-brother of William F. Bruce; and his decease occurred in 
March, 1876, while a member of Walla- Walla Lodge No. 1, Knights 
of Pythias, of the state of Washington, and he was the first Mt. 
Gilead lad to become a Pythian Knight. 

The lodge was instituted by W. B. Riches, past grand chancel- 
lor, and A. P. Butterfield, grand vice chancellor, with thirty-one 
members, to-wit : William F. Bruce, H. S. Qrifiith, Zenas B. Plumb, 
P. T. Miller, John M. Coe, George W. Fluckey, Levi Benedict, 
Ely PhiUipps, L. M. Goodman, B. A. Barton, Charles W. Allison, 
A. D. Reid, Charles Rosenthal, Abner Allison, Fred Brown, 
Charles S. Miller, C. A. Miller, L. E. Rupe, John Lee Shaw, Lafe 
Livenspire, D. E. Doty, Ralph P. Miller, F. W. Wilson, A. C. 
Klotz, J. G. Wirt, William Murray, W. F. Duncan, M. W. Spear, 
William Thomas, J. C. Miracle and D. Bader. 

Members of the lodge who are past chancellors: William F. 
Bruce, John M. Coe, Charles Rosenthal, George W. Fluckey, Harry 
S. Griffith, A. B. Rosenthal, Willis A. Cooper, William Sames, I. J. 
Caris, W. 0. Andrews, H. B. McMillin, William Brown, William 
L. Smith, Thomas F. Gordon, Budd Baker, Elmer E. Harding, 
Robert Brown, L. M. Lime, Arthur T. Mann, Henry Bixler, Robert 
F. Bartlett, John W. Barry, Charles A. Buhlen, James L. Mc- 

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Camman, Walter S. Emerson, Homer J. Canady, E. B. Russell, 
John R. Carpenter, Morris Kline, Fred W. Rowlinson, E. C. Ealey, 
Arthur C. Duncan, C. Jensen, Lewis T. Worley, J. Ralph Palton 
and Joseph S. Keeran. There are one hundred and forty-two 
members with oflSeers as follows : Jerry Feight, C. C. ; E. E. Neal, 
V. C. ; C. E. Wagner, P. ; J. W. Megorail, M. at A. ; Ray McFarland, 
K. of R. S. ; I. J. Caris, M. of F. ; Arthur C. Duncan, M. of W. ; E. 
S. Masters M of K 

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story of SI 
gift, and : 
May 4, 19 
its institui 

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Lodge No. 
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lodge of \ 

he started 

H. Hull lodge was instituted May 24, 1885. He became its first 
representative to Grand Lodge and served there continuously as 
representative or Grand Lodge oflScer until June, 1905, when he 
became grand chancellor, serving the statutory term of one year 
and retiring June, 1906, after one of the most successful adminis- 
trations in the history of the order in Ohio. In November, 1906, 
he was appointed a member of the Board of Directors of the Ohio 
Pythian Home, to fill a vacancy. In June, 1907, he was elected 
for a full term of three years, and reelected in June, 1910. He is 
now serving his second term as president of said board. 

Sketch op Pythianism. 

Pythianism is a purely American order, and after reading 
from the Greek legend the story of Damon and Pythias, and con- 

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sidering its disinterested benevolence, the noble self-sacrifice, and 
the pure example, which that story taught, Justus Henry Rath- 
bone, while teaching school in 1857 at Eagle Harbor on Point 
Keweenaw% Michigan, revolved in his mind the lessons which that 
story taught, and formulated an order and ritual which were to 
bless society. The idea remained dormant in his mind for seven 
years, and he did not have an opportunity to put his plans into 
effect until he had removed to Washington D. C, when on February 
19, 1864, he with six other charter members, Robert A. Champion, 
D. L. Burnett, W. H. Burnett, E. S. Kimball, Charles H. Roberts 
and a Mr. Diver, formed Washington Lodge No. 1, Knights of 
Pythias, which was the first lodge of the order in the world. The 
success and spread of Pythianism have been unprecedented. Soon 
by the evolution of the order and the demands of modem society, 
the necessity of a sisterhood was realized. 

At first an independent organization of women was formed, 
not under the jurisdiction of the order. In 1894 the name of 
Rathbone Sisters was given to the womanly order, and so great 
was its success that in ten years the order had more than one hun- 
dred thousand members. Then an attempt was made, and carried 
out, to afiUiate the Rathbone Sisters more closely to the Order of 
Knights, and in 1906 the name was changed to Pythian Sisters, 
and now any EInight in good standing may become a member of 
the Pythian Sisters. 

Mt. Gilead Temple No. 296, Pythian Sisters, was instituted 
May 22, 1906, as Rathbone Sisters, and on October 20, 1906, by 
authority, the name was changed to Pythian Sisters, and a charter 
was issued to Virtie, most excellent chief of the temple; Mabel 
Andrews, grand chief and Ellen Given, grand mistress of records 
of the temple; Blanche Brollier, excellent senior of the temple; 
Ha Harding, mistress of records and correspondence ; Libbie Hay- 
den, guard of the outer temple; Anna Smith, excellent junior of 
the temple; Ella Qriffis, mistress of finance; and Ethel Ruhlen, 
past chief of the temple. The charter is signed by Lillian H. 
Andrus, grand chief and Ellen Given, grand mistress of records 
and correspondence. These sisters have served as most excellent 
chiefs: Vertie Russell, Blanche Brollier, Rose Frost, Abby Crane, 
Katherine Cooper, Libbie Hayden, Emma Neal, Sadie Duncan, 
Belle George, Eva Masters and Dora Wagner. The present officers 
are: Belle George, P. of T.; Eva Masters, M. E. T.; Blanche 
Lefever, E. S. of T.; Ada Lefever, E. J.; Ella Dagg, M. of T.; 
Elizabeth Clark, M. of R. S. C. ; May Megnail, M. of P. ; Florence 

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SpideU, P. of T. ; and Sarah Myers, G. of 0. T. The number of 
members is seventy-two, and the temple is in a flourishing condition. 

Literary Clubs. 

In the year 1900 the ladies of Mt. Gilead commenced the forma- 
tion of literary clubs for mutual intellectual and social improve- 
ment. The first club formed was the Sorosis, in 1900 ; its member- 
ship was limited to twenty-five, and its name was **The Mt. Gilead 
Sorosis.'' Its motto is ** Forward till you reach the highest.'* 
The club colors are yellow and white, and the club flower is the 
white Carnation. The club was federated in 1904. Its meetings 
are now held on the first and third Tuesday afternoons of each 
month at the homes of the members. The club has adopted a 
**Sorosis Club song," written by one of its members, Mrs. Lena V. 
Houston, which is given below : 

We're a band of hopeful women, with a purpose grand and great, 

To emancipate each other from a humdrum life and fate. 

Oh, SoroeiB, dear Sorosis, we are thy devoted friends. 

And we'll stand by thee forever — true and firm until the end. 


Oh! we're twenty-five, yes, we're twenty-five. 

With honorary members added to our list. 

Oh, Sorosis, dear Sorosis, we are thy devoted friends. 

And we'll stand by thee forever — true and firm until the end. 

In the lives of most all women, joys and sorrows alternate. 
So we aim ta make the brightness of life 's joy predominate ; 
To the gems of cultured intellects we give our time and thought, 
And we'll not neglect our households, as no good woman ought. 


Now a century of progress opens wide its portals new, 
And we enter glad and happy, full of hope and trusting,too. 
That our sisterhood may blessings bring to women far and near; 
Yes, we'll stand by thee forever, our own club, Sorosis dear. 


The club has adopted a constitution and by-laws. Mrs. 
Roberta Vorhies Beebe is now president ; Mrs. Margaret Bower Mc- 
Millin, vice president ; and Mrs. Fanny Berry Ball, secretary. 

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The names of the members are now given, followed by the list 
of deceased members. 

Active — Fanny Berry Ball, Roberta Vorhies Beebe, Mary 
Miller Byrd, Emma Sayer Coe, Cora Emerine Criswell, Alice New- 
son Case, Clara Qoorley Fogle, Nellie Annetta Goorley, Nellie 
Gunsaulus Griffith, Margaret Sanford Holt, Lena Vermillion Hous- 
ton, Margaret Boner McMillin, Kate Swetland Mclntire, Lucinda 
Dunham Miller, Emma Bunker Neal, Anna Irwin Olds, Carrie 
Chase Pollock, Clara Bowman Payne, Minnie Hartman Ryan, 
Florence Hoit Robinson, Clara House Talmage, Izora Allison Tal- 
xnSLge, Ora Ryder Wieland, Ella Henderson Whitney and Iras 
Irwin Wood. 

Honorary Members — Hester A. Andrews. 

Deceased — Mrs. Temperance Blackburn Wood, Mrs. Clara 
Prankel Cohn, Mrs. Martha Rishtine Mozier and Mrs. Annis Tal- 
mage Olds. 

The Woman's Twentieth Century Club of Mt. Gilead was 
organized and federated in 1901. The motto is ** Kindness and 
Helpfulness," and its colors are pink and white. Its weekly meet- 
ings are held on the first and third Saturday afternoons of each 
month at the homes of its members. Mrs. Sarah George Miller 
is president; Mrs. Martha Miller Bartlett, first vice president; 
Mrs. Lettie Detwiler Smiley, second vice president; and Mrs. 
Elizabeth Beers James, secretary. 

The club adopted the Federation song, to-wit : 

(Air — America.) 

Daughters of Freedom Udc^ 
Ready with heart and hand, 

Strong for the ri^t! 
Now raise your voices high, 
In one clear song reply 
To life's appealing cry 

For love and light. 

Why stand we here today? 
Why but to make the way 

For Hope's glad feet, 
Bidding the world aspire 
To purer aims and higher, 
That home's own altar fire 

Bum bright and sweet. 

Daughter of Freedom's land, 

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Vol. 1—19 

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Holding Truth's torch ye stand, 

Crowned with God's grace; 
That this great age may see 
How fair its destiny. 
And they who come may be 

A noble race. 

The members and honorary president are here given : 

Active — Ellen H. Allison, Ella Williams Barguet, Martha Mil- 
ler Bartlett, Belle Reed Bennett, Laura Craven Chipps, Tamar 
Noble Colmery, Elmora Bunker Conklin, Grace Babcock Cruik- 
shank, Belle Knox Cook, Emma Noe Doty, Mary Concannon Eccles, 
Harriet Hoyle Green, Nellie McKeown Glauner, Martha Mosher 
Harlan, Margaret Gardner Howard, Anna Henderson Henderson, 
Mary Hanson Hoskins, Besse Inglebeek Jensen, Elizabeth Beers 
James, Jemima Salisbury James, Anna Linton Kelly, Lina Sperry 
Kelly, Viola Miller Kerr, Mary Ireland Kingman, . Fannie Hales 
Litzenburg, Eflfie Scamman Loose, Loula Holverstott Lefever, 
Millie Milligan Livensperger, Mary Tuttle Mateer, Jennie Powell 
McCammon, Emma Ward McCormick, Sarah George Miller, Sarah 
Bruce Miller, Irene Rule Miller, Eva Holverstott Masters, Lillie 
Elliott Parrott, Laura Rhodebeck Pierce, Minnie Hartman Ryan, 
Margaret Powell Russell, Sue Mooney Russell, Mary Comins Samp- 
son, Lena Howard Searles, Marion Brown Smith, Lettie Detwiler 
Smiley, Flora Webb Sames, Elizabeth Dalrymple Schaaf, Flora 
Westbrook Sterritt, Ola Anna Shaw, Samantha McVey Virtue, 
Nettie Hauck Wieland and Ada Stanclift Young. 

Honorary president — ^Mrs. William Miller. 

Honorary members — Mrs. J. R. Hopley, Mrs. Carrie D. Powell, 
Mrs. Nancy McCaskey and Miss Minnie Barton. 

Deceased members — Lucretia Axtell Talmage, Anna Dumble 
Brown, Minnie Byrd Swingle, Eliza Godman Van Horn and Mary 
Beeson Dalrymple. 

The Progress Club of Mt. Gilead was organized in 1901. and 
federated in 1905. The motto is ** Kindness — Helpfulness," and 
color, pink, flower. Carnation. The present officers are Miss Mabel 
Griffith, president; Blanche Lefever, vice president; Miss Agnes 
McAnall, secretary; Elsie Stevenson, assistant secretary. Other 
members are: Fanny Herman AUwood, Mayme Bennett Beebe, 
Lida Bowen, Blanche Houck Breese, Goldie Osbom Doty, Ethel 
Elder, Besse Englebeck Jensen, Elba Kingman, Josephine Kelly, 
Blanche Lefever, Adda Lefever, Vina Lefever, Ina Laming, Mabel 
Lewis, Hannah Lloyd, Adah White Munk, Ethel McFarland, Clara 

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Miles, Edith Mozier, Mabel Smiley, Josephine Van Buskirk Scott, 
Mayme Comins Sampson, Elsie Purvis Stevenson, Aura Bennett 
Smiley, Anna Tahnage, Helen Talmage, Emma Wieland, Ora Wie- 
land, Florence Wieland and Clara Young. Total thirty-two. 
Deceased members — Edith Ramey Barre. The Federation song 
has been adopted. 

Both vocal and instrumental music are prominent features of 
the exercises of each meeting of these clubs. Each club has a year 
book, in which subjects are assigned to members, and articles are 
written and read at the meetings. 

In the Sorosis, papers on the following subjects among others, 
are assigned to members, for the year commencing with October, 
1910. For October, **Arts and Crafts of Indians,'' ** Noted Indian 
Chiefs;'' November, ** Colonial Times," **Penn's Colony," ** Ex- 
pansion of the American People and Our Dutch Forefathers;" 
December, ** Christmas at Valley Forge," ** Children's Rights;" 
January, 1911, ** American Journalism," **The First Mail Routes," 
** American Humorists," ** Influence of Music in America;" Feb- 
ruary, ** Manual Training in Our Schools," ** Armies and Gtenerals 
of the Revolution," and ** Jacob Riis;" March, **The Problem of 
Our Delinquent Girls" and ** Influence of Environment;" April, 
** Pioneers to the West: (a) Daniel Boone, (b) David Crockett, 
(c) William Henry Harrison;" **The Ride of Marcus Whitman," 
and ** Irrigation;" May, ** Skeletons in our National Closets: (a) 
The Red Man, (b) The Black Man, (c) The Mormons," and 
** Educational Development in America." 

In the Twentieth Century Club the following subjects among 
others were assigned: For October, 1910, ** Humors of Home* Life," 
**The Tyranny of Fashion," and ** International Marriages;" 
November, **Boys," ** Industrial and Child Labor," and ** Norway 
as seen by the Tourist;" December, **The Club Woman's Hus- 
band," and **Home Science;" January, 1911, **The World's New- 
est Interests," and ** Rapid Transit;" February, **Work for 
Women's Clubs," and ** Confessions of a Club Woman;" March, 
** Pioneers and Pathfinders," and **The Great American Desert;" 
April, **The Indians," and ''Indian Art and Education," and 
** London and Historical Places;" May, **The Red Cross," and 
** Teaching Patriotism in the Public Schools." These are practical 
subjects, that pertain chiefly to our own country and civilization. 

In the Progress Club these subjects have been, among others, 
assigned for 1910-11: October, ** Romulus and his Times," and 
** Legend of Aenas;" November, ** Roman Character," and **The 

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Italian People and their Progress;*' December, ** Virgil and 
Horace;'' January, 1911, **Modem Italian Writers," ''Italian 
Arts," ** Morning Star," and ** Dante and his Friends;" February, 
**The Madonnas in Italian Art," **The Florentine Sculptors — 
Ghiberti and Donatello," and ** Famous Art Galleries;" March, 
**Art Treasures of the Vatican," and ** Stories from Italian 
Operas;" April, ** Great Names in Ancient Greece," and ** Homer, 
His Contemporaries and Times;" May, ** Phidias and his Succes- 
sors," ** Women in Ancient Greece," and ** Modem Greek Maids 
and Matrons. ' ' These subjects are distinctively classical. 

The three literary clubs, in ten years, have made material 

' advancement in the knowledge of literature, science and arts, and 

in biography, biology, geography, geology and law; but very little 

in theology. Their studies have been pleasant and instructive 

and have tended to elevate society to a higher plane. 

Mt. Gilead Free Public Library. 

Early in 1908 the question of a public library was agitated in 
the three clubs, and on January 27, 1908, a meeting of the members 
was held at the home of Mrs. Martha Miller Bartlett and husband, 
to consider the subject. Then, and at a subsequent meeting or 
two, a plan was adopted, whereby each of the clubs was to have, 
and bear, an equal share in the promotion of, and sustaining a 
public library. The name, **Mt. Gilead Free Public Library 
Association" was adopted. Mrs. Anna Irwin Olds was elected 
president, and presided at two or three preliminary meetings ; but, 
on account of sickness in her family, resigned, and Mrs. Margaret 
Bower McMillin was elected president, and is now in ofiRce. Mrs. 
Emma Ward McCormick was elected vice president and remains 
as such. Mrs. Jane Jago MeKinnon, was elected secretary, acted 
for a brief period and resigned; Mrs. Edith Talmage Dennison 
became secretary, and continued for some time; Mrs. Alice Wilson 
Matthews and Mrs. Martha Miller Bartlett were each secretary for 
a brief period and Mrs. Fanny Berry Ball is the present incumbent. 
Mrs. Elizabeth D. Schaaf was on the organization, elected treasurer 
and still holds that office. 

On June 27, 1908, Mt. Gilead Free Public Library Associa- 
tion was incorporated under the laws of Ohio, and the following 
were the incorporators: From Sorosis — Margaret Bower McMillin, 
Lucinda Dunham Miller and Fanny Berry Ball. Twentieth Cen- 
tury — Emma Ward McCormick, Martha Miller Bartlett and Eliza- 

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beth Dalrymple Schaaf . Progress — Edith Talmage Dennison, Alice 
Wilson Matthews and Mayme Bennett Beebe. A civic committee 
of om from each club — Mrs. Ella Henderson Whitney, Mrs. Sue 
Mooney Russell and Mrs. Mayme Bennett Beebe was appointed, and 
acted together for about one year. Subsequently, only the 
Twentieth Century appointed a civic committee, consisting of Mrs. 
Sue Mooney Russell and Mrs. Lina Sperry Kelly. The first com- 
mittee caused flowers to be planted in the public parks, and the 
civic of the Twentieth Century Club caused three iron receptacles 
to be provided for waste papers and other rubbish, and trees to be 
planted along the street in front of the court house, and suggested 
other improvements. Nine trustees, three from each club, were 
elected : One in each club for one year ; one for two years and one 
in each club for three years; and all have been re-elected on the 
expiration of their terms. 

The library now contains one thousand eight hundred and 
seventy-eight volumes. Several citizens, and deceased native sons 
by their widows, contributed many volumes. One citizen of the 
village gave one hundred and forty-three volumes. Mrs. Cassie 
Bartow Criswell, widow of Hon. John Criswell, late of Marion, 
Ohio, deceased, gave one hundred and seventy-five volumes and 
a book case. Mrs. Cooper of Detroit, Michigan, widow of Col. 
John S. Cooper, late of Chicago, deceased, gave one hundred and 
ninety-two volumes. Rev. John R. Carpenter, fifty-four volumes; 
Mrs. Mary B. Dalrymple, forty-three volumes; Mrs. Sue Mooney 
Russell, twenty- two volumes; Mary Concannon Eccles, seventeen 
volumes; Emma Ward McCormick, fifteen volumes; and other 
parties in smaller lots, donated seventy-five volumes. The remainder 
of the library was purchased. The building is open on Wednesday 
and Saturday afternoons, from 2 o'clock until 5 o'clock, and in the 
evening from 7 until 9 o'clock. Miss Emma Wieland was librarian 
for over two years, and Mrs. Aura Bennett Smiley, Miss Prances 
Doty and Mrs. Mayme Bennett Beebe have each been assistant 
librarians for a brief period. Miss Mabel Lewis has been librarian 
since Miss Wieland resigned. 

Temperance Movements. 

The Mt. Gilead Woman's Christian Temperance Union was 
organized at the home of Mr. G. L. Wood, May 28, 1892. It had 
thirteen members. Miss Vide Talmage was president; and Mrs. 
J. H. Holt, secretary. In 1911, the membership numbers ninety- 

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seven, with Mrs. A. 6. Gardner president, and Mrs. W. C. Mc- 
Farland secretary. The aim of the W. C. T. U. is to educate the 
young ; to form a better public sentiment ; to reform the drinking 
classes ; to transform by the power of Divine Grace those enslaved 
by alcohol ; and to secure the entire abolition of the liquor traflSc. 
Its lines of work are preventive, educational, evangelistic, social 
and legal. 

On Monday the 28th day of September, 1908, the citizens of 
Morrow county voted under the Boss law for or against the exclu- 
sion of saloons, and places where intoxicating drinks were sold. 
The vote in the county was 3,187 for excluding the saloons, and 
1,006 for retaining them, the majority against the saloons being 
2,181. Every one of the 26 precincts in the county voted **Dry.'* 
In proportion to the number of votes cast, this is the largest **Dry'' 
vote and majority in the state of Ohio. At an earlier day, on 
June 2nd, of the year 1903, a vote was taken in Mt. Gilead to expel 
the saloons and the ** Wets'' won by a majority of seventeen in the 

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Natural Features op Gilead Township — Poutical — Early 
Settlers — Pioneer Mills and Roads — First Villages — Territory 
OP Township — John Beatty — Edison — Cardington Township — 
Isaac Bunker and Family — Old Mills and Hospitable Millers 
— Indian Village on the Whetstone — Settlement Around the 
Whetstone Mills — Approved Bee Hunting — First Road — 
Water Courses and Drainage. 

This township has undergone a marvelous change since the 
coming of the pioneers. Instead of being the abode of savages, 
it is now occupied by intelligent, energetic, peaceable, civilized 
men and women, who have converted the forests into cultivated 
fields and fruitful orchards, clothed the hills with luxuriant vinjes ; 
filled the valleys with corn ana vegetation and covered the sterile 
plains with beautiful gardens and fields of bloom, while the music 
of reapers and mowers fill the land with the sweet melody of songs 
of industry and plenty sits enthroned and crowned, swaying her 
joyous scepter over happy homes where thousands dwell in peace 
and sweet content. 

While the citizens of Gilead township have done much, addi- 
tional efforts should be put forth to further advancement in the 
future — to make a dozen vines grow where but one grew before ; to 
cause trees to spring up where but one appeared before; to make 
two stalks of wheat bend their heads to the harvester, where but 
one nodded its head in the past and to cause two ears of com to 
swing their silken tassels to the breeze, where but one had before 
waved its plume. Further efforts should be made to build 
churches and schools, universities of learning, a children's home, a 
hospital for the sick, and circulating libraries to furnish reading 
for the poor. Additional effort should be put forth to teach the 
youth in the public schools to love their country, and to fondly 


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cherish the memory of the pioneers who opened the gates of Mor- 
row county and Qilead township to the tide of a marvelous civi- 

Natural Features op Qilead Township. 

The land in Gilead township in its original state was very 
heavily timbered, with a natural drainage and the surface diversi- 
fied — in some places level or but slightly rolling, in other places 
broken by bluffs and ravines, especially on the Whetstone, (now 
called Olentangy) and Sam's creek, in the vicinity of Mt. Gilead. 

cooper's dam (built in 1836), mt. gilead. 

The principal stream of the township is the East fork of the 
Whetstone, which runs a southerly course to the county seat, then 
in a westerly course till it passes out of the township. The largest 
tributary to this stream is Sam's creek, in the eastern part of the 
township. In the northwestern part of the township is Thorn 
run, a tributary of Shaw creek in Canaan township. In the south 
and southeastern parts of the township, are the runs which consti- 
tute the headwaters of Alum and Big Walnut creeks. Alum 
creek heads within a half mile of the Whetstone, just south of Mt. 

The land in Gilead township has such drainage that there has 

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been but little, if any, stagnant water since the improvement of the 
county, especially since the opening of the runs and swails. Springs 
are quite numerous and some of them are strong enough to form 
permanent runs of water. They are principally hard water springs, 
aiid are often impregnated with lime or iron. The first settlers 
selected the lands that had springs and built their cabins near 

In general the soil of the township is good, a considerable 
portion being deep, black and rich. Other portions are thinner 
and more clayey, but there is no barren soil. In early times the 
prevailing timber was beech and sugar maple; but there was a 
great variety and large amount of other timber, as white, burr and 
red oak, white and yellow poplar (tulip-tree), black and white 
walnut, shagbark and pig-nut hickory, white, black and blue ash, 
white and red elm, cherry, chestnut, basswood, white maple, quak- 
ing asp, sycamore, gum, buckeye, etc. It is a singular circum- 
stance that no chestnut was found on the west and north side of 
the Whetstone. * There was also an abundant undergrowth of 
crab-apple, wild plum, dog-wood, iron-wood, spice-bush, prickly 
ash, etc. 

Some stone quarries have been worked in the township, and 
good building stone has been abundant in the bluffs of the Whet- 
stone near Mt. Gilead. There were also two other quarries, one 
in the Quaker settlement, and the other on the school land. The 
productions mo|t congenial to the soil of Qilead township are grass, 
timothy and clover, hay and seeds, com, wheat, rye, oats and flax. 
Garden vegetables are grown in abundance, and fruit trees are 
easily cultivated. The forests originally abounded with deer, 
wolves, raccoons, opossums, squirrels, ground hogs and wild 


During ten years, from 1824 to 1834, the elections of the town- 
ship were held at a school house near Mosher's mill. Mt. Gilead 
afterwards became the voting place. The formation of the new 
county, and making Mt. Gilead the county seat, gave a new impulse 
to the life and enterprise of the township. For many years Gilead 
township had but one justice of the peace. 

The south part of the Three Mile Strip originally belonged to 
Delaware county. After the organization of Marion county in 
March, 1824, the larger part of what is now Gilead township, with. 

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most of what is now Cardington township, and a portion of Wash- 
ington, constituted Marvin township. A new township called 
Gilead was organized in June, 1835 ; and since the formation of the 
new county, additions have been made to it from Canaan, Carding- 
ton, Congress, Franklin and Lincoln township until it has assumed 
its present size and shape. It is bounded on the north by Canaan, 
on the I 
ton an( 

Ohio, \ 
2, in 18 
Peleg ] 
The mc 
ment m 
son cor 
Isaac I 
The ne 
and th 

Virginia, and Charles Webster, originally from Massachusetts, set- 
tled on sections 1 and 2. Joseph Peasely also settled the same year 
in the second set on section 11. In 1825, Abraham Newson and 
Frederick Lay, from Maryland, settled on section 11. The next 
year, 1826, James Johnston, James Bennett and James Montgom- 
ery, from Jefiferson county, .settled on sections 10 and 3, also Joseph 

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known) Robert Bunker, Smith, Baruch Butler, Devore, Joshua 
White, A and 0. and P. and S. Mosher, and D. and I. and J. and 
R. Wood, in the second settlement. 

Part No. 5. — In 1823, James Bailey and Samuel Straw, from 
Pennsylvania, settled on section 6. In 1826, Lewis Hardenbrook 
and John Parcell settled on sections 6 and 7. In 1829, Thomas 
Parr and James Shepard settled on sections 18 and 6. The next 
year, 1830, Amos Critchfield settled on section 18. 

Part No. 3. — James Beatty, from Pennsylvania, settled in 
1826; Hiram Channel and William Foreman in 1829, and Aubert 
in 1830. 

Part No. 4 — Eli Johnston, from Jefferson county, and Rufus 
Dodd, from Knox county, settled on section 35, about 1824. In 
1826, Mrs. Campbell, from Jefferson county, settled on section 35. 
In 1830, Andrew Dalrymple and Ezekiel Clark settled on sections 
26 and 35. 

Part No. 6.— Prom 1825 to 1830, families settled about in the 
order of time as here written — most of whom were from Pennsyl- 
vania: Barkley Finley and Charles Hull on section 29; Henry 
James and Mrs. Willot on section 31 ; James Fulton on section 32 ; 
David and ^ohn Moody on section 31 ; John Forgy on section 32 ; 
Noah Brooks on section 29 ; William Miller on section 30 ; Francis 
Hardenbrook and James Andrew on section 32. 

Part No. 2. — Marvin Q. Webster and his brother, Charles C. 
Webster, settled on section 35 in 1828 ; then followed, the next two 
years, John Harshner on section 23; Jacob Wyrick and S. Hazen 
on section 22; Samuel Doty, John Cooper, Jackson and William 
Dowling on section 26. 

Pioneer Mills and Roads. 

Part No. 7. — ^Paul White was the first settler, about 1819 or 
1820, and Ashley Nutt next. The first grist and saw mill to ac- 
commodate these early settlers was built by Asa Mosher, on the 
Whetstone, in what is now Cardington township, in 1821. The 
next grist and saw mill was built on the same stream by Henry 
Ustick. A saw-mill was also built on Sam's creek by Samuel 
Straw. These mills were carried on upon rather a small scale, 
but were of great utility in those early times. For many years, 
supplies for the families were scarce ; and it was difficult to obtain 
the necessary grain, and to get it ground in the dry time of the 
summer and fall. Com meal and other supplies had to be packed 

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on horseback from Owl Creek and Delaware county, but with 
hominy-blocks and roasting ears, mush and milk, pone and butter 
milk, venison and wild turkey, the people got along cheerily and 

The first road laid out in the township was the Delaware and 
Mansfield State road. The next was the state road laid out by 
Colonel Kilboum, of Worthington, about the year 1823, leading 
through the township from Worthington to New Haven, Huron 
county. There was also a trail or blazed track much used, leading 
from Owl Creek to Shaw Creek and the Sandusky plains. This 
route, in its somewhat winding course, passed Allen Kelley, Lewis 
Hardenbrook, Albert Nichols, Alban Coe, Mrs. Sara Nichols, 
(crossing the Whetstone with the State road) at Ustick's mill, 
Isaac DeWitt, James Montgomery, Eli Johnston, Rufus Dodd, the 
Merritt Settlement and so on. 


Three villages or towns were laid out in the township — one by 
the Moshers on the Delaware road, where it crosses the boundary, 
called Friendsboro; but it was never built up. The next was 
laid out on a small scale on the knolls of the Whetstone, on the 
northeast half of section 2, by Jacob Young, of Knox county, the 
proprietor of the soil, September 30, 1824. Its proper name was 
Whetstone, though it generally went by the name of Youngstown — 
now Mt. Gilead. A county roadVas established leading from the 
village above mentioned to Friendsboro, passing Ustick's mill, John 
Hardenbrook 's, Joseph Worsely's, James Johnston's, Isaac 
Blazor's and James Bennett's, to the Delaware road. The first 
resident of the village of Whetstone (Mt. Gilead) was Charles 

About the time that Youngstown was laid out, another village 
was platted on the Mansfield road, near where Allen Kelley lived, 
and was named Jamestown. James Bailey opened a small store 
there, Appleton Rich had a blacksmith shop — and this was the 
culmination of the town. Allen Kelley bought out Bailey and 
continued the store for some time. 

For several years after the settlement in Gilead township, 
Indians passed to and fro on their hunting and trading expedi- 
tions, and sometimes camped in the neighborhood. They tied their 
babies with their backs to boards, and when they called at the 
cabins of the whites to trade or get refreshments, the squaws would 

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set the little papooses up on the outside of the cabin, where they 
would remain very quiet while the parents were engaged within. 

Territory op Township. 

The territory included in this township, has been taken from 
several surveyed townships. The south part, called **the Three 
Mile Strip,'* includes ten and one- fourth sections, the north part 
of the same strip, called ** school land," including ten and a half 
sections. One section west of the ** boundary'* formerly belonged 
to what is now Cardington township ; three and a half sections also 
went to the boundary, formerly belonged to Canaan township. 
Three and one-eighth sections east of the south part of the Three 
Mile Strip were formerly a part of Franklin township ; four and a 
half sections east of the north part of the Strip formerly belonging 
to Congress township, and about one square mile south of that 
portion of the township and of the Greenville Treaty line, was 
originally attached to Lincoln township. The land east of the 
boundary line and north of the Greenville Treaty line is within 
the Bucyrus district of land and a part of the **New Purchase'*. 
The small portion of the township lying south of the Greenville 
Treaty line belongs to the *' United States Military Lands." 

John Beatty. 

John Beatty was an honore3 resident of Morrow county for 
many years. He was a citizen of Mt. Gilead from about 1849 to 
1859, and then of Cardington until about 1873. He was in the 
banking business in Cardington, of the firm of House, Beatty 
and Company, whose bank was established in 1854, and was 
the first institution of the kind in that place. He was also 
a member of the Cardington flouring mill company. At the 
breaking out of the Civil war, Mr. Beatty was the first 
man in Morrow county to enlist. He was elected captain 
of his company, subsequently made lieutenant colonel, then 
colonel of the Third Ohio Volunteer Infantry and in 1862 was ad- 
vanced to the position of brigader general of volunteers. He was 
also a member of congress from the Cardington district. He is 
now in the banking business at Columbus. 

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Edison is about two miles west of Mt. Qilead, and is a station 
at the crossing of the Cleveland and Columbus division of the Big 
Pour railroad and the Toledo and Ohio Central branch of the Big 
Pour. The Big Pour road has only recently secured the control 
of the Toledo and Ohio Central, and it is expected they will make 
big improvements on it in the near future. It is also the western 
terminal of what is locally known as the Short Line railroad, run- 
ning from Mt. Qilead to Edison. This Short Line road is a Mt. 
Qilead enterprise, the project being authorized by the legislature, 
to build a road to span the two miles between Mt. Gilead and what 
is now Edison, thereby giving the county seat a direct connection 
with the Big Pour. 

Before the building of the Short Line, the little town which 
is now its western terminus, was known as Gilead Station. After 
the road got into operation, its name was changed to Levering, and 
later still to Edison. Edison is now a place of 387 inhabitants, 
according to the last census. It has a hotel, a church, a bank, an 
ice-cream manufactory, a store, a grocery, etc. Its prosperity is 
due to its location at the crossing of the roads above mentioned. 
E. B. Blair is the postmaster. 

Cardinoton Township. 

What is now Cardington township was the abode and hunting 
grounds of Indians ere the white man tfod its soil. The evening 
serenades in the grand old forests were not the music of the hand- 
somely uniformed bands of the present day, but the whooping of 
the hunting bands of Indians, the hooting of the night owl and 
the howling of the wolves. Here the pioneers lived in their rude 
log cabins, with their coarse fare of com bread and the game of 
the forests. It was here their children received a common school 
education in the round-log schoolhouses, daubed with mud, with 
greased paper for window lights and rude benches made from 
split logs. But many of those pioneers and their children lived 
to see the wilderness and the solitary places made glad, and the 
desert places to rejoice and blossom. The Indians went to their 
happy hunting grounds, the bear and the wild-cat fled from ad- 
vancing civilization, the forests gave way to countless beautiful 
and productive farms, the log cabins disappeared and their places 
were filled with comfortable and attractive farm houses. And in 

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the place of the log school houses and churches, now beautiful stone 
and brick structures have risen, with their spires pointing heaven- 

Cardington township is generally of rectangular shape, lying 
along the western boundary of Morrow county just south of a 
middle line drawn ea«t and west. The regularity of its eastern 
boundary is marred by the absence of a section from the northeast 
corner of its territory and of a similar piece taken from its south- 
east corner. With the exception of these mutilated comers, it is 
five miles s^juare and contains about twenty-three square miles of 

The treaty of 1796 opened the country south of the Greenville 
treaty line, and, by an act of congress passed in June of that year, 
the tract of land included between the original seven ranges and 
the Scioto river, for a space of fifty miles was appropriated to 
satisfy the claims of the officers and men of the Revolutionary 
army. These lands were surveyed into townships five miles square. 
When by the treaty of October, 1818, the last Indian claim to the 
land north of the Greenville treaty line was extinguished, a line 
passing due east and west through the state, forming now the 
northern boundary of the counties Richland, Crawford and Wyan- 
dot, was established as a base line for the survey of the **new 
purchase.'* Beginning on either side of the state, the surveying 
parties worked toward the middle and met on either side of the 
** three-mile strip*' or range 21, counting from the eastern side of 
the state. This land, with other tracts in different parts of the 
state, was known as Congress land, because sold to purchasers by 
the immediate officers of the general government, and was regularly 
surveyed into townships of six miles square. 

The original township, of which Cardington formed a part, 
was erected by the commissioners of Delaware county, December 1, 
1823. Asa Mosher, Noah White and Isaac Bunker were elected 
the first trustees of the township: Slocum Bunker was the first 
justice of the peace, and Delmo Sherman was the first constable. 
The election was held in April, 1824, at Mosher *s mill, and the 
second election was held in the same place. The second justice of 
the peace was John Shunk, and the second constable Alexander 
Purvis. The latter held office for several years. 

In 1825, Gilead was erected, taking off the territory on the east; 
in 1848, that part of Cardington south of the treaty line, which 
borders upon Westfield was set off from the latter township, and 
later a piece of territory about a mile square was added to the 
southeast comer from Lincoln. 

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Isaac Bunker and Family. 

Isaac Bunker came from Vermont and was educated as a 
mechanic. The Benedicts to whom he was related had come to 
Peru during the -period 1809-12 and Mr. Bunker made up his mind 
to follow them. He built a large wagon after the Pennsylvania 
type, bought a stage team, and, hiring an experienced driver, 
embarked his family and goods and came to Peru. While unde- 
cided as to his further movements, his attention was eiilted to the 
advantages offered by the Whetstone-Olentangy as it passed through 
the present site of Cardington. 

Examining the place with Cyrus Benedict, Mr. Bunker decided 
to settle here, and purchased forty acres, afterwards increasing 
his purchase to one hundred and sixty acres. On the 28th of 
March, 1823, Mr. Bunker came to his new purchase with a force 
of eight or ten men, chopping out a road from the Peru settlement 
as he came, and selecting a site for his cabin, he began to make a 
clearing. With the force at his command, the building of a cabin 
was short work,and on April 1, 1822, he had completed a home for 
his family in the forests which then covered the land now occupied 
by Cardington. In the following month the family, consisting of a 
wife and elevfen children, came from Peru ^ to possess their new 
home. His family established in their new quarters. Bunker 
pushed his plans with characteristic vigor and soon had a log 
blacksmith shop on the land adjoining his house lot, and a log bam 
located a little west and across the frontier road which ran along 
where Main street now furnishes an avenue for travel. These 
finished, a brush dam was built across the Whetstone near the iron 
bridge, at the western end of which the frame-work of a saw mill 
was erected, and a little below this a grist mill was erected, being 
supplied with water through a short race. 

The latter, which was in most demand, was finished first, doing 
its first grinding in the fall of 1822. The saw mill was completed 
immediately afterward, doing business in the winter or early the 
following spring. The buhr-stones for the grist mill were cut out 
of large ** nigger heads'' on the Peru farm, and measured some 
three feet long and ten inches in diameter. They were cut by 
Henry James and Slocum Bunker, and cost weeks of hard work. 
A little later Mr. Bunker built a cabin on the east side of Water 
street, and Slocum Bunker, his son, built a cabin on the northwest 
comer of the old cemetery, which was afterwards used as a school 
house and a public hall. 

Vol. 1—20 

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At the time of Mr. Bunker's coming, there were no white 
families within the present limits of Cardington township, save 
in the eastern part near the Gilead line, where two squatters, 
William Langdon and Stephen Sherman, had raised cabins on the 
land later occupied by Robert Mosher. But little is known of the 
origin of this family. Langdon's wife died here verj'^ soon, which 
was probably the first event of the kind in the township. Sherman 
being obliged to move by the purchases of the land, squatted again 
on the Singer place and later succeeded in securing a little farm 
of forty acres. 

Bunker's operations were well known in the settlement of 
Peru, and created quite an excitement among those who were not 
satisfactorily situated at that place. In the fall of 1822 there was 
an extensive migration from Peru to various points of the new 

Among the earliest of those who came in at this time were 
the Poust families. Jacob Poust, Jr., had come early to Peru with 
his brother John, and passed through this locality as early as 1814 
with the surveyor that ran out the Mansfield and Delaware road. 
Later their father, Jacob Poust, Sr., with the rest of their family, 
came and took up their residence in Peru. Just west of this farm 
near the same stream, Jacob Poust, Jr., erected his cabin just north 
of the treaty line in the southwest quarter of the township. 

Another family was that of the Elys. They came originally 
from Pensylvania to Sunbury township, Delaware county, where 
they remained until the summer of 1822, when Michael with his 
son Peter and family, came to Cardington and entered an eighty- 
acre farm on lot 28, east of the Pousts, where the elder Ely lived 
until his death. 

Closely following this family, came Isaac Bowyer. He built 
a saw mill on Shaw creek, in 1830, which he operated for some ten 
or fifteen years. The stream is sluggish, with low banks, and the 
dam banked the river up for a considerable distance and caused 
the water to overflow a number of farms, resulting, it is said, in 
considerable sickness, the condition of the country being productive 
of miasmatic troubles at the time. 

Among the Peru families that came at this time was that of 
John Keese. On coming to Cardington he located on a farm in 
section 18 in the western-middle part of the township. 

In the early part of the following winter, 1822-3, Peleg Bunker, 
whose wife was a Benedict and had been the means of his coming 
to the early settlement in Peru, located at Cardington. He was 

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originally from New York, belonged to the Society of Friends, and 
at a later day became prominent in the early manufacturing enter- 
prises of the village. 

Another inaportant accession at this time was that of Cyrus 
Benedict, the founder of the Alum Creek settlement in Peru town- 
ship in 1809. 

The Delaware and Mansfield road was soon chopped out and a 
connecting link between the old and new land soon established. 
The road from Marion to Delaware had been early blazed out in a 
unique fashion. The road had been regularly run out as far as 
Haven's Mills, in Claridon, and thence Jonas Foust, who had been 
to the mill, turned his horse loose, and, following the animal 
home, he blazed the trees with his tomahawk along the path which 
his horse took. 

Old Mills and Hospitable Millers. 

In the meanwhile improvements were rapidly taking place. 
In the Poust neighborhood, a horse mill was put up by a German 
named Gatchill, about 1824. But previous to this, and in fact, the 
first in the township, a mill was erected by Asa Mosher on the Whet- 
stone. This was built in 1819, before the land was surveyed. 
Robert Mosher and David James were twenty-eight days in accom- 
plishing this work, but it is said turned out **buhrs" that did the 
business equal to those in use now, though they could hardly be 
called as durable. A brush dam was constructed and, during the 
season of high water, there was a constant demand for its services. 
Persons living as far away as Bucyrus brought grist to the mill and 
were often obliged to remain over night, the miller dispensing a 
free hospitality. 

While this mill absorbed the patronage from the north and the 
east, the Bunker mill received that of Shawtown and the west. 
Here the hospitality of the miller was frequently taxed to an 
extent that absorbed the profits of the business, but it was extended 
cheerfully as a part of the business in a new country. 

The settlement on the Whetstone, having attracted consider- 
able attention by its activity, Horton Howard, bought, as a specu- 
lation, the property which afterward became known as the Gregory 
farm. Howard was a quaker, and had been a merchant in the 
village of Delaware, but was then receiver in the Land Office located 
at that place. 

Attracted by the stirring activity of the new settlement he 

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entered into partnership with Peleg Bunker, and a log cabin was 
put up on the north side of the Whetstone, for the purpose of 
accommodating a carding machine. The dam was built across the 
river at the point where Gregory street first strikes the river coming 
from the south. 

Bunker built a cabin for his residence a few yards south of 
the bend on the west side of the street. In the following year, 
Howard located on his property, moving into a cabin that had 

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crops. After the harvest they came again for the fall hunt, and 
many of them frequently stayed all winter hunting and trapping. 
These periodical visits of the Indians were kept up for twelve or 
fifteen years after the coming of the whites, but the growin • 
scarcity of the grain and the more attractive solitudes of the 
** Northwestern Territory" gradually diminished their numbers, 
and they finally ceased their visits altogether. 

The early community that settled in Cardington was largely 
made up of those who had known pioneer life in the adjacent 
settlements, and were better prepared to encounter the difficulties 
of their new home.- These were not so great as those encountered 
a few years earlier, but, although not so completely isolated as 
were the early settlements of Delaware and Knox counties, they 
experienced enough of the hardships and inconveniences of frontier 
life to impress us of a later day that it was a very serious business 
to clear up a new country. 

The nearest mills were in Marlborough and Peru townships; 
the only available tannery was Israel Height's, at Windsor Comer, 
and stores were only found at Delaware, Fredericktown, Mansfield 
and Marion. John Roy soon established a store at Mt. Gilead, 
which, with the mills erected by Bunker, relieved the settlers from 
the necessity of taking long journeys for the commonest necessities 
of life, although for salt, glass and iron. Zanesville continued to 
be the only source of supply. To this point such settlers as were 
able to bear the expense made long pilgrimages through the woods 
for these indispensable articles. 

Jacob Foust, Sr., used to make the journey with an ox team and 
wagon, consuming about eight days on the journey and bringing 
back four or five barrels 'of salt, the limit of a load for one yoke of 
cattle to draw. The arrival of such a load put the whole neighbor- 
hood in commotion, and the salt was readily sold at fifteen dollars 
per barrel, the purchase consideration being paid in barter or work. 

In 1824, Thomas Sharpe came from Pennsylvania to Carding- 
ton. He was elected surveyor of Morrow county in 1856, and after 
his term of service emigrated to the west. In the same year, Gideon 
Mann came to the place later owned by P. T. Powers. Mr. Mann 
was a native of Rhode Island, but came at an early date to Chen- 
ango county, New York. 

William Barnes was another early newcomer, hailing from 
Mechanicsburg, Ohio. In 1828 Reuben Oliver came here from Vir- 
ginia and entered land, and in the same year David Merrick arrived 
from Harrison county, and in 1830 his son-in-law, Lewis Barge, 

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came to Cardington from Belmont county. The latter moved into 
Bunker's old log cabin, on Water street. He lived there two years 
and established a wagon shop. Robert Maxwell came to the town- 
ship in the same year, and, after making an effort to buy out the 
interest of some earlier settlers in vain, he entered a large tract of 
land. He was a man of marked energy, of considerable means and 
has dircted his attention principally to handling stock. 

Settlement Around the Whetstone Mills. 

The community that gathered thus about the milling point on 
the Whetstone was made up largely from the members of the 
settlements in adjacent territory. No sooner was the **new pur- 
chase" placed upon the market than those who had failed to secure 
eligible farms, or who had contracted the habit of ** going to the 
new country," pressed forward to occupy the land, in some cases 
outstrippiiig the government surveyors. 

The earliest of these pioneers found the woods swarming with 
game of all kinds, to which were added large numbers of hogs 
that had wandered off from the frontier settlements and had ''set 
up" for themselves. These latter animals afforded considerable 
sport to those who delighted in adventure, and some narrow es- 
capes from injury at their tusks are related. Wolves were 
numerous and troublesome to the stock of the settlers, frequently 
destroying calves and young cattle. 

The severity of the winters of 1824-5 destroyed the larger part 
of the game in this vicinity. Snow fell to the depth of twenty 
inches, and a heavy crust formed on this and prevented the animals 
from reaching the ground, which resulted in the starvation of vast 
numbers of turkeys, deer and hogs. The latter animals were found 
in piles, dead through starvation and cold, while the crust, giving 
the lighter footed wolf a cruel advantage over the deer, resulted in 
the destruction in this way of vast numbers, of the latter animals. 

Among the early settlers, Jonas Poust was considered a great 
hunter and a crack shot. He devoted a considerable portion of his 
time to this pursuit, and added not a little to the limited resources 
of the frontier by his accomplishment. Hunting at that time was 
something more than a pleasure. It was a necessity, and it is very 
doubtful whether this country could have been brought under culti- 
vation without the aid of game to support the family until the land 
proved productive. 

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Approvxd Bee HuNnNO. 

Bee hunting made valuable returns to those who were proficient 
in this accomplishment, a single tree often jdelding as much as ten 
gallons of strained honey. The woods were full of bee trees and it 
is said that a barrel of honey could be discovered in a week, though 
it was not so easily secured. The plan adopted by regular hunters in 
this line was to provide a bait made up of a little water, honey, anise 
seed, cinnamon, brandy and ''life everlasting.". The latter was an 
herb that grew in certain parts of the country and was so necessary 
to success, and so much in demand, that the frontier stores kept 
it as a regular article of sale, and hunters would send as far as 
Mansfield to procure it. About a pint of this mixture was prepared 
at a time, and the intelligent hunter, taking a little of this liquid 
in his mouth, would spirt it upon the first bee he saw on a flower. 
The bee would at once make for its tree, and the others, smelling 
the odor, would follow the perfumed bee to where it would return 
for more of the attractive material. Here they would find the 
bottle of bait uncorked, and, diving into it, would bear back a 
burden of the precious liquid to their hives. 

The most difBcult part of the business would then be to track 
the bee to its stores of honey. Old hunters claim that the few drops 
of brandy to a pint of the mixture had the effect on the bees to cause 
them to fly direct to their trees without circling into the air, as is 
usual with them before they take their flight homeward.. To ** air- 
line" a bee was the test of proficiency in this accomplishment, and 
it was not all who were successful in this essential particular. The 
result of these expeditions, as the honey found ready sale at a 
distance, provided other necessities. 

Two villages laid out within the limits of the township, 
Friendsborough and Cardington. The latter will form a prominent 
feature in another chapter; the former can scarcely be said to 
have had any history. It was laid out on the property later owned 
by Robert Mosher, in the eastern part of the township, by Colonel 
Kilboum of Worthington, in 1822. The plat covered three lots of 
land, the project assuming a very ambitious character at the start, 
and later dying altogether. 

First Road. 

The first permanent step toward the introduction of civilization 
into this township was made in 1814, when the surveyor, John 

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Milligan, assisted by John and Jacob Foust, surveyed and blazed 
out the Delaware and Mansfield road. The road passed along 
where Jonas Foust later lived, and the party camping there one or 
two nights, left the surveyor's name and the date on a tree near 
the camp where it remained for years afterward. From this point 
the road approached the village of Cardington, a little east of the 
site of the railroad, near the gravel pit; thence it ran along the 
south line of Nichols street and thence along the gravel road and 
out by the old toll-house. On this road the mail was carried on 
horseback as early as 1815, and many stories are told of the dangers 
by highwajrmen and wild beasts that infested the road. Four years 
later a stage was run once a week, driven by a man named Brock- 
way, but after four months' trial the difficulties of the day proved 
too many, and it was discontinued. 

Water Courses and Drainage. 

The first settlers found the township a low, wet tract of land, 
covered with a heavy growth of timber. Owing to the level lay 
of the land, the streams in the central part are sluggish, affording 
but little drainage, and, in fact, it was necessary to convert them 
into ditches before they proved of any advantage in this direction. 

Toward the eastern part the land undulates slightly, and the 
banks of the Whetstone sometimes reach a height of ten or more 
feet. The latter river enters the township on the eastern side, near 
the track of the Cleveland, Columbus, Cincinnati arid Indianapolis 
Railway, and, following in a general way the course of the railroad 
south to the village, it takes a sudden curve west through Slate 
banks; passing through the village, and turning south again about 
the middle of the township, it passes out of its territory. Two 
streams, Big run and Shaw creek rise in the southern part of the 
township, and, passing southwest, through the central part, in 
about identically the same course, about a mile apart, join the 
Whetstone, the former just west of the village and the latter in 
Westfield township. 

During the early settlement, these water courses could hardly 
be called streams. They simply marked the low, marshy ground 
that existed at that time and which, when overcharged with mois- 
ture, sought this channel to feed the Whetstone. In the procesa 
of cultivation, these streams were converted into ditches, their 
channels deepened and straightened for a large part of their length, 

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srr.NKs .\i.o\(; tin-: wuktstonk uivkk. 

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and, in the drying-up of the country, they have taken on more of 
the character of creeks. There is but little bottom land along the 
Whetstone, nor is there much variety in the soil of the township. 
It was principally a black, sticky clay, requiring careful draining, 
and, when well tilled, capable of producing magnificent crops. 

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Village op Cardington. 

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was a store, and there was a tavern to entertain strangers. So 
great have been the changes that but few of the old landmarks can 
now be pointed out. 

The original plat of the village included the territory on both 
sides of Main street from the alley at the brick building occupied 
by Shur as a store, east to the river ; also between Second and Wal- 
nut streets, from the alley east of the Cunningham residence, east 
to the river. In 1849 John Thompson platted twenty-nine lots; 
six fronting on Main street, six on Marion, eleven on Second and 
six on Walnut. In 1849 Leumas Cook added nine lots lying on the 
north side of Main street, and the following year he added eleven 
lots on the south side of that thoroughfare, between Marion and 
Depot streets, and south to Second. In 1851 James Gregory added 
to the towns' forty-eight lots, including the territory extending west 
from the old American House on both sid^ of Main street to Third. 
In the same year, Gteorge Nichols added eleven lots south of 
Walnut and west of Center street. Additional lots have been 
added from time to time until the village has reached its present 

The Greenville treaty line, which marked the limit of Delaware 
county on the north, passes through Cardington from the east, and, 
running southwest, passes through Boundary street to the west line 
of the corporation. 

The first public improvement made in Cardington was a side- 
walk, a single plank in width, laid down on the south side of Main 
street from the railroad to the old Christian church on Water 
street. This was in 1852. Three years later better sidewalks were 
laid. The grading of the town and making the streets presentable 
constituted no light task. The surface sloped from the east and 
south, leaving what is now the business section of the town covered 
with swamp and water. No general effort was made to establish 
a grade until about 1868. 

A fire department was organized in 1874. Fires were almost 
unknown during the first years, and, though considerable appre- 
hension was felt that a time would come which would more than 
offset their good fortune, nothing was done by the village toward 
protecting property against fire. Seven thousand dollars would 
probably, cover the whole loss by fire during the first fifty years 
of the town's history. In 1856, Joseph Whistler had a small 
house burned; in 1865, William Cunningham had a blacksmith 
shop burned ; in the following year, Louis Mayer had a fire in his 
drygoods store ; in 1870, S. W. Gregory and Dr. T. P. Glidden each 

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lost a house; and in 1871, a millinery store was burned. After 
this period, the fires seem to grow more destructive. In 1874 
William Shunk's store, with three other storehouses, including the 
Bank building, were destroyed, involving a loss of $8,000; in 
November, 1875, G. R. Cunningham's establishment was consumed, 
involving a loss of about $20,000, and two days later the barns of 
the Nichols House were burned. 

Mayors op Cabdington. 

1857-8— John Shur. 1875-6— J. C. Bump. 

1858-9— Daniel Wieder. 1876-8— Seth Cook. 

1859-60— Charles Maxwell 1878-9— C. W. Case. 

1860-61— Daniel Norris. 1880-4— J. B. Waring. 

1861-2-.John Andrews. 1884-6— J. W. Barry. 

1862-3— J. C. Godman. 1886-8—0. P. Russell. 

1863-4— John Andrews. 1888-90— C. W. Case. 

1864-7— W. C. Nichols. 1890-92— E. Winebar. 

1867-8— G. P. Stiles. 1892— G. F. Pollock. 

1868-9— J. B. Clark. 1893— C. W. Case. 

1869-70— W. C. Nichols. 1894-6— Seth Cook. 

1870-2— A. K. Earl. 1896-1900— T. Peck. 

1872-4— S. Brown; 1900-5— P. N. Lavelle. 

1874-5— William G. Beatty. 1905— Henry Retter. 

Early Events and Settlers. 

The first person married who was a resident of the town, was 
Slocum Bunker, who was united with Miss Matilda Wood. The 
first couple married who were both residents of the town, were 
John Kessler and Rebecca Stout. The ceremony was performed by 
John Shunk, a justice of the peace, in a house on Water street. 

The first lawyer was Thomas McCoy, who was also the tallest 
man in the town. The first physician was Andrew McClure, who 
came in 1836. The first resident minister was Charles Caddy, a 
Protestant Methodist, who lived in an old house down by the mill 

Bunker moved into his new place and in a few weeks he died. 
Howard continued the business for a year, but the land office 
having moved to Tiffin, he was obliged to locate at that place and 
put his carding business in the hands of a Mr. Phillips. He con- 

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ducted the bumness for years until the growth of the country, and 
the improvement in manufactures, superseded the use of these 

In 1825 Isaac Bunker built a shop between his two mills, 
in which he manufactured wagons on the old eastern plan. He had 
carried on this business to some extent in a part of his saw-mills 
before this, but anxious to increase his trade be provided better 
facilities for prosecuting the undertaking. Two years later he 
built a frame foundry building on the east side of the river, to 
which he constructed a race and supplied machinery to run the 
bellows by water power. It was known as a **pocket furnace.*' 
Iron was bought at Mary Ann furnace, located in Licking county, 
on the Rocky fork of Licking creek. Charcoal was the fuel used, 
and was made by Bunker on his place; the principal business of 
the foundry was the manufacture of Jerhro Wood's patent cast- 
iron plow. \ 

In 1826 a postoflfice was established here.' Heretofore the 
community had obtained its mail at Westfield, where it arrived 
weekly, or at Peru, where it came once in two weeks. This was 
not so great an inconvenience as would seem at first thought, as 
mail was a very scarce article in the new settlement. 

A mail route had been established between Delaware and 
Mansfield, passing through this settlement as early as 1815, and 
the carrier brought the Delaware Oazette to the few who could 
afford to take it at that time. In the year named an office, under 
the name of Cardington, was opened — the name being suggested 
by the manufacturing interests of the place. Isaac Bunker was 
the first postmaster, who was succeeded by his son Slocum, and he, 
in turn, by Leumas Cook. 

The first tannery was started about this time by John Thomp- 
son on the spot where the store of W. H. Marvin afterward stood. 
In 1861 Shunk and Wagner built a tannery and carried it on until 
1865. In 1830 Slocum Bunker opened the pioneer store in a 
frame addition which had been built to the old Bunker cabin. 
Three years later he sold out to Peleg Mosher; in 1835 Benjamin 
Camp opened up a store on the Nicholas place which was the only 
one at that time. Later, John Lentz had a store and sold goods for 
a time. 

The site of the first tavern in Cardington was on the lot where 
the residence of Jesse W. Mills later stood. John Smith was the 
author of this enterprise, but in 1836 he sold out to Thomas Mc- 
Kinstry, who was later succeeded by Martin Brockway. The latter 

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built a large house on lot 8, which served the public under several 
administrations for eighteen years. In 1850 David Mosher erected 
a building for hotel purposes on the north side of West Main street, 
on a lot later owned by Henry Smith. A man by the name of 

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wallader, Moore and Dewitt. The first building erected for church 
purposes in this section was a log cabin on the land that Johnson 
Oliver later owned. This was put up by the United Brethren so- 
ciety, about the year 1828. In the eastern part of the township, the 
Quaker settlement of Gilead had services early ; but as early as 1824 
the Methodists had begun their pioneer work. At this time Rever- 
end J. Gilruth preached in the cabins about, and in the same year 
the building, put up for the double purpose of school house and 
church building, was thrown open to any denomination that chose 
to use it. The Reverend Mr. Oldfield was an early preacher; but 
little more is remembered of him. Of the later organizations, it 
has been difficult to ascertain as complete a record as would be 
desirable, and for what follows on the different church organiza- 
tions we are indebted to the pen of Reverend A. K. Barl. The 
order in which the Methodist and Christian churches were estab- 
lished is difficult to determine, but it is believed that the Methodist 
Episcopal church was the pioneer organization,- with the Christian 
church coming close after it, and then the Methodist Protestant 
church in 1837-38. 

The Christian church was a very early organization in Card- 
ington ; but there is now no authentic information as to its history. 
As early as 1841, this society had an organization, and held regular 
meetings. In the winter of 1842, this society held a union pro- 
tracted meeting with the Protestant Methodist church, which re- 
sulted in considerable accessions to their membership. The church 
had hitherto been without a regular place of worship; but, under 
the impulse of the revival, the society set about securing this 
desideratum. In the following year, aided by several of the 
Universalist belief, the society erected a comfortable building on 
the corner of Main and Water streets. At one time, this church 
had quite a numerous membership in the county, and this village 
seemed to be the rallying-point of the denomination. 

At this time (1841-42) Cardington was a small village, 
composed of about twenty-five or thirty families, and a population 
of from one hundred and twenty-five to one hundred and fifty 
persons. There was no church edifice in the place, but a frame 
school house, situated a little south of Main street on what is now 
called Center, served as a preaching place and place of meeting 
for all denominations. 

Prom the best information obtainable, the Methodist Protestant 
church was organized during the winter of 1837-8, by Reverend 
David Howell. In the organization, John Shunk and wife. 

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Leumas Cook and wife, Robert Cochran and wife, Jacolb 
Bovey and wife, and probably their three daughters, Elizabeth, 
Sarah and Mary; also, J. D. Glisson and his mother and sister, 
Mrs. Ilartsoi'k, were included. At the close of that conference 
year. Reverend Moses Scott was appointed to the circuit. It was 
called the Mount Vernon circuit, and included parts of the three 
counties of Knox, Licking: and Marion. Mr. Scott remained two 
years, and was succeeded by Reverends J. B. Roberts and Charles 
Caddy, who remained but one year, which brin^ the history of 
the church to the fall of 1841. 

Prior to 1842, there was no Sunday school in Cardington. 
Some time during that year an agent of the American Sunday 
School Union, by the name of Jones, paid the village a visit, 
lectured on the subject, and organized a Sunday school auxiliary 
to the American Sunday School Union, and supplied it with a 
library of books. In the organization, Reverend T. C. Thompson, 
of the Methodist Protestant church, was made superintendent, and 
G. W. Purvis, assistant superintendent. It was to all intents and 
purposes a union school, and remained so until the other churches 
felt themselves strong enough to go alone, when they withdrew 
their stock and organized schools of their own. 

A Presbyterian church was organized, according to the records 
in this village, July 4, 1851, under the name of the First Presby- 
terian Church of Cardington, with seven members, viz: James 
Harrison and wife, James Gregory and wife, Israel Hite and wife, 
and J. G. Arbuckle.. Messrs Harrison, Gregory and Hite were 
elected elders. The organization was accomplished by Reverend 
Henry Van Deman, of Delaware, Ohio. By death and removal 
their numbers were so reduced that, in 1860, Mrs. Sarah Gregory 
only remained to represent the church. In September, 1860, the 
organization was ** perpetuated,'' as the records term it, under the 
supervision of the organizer. Reverend Mr. Van Deman. 

The exact date of the organization of the Methodist Episcopal 
church is not given, but at an early period Cardington was an 
appointment on the Mt. Gilead circuit. One writer states that 
in 1841 the membership was small. Among the early preachers of 
the M. E. church at Cardington were Reverend Zephaniah Bell, 
Reverend Silas Ensign and Reverend Samuel Shaw, all well known 
preachers of the pioneer period. In 1841 Reverend Samuel Allen 
was the preacher in charge. Among the early members were 
Anson St. John, William Hill, John Richards and James Hazelto, 
with their families. Subsequently they fitted up an unfinished 

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frame building that stood on the lot later owned by M. L. Mooney. 
They had a few more accessions about this time, Reverend Richard 
Sims and Lewis Mulf ord, with their wives uniting with them ; also 
Andrew Grant and wife, having removed from Sunbury, joined 
the church by letter. Ere long they sold their church edifice and 
were without a place of worship for regular services. Sometimes 
they held their meetings in private houses, sometimes in school 
houses, and sometimes in the churches of the other denominations. 
In 1854 Reverend Lemuel Herbert was assigned to this circuit, 
which at that time contained three appointments — Cardington, 


Bethel and Boundary.. Reverend Herbert being an energetic and 
persevering man, succeeded in building a new church, and members 
were added to the society. After using this building for fifteen 
years or more, the congregation erected a new house of worship. 

The Catholic church formed an organization at Cardington 
about 1870, with a membership of sixteen families, and erected a 
small brick edifice. 

The German Lutherans organized a church in the west end of 
Cardington in 1868, and secured an appropriate place for worship. 

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Thb Pabk Museum. 

One of the attractive and unique institutions of Cardington is 
the Park Museum, in which are treasured historic mementoes of 
both national and local interest — all housed in a typical log cabin, 
built in 1858 and ''secured by a lock and key of massive size, made 
in Germany a century ago." The words quoted are from the pen 
of Mrs. A. B. French, now of Clyde, but a native of Cardington, 
who made a visit to the museum and wrote a full and instructive 
article of what she saw there and the reflections aroused by the 
unique collection. It is from her paper that the description is 
gleaned which follows. 

One of the first articles to attract attention was a stirrup worn 
by a cavalryman in the Civil war. Four horses were shot from 
under him and he escaped unhurt. Turning to the left is seen the 
coat and haversack worn and carried by that respected townsman, 
Sergeant George S. Singer of Company C, Ninety-sixth regiment, 
O. V. I., who enlisted April 8, 1864, and was detailed to carry the 
colors in the battle of Sabine Cross Roads, which was called the 
Red river campaign. Mr. Singer was in that battle which raged 
so fiercely and resulted in the defeat of the Union forces. While 
the Northern men were falling beneath shot and shell and defeat 
was sure, the orders came to the remaining few to save themselves. 
While obeying this order, a comrade (perhaps an orderly carrying 
dispatches) was shot, and both horse and rider fell. Mr. Singer 
paused long enough to unstrap the coat from his dead comrade's 
horse. Time and again he was ordered to halt, and demanded to 
give up the colors, but amid the fuUisade of bullets (some of which 
went through his clothing) he brought off the colors. The coat 
he carried on the retreat down the Red river to the Mississippi and 
sent it home. Miraculous indeed was his escape. A bullet hole 
through his haversack is a silent witness of the dangers he encoun- 
tered of being killed. From this battle many Morrow county 
homes date their sorrow. 

Not far away is a fiag staff carried by a soldier in the War of 
1812; a sword that went through the Mexican war and a child's 
tiny cradle, the last one hundred and twenty years old. Perhaps 
in the next case are the stocks, ball and chain, which illustrate the 
old-time methods of prison punishment, with ** Uncle Joseph Mor- 
ris's silk hat and Aunt Jane's Shaker bonnet, which no doubt wert 
worn when our country was in the throes of a great rebellion. 
Uncle Joseph was indeed a good Samaritan. He did great work 

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in securing homes for orphan children and protecting the runaway 
slave, which our older settlers in Morrow county will remember. 
His heart was warm and tender as a woman's. He had a place in 
it for a whole race of oppressed people and all who needed sympa- 
thy. The destitute and friendless turned to him and sought his 
door, where they received a cordial welcome and protection from 
Aunt Jane and himself. Could an angel do more? Surely no man 

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read in the morning paper news from thousands of miles away, 
of messages received from ships at sea by wireless telegraphy. It 
must seem like a new world to him and yet wireless telegraphy, or 
the telephone is no more perfected for this day and generation than 
were the dots and dashes in an early day. Mental telepathy, in 
one of the golden tomorrdws, will supersede both. 

''We also notice a china bowl, cup and saucer, one hundred 
and fifty years old or more, brought from Germany by George 
Jenkin's mother's ancestors in a sail boat. No doubt the little 
band of passengers encountered many storms at sea. What cour- 
age it must have required to leave the fatherland on so perilous 
a journey as a nine-month voyage. The dangers met and overcome, 
the seasickness and worst of all, homesickness when the land of 
their birth receded from view, will never be known. Could they 
have been permitted to pass one of the present day fine steamers, 
especiaUy on a moon-lit night, they would have thought it a phan- 
tom ship ploughing the sea. 

''My attention was then called to articles from Ireland brought 
by Jerry Dean's ancestors — a fire shovel, candlemolds and shaving 
mug 100 years old or more — and for a time we are on Erin's soil. 

**The next interesting article to attract my attention was a 
little dress, one hundred years old, worn by Stephen Brown, long 
since gone to the home of his fathers, and in fine state of preserva- 
tion. The linen was spun by his mother. 

**We were deeply impressed with the home relics. The 
ancestors of George Faust brought from Germany an iron kettle 
that is one hundred and seventy-five years old, which left a lasting 
impression with me. The names inseparably connected with it 
are my ancestors also. 

**In the case to the right is a copper kettle, pounded out by 
hand and brought from Germany by the Schimpf family in 1855, 
age not known. The warm-hearted Germans settled here in an 
early day. They came from the land of literature and science and 
had to endure many privations that few realize. But they would 
go any distance to do a kind act for a neighbor. Did they receive 
the welcome expected when reaching our shore after the long jour- 
ney from home and friends and 'rocked in the cradle of the deep?' 
We hope so. The hard-working and thrifty German has done much 
to promote the industrial interests of our country, while to the 
Yankee we are largely indebted for our inventive genius. 

"But they are not the only ingenious race. Our attention 
was called to a small hand-made loom to weave gallowses on, made 

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by John Leachner, before there were any saw mills or nails. It is 
fastened together with wooden pegs, showing great ingenuity. We 
also saw a pancake griddle made in Wales in 1780, one hundred and 
thirty-one years old. The ancestors of Mrs. George Ulery, the 
honest Welsh, left their thrifty farms, neat farm houses and fair 
Welsh mountains to make a home in the new world. They, too, 
have proven their patriotism auU are staunch and true. 

**As we looked at the cane and carpet bag one hundred and 
sixty-five years old, brought from England by the Barge ancestors, 
mentally we cross the mighty deep. 

*'We turn again to Germany and see the three years of cruel 
war of a century ago, of which the officer's lantern is a reminder, 
and also the army blanket that was carried through three years of 
the Civil war here after its experience over there. What a history 
could be written of the blanket. The wool fabric must have been of 
better quality then than it is now. The blanket is still in a fine 
state of preservation, as are the woolen rolls presented by Mrs. 
Theodore Purvis. They were made by the carding mills after 
which Cardington was named. 

**When the visitor first enters the Park museum the works of 
art from the diflferent grades of the high school will attract their 
attention. Professor Plickin^er has thoughtfully placed them 
with the handiwork of our ancestors. The pictures denote great 
artistic ability which has been cultivated by the aid of competent 
teachers. The years will come and go and when the hands of 
teachers and pupils have turned to dust, the birds will sing as of 
old, sunlight and shadow meet and mingle, and another generation 
fighting life's battle will no doubt view their work with the same 
interest we do our forefathers'. 

*'We now ask the reader to excuse us if we linger awhile by 
the old arm chair loaned by Mrs. E. S. Weiser and the writer. 
The chair has been in the Payne family one hundred and fifty 
years, and how much older we do not know. It has worn out three 
pairs of rockers and sixty years ago reseated the last time by 
our father, William P. Faust, (now deceased) with twisted hickory 
bark, which is still in good condition. Many, many years ago, 
the chair was brought overland from Hartford, Connecticut, in 
a moving van by Ezra Payne, father of Austin Payne, who died 
in Cardington in November, 1885, in his minety-foutrth year. 
While the family were enroute here one of the little girls died. 
They were far from doctor or undertaker and had to hew out a 
rude coffin from the section of a tree, in which the little one was 

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placed. They kissed the paUid lips and laid her to rest under 
the shoreless expanse of the sky, lit with the light of countless 
stars, there to sleep among the mountains and forest that formed 
a home for innumerable wild animals. With tearful eyes and 
aching hearts they resumed their journey, while the grief stricken 
mother with heart tendrils torn, sitting in the chair, watched the 
little mound till it gradually receded from view. The chair has 
been used as a cradle for each succeeding generation as they came 
and went. While looking upon it with reverence, visions of our 
sainted mother, Amy Payne Faust, came to us and memories of 
childhood's happy days. 

''Mother, dear mother, the years have grown kmg. 
Since I wm hushed by thy lullaby song. 
Sing, then, and unto my soul it will seem 
Womanhood years have been but a dream; 
Tired of the hollow, the base, the untrue. 
Mother, dear mother, my heart yearns for you. 

''Many a summer the grass has grown green, 
Blossomed and faded are faces between. 
Yet with strong yearning and passionate pain, 
Long I tonight for thy presence again; 
Ck>me from the silence so vast and so deep, 
Mother, dear mother, my heart yearns for you. 

**We turned from the reminder of happy hours on hearing 
the wind sweep through the leafless trees, sounding like a sad 
refrain as though nature was sighing in her dreams. Were the 
sweet strains from Nature's Aeolian harp, or from the dulcimer 
and accordion lying side by side in the case at our right? The 
former is one hundred years old or more and was presented by 
Lenn Fleming. The latter was brought from Germany many years 
ago by Henry Hartman, now deceased. 

**As though to break the pensive spell the pitiful bark of two 
coyotes is borne to our ears from the zoo. We start to the door 
and our attention is called to the piece of wood from the home of 
George Washington. 

**0n going out of the door we saw in front of the cabin a stone 
wash basin, hand made in 1813. Not far off, a stone hominy bowl, 
weight fifteen hundred pounds. To the left are two buhr grinders 
that were used to grind com. The one used by hand bears the 
marks of a century. The other for horse power was made in 1818 
by Ira Ink, grandfather of Mrs. Isaac Hickson. 

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^^ Gould the oxen, whose combined weight was four thousand 
two hundred pounds and the massive yoke used on them, when till- 
ing the soil, stand by the auto-plow recently invented by a Minne- 
sota man, which can plow fifteen acres per day at the nominal 
cost of three dollars per day, what a contrast there would be! 
Then if an aeroplane could gracefully settle down by the side of the 
harness one hundred and thirty-nine years old, brought from 
Virginia by the Cunards, the contrast would be still greater. While 
viewing the above you can be resting yourself on the settee and 
dining table combined, age I do not remember, presented by Al 

''If it is in the golden summer time when the bees are in the 
blossom and the tassel on the com, you will see the trees full of 
green leaves, beautiful flowers in bloom and bright hued shrubbery 
lining the fine walk, and no doubt by that time you will hear the 
playing of water around a fountain; and if it should be in the 
evening, sweet strains of music will be wafted to you from the 
band stand near the entrance, and with the electric light illumina- 
tion it will seem like a fairy land where lovers love to linger. 

**Cardington can well be proud of her school for the living 
and the fine chapel and mausoleum in Qlendale for the dead, and 
also the Park Museum in which their treasures can be cared for long 
after they are promoted to a higher grade in the school of the 
great beyond" 


The early industries of Cardington are no more, and promi- 
nent among these were the grist mills. The mills of the pioneer 
period have been almost entirely relegated to the rear. When the 
roller process mills were inaugurated, they made finer and whiter 
flour than did the old buhr mills, and became more popular on ac- 
count of the whiteness of the bread and the lightness of the cakes, 
made with it. An early settler of Morrow county narrated to the 
writer upon a recent trip to Chesterville that when the roller pro- 
cess flour was first introduced into their neighborhood, his wife 
came home from a call upon one of their neighbors and said that 
she had seen there such white bread made with a new kind of 
flour, and that she must have some of the same kind. He got it 
for her, and while they have since had whiter bread, he has never 
thought it had the strength and nourishment that the old time buhr- 
flour had, and added that the modem flour was not the kind a 

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pioneer needed to furnish strength to clear the forests. The old 
time flouring mills were converted into chop and feed mills, and 
later discontinued. 

There is an old mill yet standing in Cardington, but it is not 
in use and is now only a monument of the early period. The 
woolen factory, carding mills and tanneries have all disappeared, 
giving way to new conditions and new utilities. 

The water in the Olentangy at Cardington is quite low, but it 
has not now at any time the volume it had fifty or more years ago, 
when these early industries were run by water power. The clear- 
ing of the forests had a tendency to partially dry up the streams. 

The manufacture of wagons and carriages was one of the earli- 
est industries of Cardington. Bunker, the early founder of the 
village, was a successful wagon maker in Vermont, and notwith- 
standing the numerous projects that divided his attention, he found 
time to devote to his old business in the new country. Succeed- 
ing him came Thomas C. Thompson, who established a carriage 
shop in 1836. 

In 1874, the Hook Brothers started a cooper shop in the village, 
finishing their work, save hooping, at the saw mill of Joseph Smith, 
a little northeast of the village After a year or so, the whole 
business was moved to the village, where the hooping had been 
done from the first, putting up a shop just west of the depot. In 
November, 1877, the business was sold to Lee & Utter, and two 
weeks later S. Atwood was taken into the firm. 

In 1847, J. H. Pluckey commenced the blacksmith business, 
doing custom work until 1873, when he began the manufacture of 

Another enterprise was the furniture factory of J. S. Peck. 
This industry had an early origin in Cardington. In 1844 Anson 
St. John supplied the village and the surrounding country. In 
1851 Edbert Payne established a furniture shop, but after operat- 
ing it a few years, he sold out and went west. Asa McCreary also 
had a furniture store about that time. 

The progress from Bunker's single little store, followed by 
Peter Doty, Robert Jeflfries, John Shunk, Shunk & Wolfe, Martin 
Brockway, David Armstrong and John Shur, covers the growth in 
business for some thirty years. The advantages oflfered by the 
river and railroad were largely counter-balanced by the strong 
competition oflfered by Chesterville and Mt. Gilead. But time 
gradually told in favor of this village, and at the beginning of the 

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war a class of enterprising men had become established in business, 
and made Cardington, during that period, one of the most active 
little towns in central Ohio. 

With such business activity, it would be natural to find the 
banking business prominently represented. The first bank was 
organized as early as 1854, by R. J. House, John Beatty and Richard 
House, under the name of the Banking Company of House, Beatty 
& Company. 

HoNS. Caleb H. Norris and C. S. Hamilton. 

Among the many prominent men who were once residents of 
Cardington, mention should be made of Hon. Caleb H. Norris, 
now a resident of Marion. He was bom in Waldo township, 
Marion county, Ohio, September 29, 1849. When Caleb H. 
Norris was four years old his parents removed to the vicinity of 
Cardington, where they resided for thirteen years. At the age of 
seventeen he graduated from the Cardington high school. In 1860, 
the family returned to Marion county and he began the study of the 
law. He graduated with distinction, is regarded as one of the 
ablest lawyers and jurists in this part of the state, and is now a 
judge upon the bench. In the practice of law his influence has 
been for good. Deferential to the bench in a manly way, cour- 
teous to his professional brethren, faithful to his client as far as 
honor will allow, a gentleman in court, on the street and in his 
office — these were his every day characteristics. Such a course of 
conduct could not fail to bring honor to himself and to his pro- 
fession. In his private life and as a citizen and a neighbor, he has 
acted well his part. 

''Formed on the good old plan, 

A true and brave and downright honest man! 

He blew no trumpet in the market place, 

Kor in the Church with hypocritic face 

Supplied with cant the lack of Christian grace; 

Loathing pretense, he did with cheerful will 

What others talked of, while their hands were still." 

The author of this work attended the Republican convention 
which was held at Cardington to nominate a candidate for the 
Fortieth congress, to succeed the Hon. James Hubbell, who was 
then the representative from that district. The writer recalls the 
convention very vividly from the fact that he had a friend who 

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worked industriously for Mr. Hubbell. The nomination went to 
C. S. Hamilton, of Union county, who was elected at the ensuing 
election. A sad tragedy occurred, however, which resulted in 
Mr. Hamilton's death at the hands of his insane son, soon after he 
had entered upon the duties of his ofiSce. His death occurred in 
1867. At a special election Oeneral John Beatty, of Morrow 
county, was chosen to fill the vacancy caused by Mr. Hamilton's 
tragic death. 

Cardinotoi} in 1850. 

The following article was written by Morgan Payne and 
printed in the Morrow County Independent, July 18, 1901 : 

** Morgan Payne, who is one of the pioneers of Cardington, 
has furnished the Independent a few reminiscences of the Carding- 
ton of fifty years ago, when Chesterville was the metropolis of 
Morrow county and Cardington and Mt. Oilead were struggling 
for second place. When Mr. Payne came to Cardington from 
Westfield township, the town was only a few buildings near the 
East Main street bridge. The old saw mill near the dam was unfit 
for work ; the Christian church was standing on the comer of Main 
and Water streets, Anson St. John had a shop where he made some 
furniture; the Grant House stood where it now does; Dr. Resley 
lived next door to the hotel, which was where Mrs. Bradley now 
lives. Then there was the Shunk House, and across the street 
from it the building where Henry Bailey kept store. Over the 
gate entering the Bailey store was an arched sign bearing the 
words, **Cold Water." There was a small one room school house 
opposite where Mrs. Prophet now lives, and Mr. Starr had just 
erected a store building on the corner on which Dr. Neal resides. 
This building was after a few years moved to the Odd Fellow lot 
on the comer of the square. A little later David Armstrong kept 
a store on the lot where Charles Koppe lives, and Mr. Brockway 
sold his hotel to Mr. Salisbury and built the Beell brick building. 
A Mr. Thompson owned the property where Dr. Green's oflSce 
stands. The only buildings on South Marion street were a small 
frame house where the Gano brick is, occupied by John Gregory, 
father of J. D. Gregory, and the house near by on the farm owned 
by Mr. Brockway. Among the men who were here fifty years 
ago are George Bell, John Pluckey, A. Mayer, E. Burt, D. B. 
Peck, Amos Earl and Hartley Ensign. Many of the others are 
laid away in the old cemetery. In 1864 Mrs. David Armstrong 
was the first person buried in the new cemetery. 

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"Mr. Brockway conducted the hotel. The stage stopped there 
every day. The stage driver changed horses at Westfield and 

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**In 1854 or 1855, while the south was trying to force slavery 
into Kansas, Mr. Payne helped a runaway slave family on its way 
to Canada without knowing that he was violating the Fugitive 
Slave Law. One evening after the departure of the train and 
while he was alone in the oflSce, a colored man came and asked 
him for something to eat. He said his wife and child were in the 
woodshed. Mr. Payne procured them food and drink, hid them 
away in the shed and at 10 o'clock that night put them on a freight 
train bound for Cleveland. There were three in the family. The 
child was almost white and the mother part white. They were 
from Kentucky and said their master was going to sell them to go 
farther south, as he was afraid they would run oflf and go to 
Canada. The next morning as Mr. Payne came down stairs at 
the hotel he saw two blood hounds lying on the floor of the bar 
room and heard two men asking Mr. Norris for a livery team. 
They procured a rig at John Sanderson's bam, loaded the hounds 
and started for Aaron Benedict's between Woodbury and Stan ton- 
town, where there was a station of the under ground railway and 
where they expected to find the fugitives. Cardington was not 
on the route usually selected by the runaways and the men made 
no inquiries here, although their presence caused Mr. Payne to 
examine the laws, when he found that he had made himself liable 
to a term in the penitentiary for harboring and aiding human 

**Mr. Payne will be eighty-three years old the 27th of August, 
1911, and has lived in Cardington sixty years. He was bom in 
Liberty township, Delaware county, Ohio. Age is now fast remov- 
ing the vigor of former days from him and his associates who wit- 
nessed the development of the town, and in a few years they will 
be no more. Payne avenue was named after Mr. Payne and runs 
through an addition which he laid out in North Cardington. While 
employed by the railroad company he made six inventions of rail- 
road appliances, one of which is still in use." 

Cabdington Sixty Years Ago. 

As Remembered by Mr, and Mrs. H, Wagner, and Given in a 
Recent Interview. 

It is not an easy matter to obtain reliable material relating to 
the birth of a town, but in this instance the writer was fortunate 
and local history found here may be relied upon as truth. 

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Mr. and Mrs. Wdgner are well known and respected citizens 
of Cardington and reside on West Main street. Mrs. Wagner's 
father was James Gregory, Sr., who owned considerable of the land 
on which Cardington is located. From childhood to the present 
time she hais been identified with the town. Mr. Wagner is not a 
Buckeye, coming here from Maryland, in 1863, forty-seven years 
ago ; in business many years he is still active — doing the work of a 

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The first school house was located where Mrs. Fiedler recently 
lived, opposite the Prophet home, and was a small frame of one 
room where the pupils sat on benches. The first teacher's name 
was Poe — no relation to the one who told us about the bust of Pallas 
with a raven sitting upon it ; in fact he bore no resemblance to liie 
melancholy poet, for he could scarcely hold his own with the pupils 
and did not keep good order. Think of that first school house and 
then go and take a long look at the old Cardington High if you 
do not believe our town has grown some and improved greatly. 
Where are those pupils and their first teacher now? What a re- 
union it would be if only, alas! they were here to shake hands with 
one another. 

Railroad Better Than Court House. 

There was quite a rivalry about the location of the county seat 
between Cardington and Mt. Gilead. Very few people know what 
a narrow margin there was between the selection of the towns for 


the site of the court house. A mass meeting resulted in raising 
funds and sending a representative for Cardington interests to 
the general assembly. But Mt. Gilead runs the court house and 
claims the county seat honors, which after all does not amount to 

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much for materially buildiDg up a town or increasing its popula- 
tion, as may be proven by comparison between the two towns after 
all this lapse of time. 

People have often wondered why Cardington got the railroad 
and Mt. Oilead got left. Here is the truth of it: The surveyors 
were at Mt. Gilead making overtures to the citizens of that place 
relating to the location of a railroad station there. A misunder- 
. standing brought them back here saying that they had been in- 
sulted and Cardington might have it instead, if ten acres of land 
were deeded to the company for depot and grounds. There was 
some tall hustling done about that time and at a public meeting 
Loomis Cook sold the town three acres of land for $300. James 
Gregory, Sr., donated the other seven, making the required ten. 
It was a great day for Cardington when the first engine went 
through; it was like a southern barbecue or county fair, people 
gathering for miles with dinner baskets, patiently awaiting to see 
the sight. When it did come, the people and the engine made some 
noise, the people shouting and the engine doing some fancy tooting, 
a result of which was that a fine horse of James Gregory, Sr., was 
frightened to death. It was in a pasture field where Henry 
Axthelm now lives, and escaping ran down West Main street as far 
as where the Ernie Payne home now stands and turned back home 
and dropped dead. Take it all in all, it was a great day for 

The first depot stood where the present one is and John 
Shunk was the first agent. The railroad offices were located at the 
place where the old Cunningham House, owned by Wat Shaw now 

To the railroad Cardington owes many years of wonderful 
prosperity, for at one time the town was a center of trade for miles 
in every direction. The railroad was the magnet, for it was the 
only one near and a great shipping medium for farmers, and if 
the town did lose the county seat it gained something of more value 
in a business sense — the railroad and all that goes with it. 

The Old Carding Mill.. 

The old carding mill, after which the town was named, was 
located on the brow of the hill jqst below where Philip Loyer lives. 
It was a three story building, owned by James Gregory, Sr., and 
managed by his son, William Gregory. It was run by water 
power. The farmers came from great distances with wool. The 

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big building was often as full as it could be crowded from top to 
bottom with wool brought there to be carded, after which the 
farmers would return for the rolls and take them home for spinning 
and weaving. Then they would come back with the rough cloth 
and the mill people would do the fulling, dressing and pressing. 
It would now be ready for the tailor — ^home or imported kind. 
The mill people would card the wool in the summer time and full 
the cloth in the winter. Great strings of farm wagons might 
often be seen awaiting their turn to unload at the Cardington 
mill, suggesting what an immense business was done there. 

Think what our forefathers endured to get a suit of clothes; 
take it from sheep shearing until the traveling tailor, with his 
historical ** goose," or mother fashioned it. What a lot of work 
and worry ! You may see spinning wheels at the Park Museum, 
the same kind your great-grandmother sang duets with, as she spun 
the rolls of wool ready for weaving. To be a good weaver, to 
make fine cloth, or excel in coverlets — a few samples of which 
with date and initials are still found, strong and beautiful in their 
colors and patterns, in our households — was to be greater than a 
king, at least you would have been popular. Shoddy was unknown 
in those days and a good piece of cloth meant that it would still 
be good after many years. 

It is interesting here to note that two of James Gregory, Sr's. 
sons — James (connected with the mill) and David — went to Cali- 
fornia, possessed like thousands of others with the gold fever. 
They left Cardington in a two horse wagon, well stocked with pro- 
visions and everj^thing necessary for the trip. When they got to 
St. Louis they traded their horses for oxen, joined a caravan of 
five hundred ox teams and continued the journey. They were 
nine months on the road, remaining between two and three years, 
and on their return a ware house was opened in a building after- 
ward occupied by A. Mayer. A sad incident of the California 
trip was the death of young Needham, who went with the Gregory 
boys from this place. When within only one hundred and 
twenty miles from the diggings he was taken ill. He called on a 
doctor who accidentally gave him a dose of morphine instead of 
quinine. He never awakened and one Cardington citizen lies in 
California, filling a nameless grave. 

The first grist mill was owned by Charles Wolfe, who sold out 
to Jesse Mills, grandfather of the Mills Brothers, and after that 
Dick Mills, their father, owned and ran it. It was the old water 
mill formerly occupied by D. J. Babson. The flour mill has been 
in the Mills family for three generations. 

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A tannery formerly occupied the land where John Under- 
wood's handsome new block now stands. A man by the name of 
Tyler was killed by lightning in this tannery. It was owned by 
Shunk and Wagner and afterward removed to Gilead street. The 
building is now the property of Alfred Dennis. 

The first mayor was John Shur. The first newspaper was 
called the Cardington Flag. The first elevator, by James and 
David Gregory, was afterward carried on by Andrews & Reichel- 
derfer. The first hotel was down near the Lentz home and owned 
by a man named Brockway. It may surprise many people that the 
Lisse building was once a hotel ; also to know that Hotel Gregory 
was once a one story structure owned by Dan Norris; afterward 
Henry Benson put on an additional story, then another. The first 
jewelry store here was owned by Merritt Burt, a brother to Nicholas 
Burt and an uncle of Charles Burt. 

Mr. Wagner came here in 1863 from Maryland and began 
clerking in the store of Shunk & Wagner, in which his brother 
David was a partner. William Shunk was provost marshal of 
this congressional district, a responsible and paying ofSce in that 
day of civil strife. Mr. Wagner has many pleasant memories of 
his Maryland home and among them the listening to some of the 
silver tongued orators of a generation or two ago — General Robert 
E. Lee, then a Whig, afterward commander of the Confederate 
army; Lewis Cass, a Democrat; John J. Crittenden, one of Ken- 
tucky's most famous sons; President Franklin Pierce and Henry 
A. Wise, governor of Virginia, who sentenced John Brown to 
death — John Brown whose **soul goes marching on." As the 
episode of John Brown was national, it may interest the present 
generation to hear one verse and chorus of a song popular at that 
time in Vii^finia: 

In Harpef '8 Ferry section 

They had an inBurrection, 

Old John Brown thought the niggers would sustain him, 

But old Gov. Wise put the spectacles on his eyes, 

And he marched him to that happy land of Canaan. 


The good Eastern ship had just made a trip, 
Twelve day» at least without strainin' 
But well take a big balloon, that will carry us soon 
To that happy land of Canaan. 

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To hear Mr. Wagner talk of Cardington of nearly fifty years 
ago impresses one with the idea that this was a live business place 
and the people hustlers. He has sound ideas on high prices and 
believes that one factor in the industrial problem is too few pro- 
ducers to the great mass of consumers. 

The nucleus of the town was around what is now East Main 
street and the Mt. Gilead bridge. It was a great railroad center 
and trade was brisk. There were seven dry goods stores, four or 
five groceries and three regular shoe stores here at one time. 
Trade was immense, extending half way to Marion, Waldo, Pros- 
pect, Iberia, Ashley, Marengo and Pulton came here to buy and to 
ship stock on the railroad. It was certainly lively in those days, 
and Cardington had a reputation far and wide as a respectable, 
law-abiding and hustling town. It was a grelit center for conven- 
tions and its hospitality was famed far and near. 

Cardington suffered from the effects of a large fire that origi- 
nated in a clothing store in the first room east of the Shunk store, 
then located where the Beatty & Chase block now stands This 
establishment with Taylor's shoe store, located on the site of the 
present National bank, burned to the ground. Wagner after- 
ward removed to the Parrington grocery site on West Main street, 
and Shunk opened up again where Miss Long conducts a millinery 
store. There was a very poor chance to fight the flames then, and 
the fire department of Oalion came down to our relief. 

What a reunion it would be if those citizens who lived here 
fifty years ago could meet once more and look around them. There 
would not be one familiar landmark left of their time, but alas, it is 
as the poet says : 

Aye, thiiB it be! One generation comes, 
Another goes and minglel with the dust. 

And thus we come and go — 
Each for a little moment ftUing up 

Some little space. And thus we disappear 
In quick succession, and it ihall be so 

Till time in one vast perpetuity be swallowed up. 

Cardington in 1911. 
By W. 2J. Canaway, 

While Cardington receives credit in the census of 1910 of 1,349 
souls, a slight decrease over 1900, it has in the past few years taken 
on new life, new energy and an accelerated growth which promises 

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to make her future certain and sure. During the past ten years 
she has added seven new factories. The Cardington Cabinet Com- 
.pany, making a line of ice cream freezers, hose reels and cement 
block and tile machines, employs thirty-five men ; it was established 
in the fall of 1906. The Ohio Stave Company employs the same 
number in making barrel hoops, and was moved here from Marys- 
ville in April, 1906. The H. C. Long Handle Company started 
In 1911, employs fifteen men in making fork handles. The Card- 
ington Cement Tile & Block Company, has a force of seven, con- 
stantly making cement blocks and tile. The Russell hay bam 
employs a number of men in baling hay. The John Loeffert 
Cigar Company, just organized, will make cigars on a large scale. 
The Cardington Canning Company organized in 1901, operates only 
during the sweet corn and tomato season. There are, in addition 
the J. S. Peck & Son furniture factory, the Slicer Carriage Shop, 
the grist mill and Independent office, which have for years bee i 
giving the town its reputation as a manufacturing center. 

Nowhere in the state of Ohio can a finer lot of business men be 
found than in Cardington. They are alive to every opportunity, 
and the desire is always present to give their trade the best and 
make the price such that competition will have no effect. The 
stocks of merchandise are large in all lines, and every line of trade 
is amply represented. The business blocks and store rooms are 
unusually large. The businesses include five hardware and two 
drygoods stores, four groceries, clothing store, department store, 
two jewelry stores, three shoe stores, two barber shops, two drug 
stores, furniture store, three millinery stores, two harness shops, 
tailor shop, two bakeries, two insurance and real estate agencies, 
five restaurants, three automobile garages, hotel, laundry, two 
livery bams, four blacksmith shops, two photograph galleries, 
sewing machine agency, notion store, and fruit store. 

Besides its excellent business enterprises, few towns of its 
size support as many places of amusement. The pleasure-loving 
in the community support two moving picture shows, two pool 
rooms and a bowling alley. The town has for years boasted of its 
Ladies' Public Library, and is noted as the smallest town in the 
state supporting such an institution. For fifteen years it has 
supported an excellent lecture course. 

Cardington has two banking institutions, the Citizens and 
First National, both of which are strong financial houses. The 
Morrow County Building and Loan Company was incorporated 
in 1884 and has a capital stock of $300,000. Its deposits amount 

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to $75,000. All of these institutioDS are well managed and ably 
officered, and every effort is made to extend courtesy to their 
clients consistent with conservative business methods. W. P. 
Vaughan is cashier of the First National bank, E. M. Willits of 
the Citizens, and E. H. Conaway is secretary of the Morrow County 
Building and Loan Company. The Morrow County Farmers' 
Mutual Insurance Company, which was chartered May 14, 1897, 
has its headquarters here, with O. C. Romans as secretary and R. 
F. Mosher president. It has nearly 2,000 policies in force, repre- 
senting nearly $3,000,000 in insurance. The company is officered 
entirely by Morrow county farmers and has a steady growth. 

Several of the leading denominations are represented in 
Cardington. The pulpits are filled by able men whose aim is to 
uplift and make conditions better. Cardington churches and 
ministers are a credit to the town and reflect the moral standing 
of the community. The town has six churches and five resident 
ministers. Reverend Martin Weaver is pastor of the Methodist 
Episcopal church. Reverend A. E. Black of the Methodist Epis- 
Reverend M. F. Lauffer of the Evangelical Lutheran. All 
these, together with Shaw's mission, hold services tvnce 
each Sunday. Reverend Charles Harris, of Gambler, is 
minister in charge of the Episcopal church and holds services 
every two weeks. Reverend Father Style, of Delaware, conducts 
services at the Catholic church once a month. The United Breth- 
ren country congregations of Center and Shawtown have their 
parsonage in Cardington, occupied by Reverend J. 6. Turner and 

The schools of Cardington are recognized throughout this 
section as being of more than average excellence. The teachers 
employed are capable, conscientious instructors and the high degree 
to which they have advanced the schools is gratifying to every resi- 
dent of the town. When the youth graduate from the Cardington 
high school they are especially well prepared to meet every re- 
quirement. The equipment of the schools possess many of the 
modem devices for the education of the young. The laboratory 
is equipped with all the appliances necessary for performing ex- 
periments in physics and chemistry. A fine library is a valuable 
part of the school property. An astronomical observatory and a 
good museum are also at hand. More than forty pupils residing 
outside the town are attending the high school and the number of 
high school tuition pupils has been as high as sixty. F. H. 
Flickinger is superintendent, and W. J. Bankes principal of the 
high school. 

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Cardington has some as fine streets as can be found in any 
town, no matter what the size may be. The principal thoroughfares 
are paved with brick, and the residents of all streets take an espec- 
ial interest in developing the beautiful side of the town. The 
sidewalks are of sawed stone, six feet wide over much of the 
residence section, and in every way the place has the best in the 
way of improvements. The park is the latest attempt of the 
town towards civic beauty. A few years ago a swampy grove 
between Depot street and the railroad, and extending on both 
sides of the depot, was filled with dirt, walks made, band-stand 
erected, seats purchfised, flower beds made, several cages of native 
animals purchased, and the place made a pleasant one for rest and 
recreation. In a log cabin in the park are many relics of Morrow 
county pioneer days. Much of the credit for the park is due to 
the present mayor, Henry Retter. The Olentangy river at Card- 
ington is noted for its scenic beauty. For a mile through and 
above the town a concrete dam furnishes water for excellent boating 
and bathing, while a high bank, well wooded, protects the pleasure 
seeker from the sun and makes it as fine a place for these enjoy- 
ments as can be found anywhere. 

The fraternal and social side of Cardington is well sustained. 
The Masons, Odd Fellows, Knights of Pythias, Maccabees, Royal 
Arcanum, Grand Army and Eagles are well represented and have 
flourishing organizations, and a lodge of Modem Woodmen is 
about to be instituted. These with the Order of the Eastern Star, 
Rebekahs, Pythian Sisters and Lady Maccabees carry forward the 
work of charity and good friendship that is the aim of the orders. 

The social clubs flourish and add much to the pleasures of the 
town. The work of the Current Topics Club is literary and it 
has for six years belonged to the Federated Women's Clubs of 
the state. Its membership is limited to thirty-six and the programs 
, for the year are made out and printed in advance. The Ladies' 
Musical Club has been in existence two years. Its membership 
includes forty of the musically inclined residents of the town, and 
it also has each year's program made out and printed at the 
beginning of the year. There are many other clubs, purely social. 

The physicians of Cardington rank with the best and their 
practice extends over a wide scope of surrounding territory. They 
are: Drs. H. S. Green and W. D. Moccabee, Dr. C. H. Neal, Dr. 
Florence Smith- White and Dr. E. C. Sherman. Dr. Moccabee is 
coroner of the county. The two veterinary surgeons, Dr. J. T. 
Molison and Dr. F. F. Griffin, both have automobiles and respond 
to calls as far as twenty miles away. 

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The Ladies' Public Library was established about twenty-five 
years ago, and has always been controlled by women, who have 
made it a success. That the effort to have a library here is appre- 
ciated is shown by the manner in which the citizens have supported 
it and have come to its help, when help has been needed. It 
has always been the desire of the association and friends to have 
an established home and they are looking forward to the day when 
some liberal, public-minded citizen will make such a thing possible. 
The members of the association try to give the reading public the 
best and newest books that it possibly can with the limited amount 
of money it has to command. 

The library room over the IndependerU office is very pleasant 
and open to the public every Saturday afternoon. It is to the 
credit of Cardington that in this respect it is in the front, for no 
other town of its size in the state posseses a library. 

Cardington has never had but one newspaper, now known as 
the Morrow County^ Independent and published by W. R. Cona- 
way, who was reared at Caledonia, but came to Cardington and, 
with W. E. Hull, took the paper June 1, 1897. On December 
1, 1908, he purchased his partner's interest and has since been 
sole proprietor. The Independent has a plant up-to-date and 
complete in every way for publishing a newspaper and doing 
all kinds of printing. The plant is composed entirely of new 
equipment and includes the only typesetting machine in the county, 
a Junior linotype, which has been in operation five years. 

There seems to be no history of its early years, but so far 
as the writer can learn the Independent has in its lifetime had 
five different names, although it is now in its fortieth year as 
the Independent. Charles. Maxwell established it as the Carding- 
ton Flag in 1856. A copy of the twenty-fifth issue on file at the 
Park Museum is dated October 30, 1856, and gives Q. D. Hastings 
as proprietor. The second year of its publication it was called the 
Morrow County Herald. During the exciting period of the war 
its editor was D. B. Holcomb and he had many thrilling exper- 
iences with some of those who did not agree with his views. His 
office was upstairs in the rooms now occupied by the Buckingham 
garage, and on one occasion he threw a man named Jones, from 
Harmony township, out of the window and to the alley below. 
In 1864 it was published by W. P. Wallace and brother. 

In September, 1865, it was changed to the Cardington ReveUle 
and C. B. Lindsey was then its editor. In 1867 it appeared as the 
Cardington Republican^ with Ed James as editor. A few years 

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later it was called the Cardington Independent, an issue of March 
18, 1875, bearing that name, with S. Brown as editor. During 
the later seventies and early eighties W. S. Ensign was publisher. 
He sold in 1887 to the Neal Brothers, Johnson and E. E., who 
published it until the death of the former, when E. E. Neal was 
proprietor until selling, in 1897, to Hull and Conaway. 

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favorite place for them to camp, and they would remain for days, 
hunting and trading. They seemed to have a high appreciation 
of the white woman's cooking, and they were constant beggars.. 

First Whites of Chester. 

The land in Chester township at the time of the arrival of 
the pioneers was all that they could have desired for the establish- 
ment of their homes. A dense forest of heavy timber covered the 
entire township. Streams reached out in every direction, which 
afforded drainage for the land and water for the stock, besides 
affording ample power for the industries so necessary to pioneer 

Chester township was surveyed by Joseph Vance, in 1807, 
and the first settler came close upon his track, erecting his cabin 
in 1808. 

The township was first organized by the conunissioners of 
Knox county as a part of Wayne township, one of the four divisions 
into which that county was formed at its organization. In 1812 
Chester, including the township of Franklin, was set off as an 
independent fraction of the county, its name being suggested by 
some of the earliest settlers, who were natives of Chester, in the 
county of the same name in Pennsylvania. In 1823 Franklin was 
set off and Chester was left in its present shape, five miles square, 
its lines coinciding with township 5, range 17, of the United 
States military survey. It is bounded on the north by Franklin, 
east by Knox county, south by South Bloomfield, and west by 
Harmony. The middle branch of Owl creek, which enters ihv 
township at the northwest comer, and the south branch of t' 
same stream, which enters a little further south, join just a little 
further southwest of the village of Chesterville, forming the main 
body of Owl creek, which passes the eastern boundary of the town- 
ship a little north of the middle line. Streams from either side 
drain the land, and furnish during the larger part of the year a 
plentiful supply of water for stock. The timber consists of a 
heavy growth of black walnut, maple, buckeye and cherry, with a 
lesser quanity of ash, elm, oak and beech. The soil, generally, 
is a rich loam, mixed with a limestone gravel, a combination that 
furnishes an almost inexhaustible resource for grain raising. 

The first settlement within the present limits of Chester was 
made by the original holder of a military land warrant, in 1808. 
Evan Holt, a native of Wales, but a long resident of Chester county, 

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Pennsylvania, had served six years in the Revolutionary army, 
and, receiving a warrant for his services, moved on to his land 
as soon as surveyed by the government. His claim was situated 
near the central part of the township, on a fine stream of water, 
and is now owned by Joseph Trowbridge. Although he lived 
nearly two-score years upon this place and raised a large family 
that settled about him, but little is remembered of him by those 
now living in the township. He was an earnest, conscientious man, 
and commanded the respect of his fellow-tovmsmen. 

In April, 1812, the community in this section received another 
accession of Welsh people in the family of Edward Evans, who 
bought the traditional plat of fifty acres of Djivid Jones, situated 
about two miles and a half south of the present site of Chesterville. 
Preceding him had come James Irwin and Peter Rust, from 
Pennsylvania; Joseph Howard, from West Virginia; Lewis John- 
son, RufuJi Dodd and John Kinney, and settled in this vicinity. 
In November of 1812 the family of James McCracken came from 
Payette county, Pennsylvania, and bought one hundred and sixty 
acres about a mile and a quarter south of Chesterville, on the 
Sparta road. He was induced to come to Chester, through the 
persuasion of Miller. A married daughter of the latter, who had 
been to Ohio on a visit to her parents, in a casual conversation 
mentioned a neighbor in Payette county, who was looking for an 
eligible country to which he could move. Her father at once 
called her attention to a fine piece of property, located near him, 
and told her to inform Mr. McCracken of its advantages. On her 
return she performed her errand so well, that her neighbor at 
once set about his peparations for leaving for the Ohio lands. 
He was without a team, however, and, informing Miller that this 
was the only obstacle that prevented his coming, the latter at once 
proceeded to Pennsylvania, with his - team, to bring hfai cm. 
During his absence, the difficulties that had been brewing between 
England and the States, culminated in the fieclaration of war. 
The Miller family living in an isolated place naturally became 
alarmed, and Mrs. Miller took her little family to the block house 
at Mount Vernon. A block house was early built across the road 
from Rush's mill, and thither, upon occasions of alarm, the larger 
part of the community repaired. Mr. Miller, returning with Mr. 
McCracken and his goods, found his family at Mount Vernon. 
They arrived in Chester in November and never left their homes 
again for protection. Mr. McCracken built a cabin on his prop- 
erty, leaving his family at Miller's cabin until his own was finished, 

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and afterwards during the period of the war, his family slept there 
for their mutual protection in case of actual danger. These fami- 
lies, thus closely associated for their mutual protection, were des- 
tined to be more strongly united through the marriage of William 
McCracken with a daughter of Mr. Miller, some years later. 

Among those who came during the war, and just after, were 
Joseph, William and Uriah Denman. This family settled near 
Chesterville, and were prominent in all enterprises affecting the 
interests of the new community. Some years later came John 
Stilley, whose family was the first to explore this region. His uncle 
was early captured by the Indians and taken through this section, 
and, attracted by the beauties of the country, came back after he 
was liberated and settled near Mount Vernon. 

The Chester Settlement. 

The Chester settlement was one of the earliest in Knox county. 
The first one was made not far from 1803 ; two years later. Mount 
Vernon was named, and in 1808 Evan Holt moved on his claim, 
and John Walker on his purchase, within the present limits of 
Chester. The growth of Mount Vernon, situated on a fine stream, 
and more remote from the frontier, was far more vigorous in its 
earlier years than could be expected of this settlement, and soon 
furnished the principal store, mill and post office for the surround- 
ing settlements less advantageously placed. Both settlements, at 
first, were obliged to patronize the same mill, situated some twelve 
or fifteen miles below Mount Vernon with a large advantage, in 
point of distance, in favor of the latter place. (Joing to mill was 
a very serious business to the settlement of Chester. The journey 
was some twenty-five or thirty miles, and with delays incident to 
the crudeness of the machinery two or three days were lost. The 
meal was but littlj more than cracker com, and served after 
sifting through a pan punched with holes, one part as hominy, and 
the other as flour for bread. This waste of time was saved, to 
some extent, by sending the boys to mill. As soon as they were 
able to balance a bag- of com on a horse's back they were made to 
do this duty, thus gaining their first introduction to the life of a 
pioneer. The popular phrase of ** sending a boy to mill,** expres- 
sive of the inadequacy of means to ends, probably originated in 
the incidents growing out of their misadventures at these times. 
John Meredith related that at one time when coming home from 
mill, the horse on which he rode ran against a tree and broke a 

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hole in the bag, causing a serious loss of the meal. He was equal 
to the occasion, however, and taking off his vest he stuffed it into 
the wound. Another boy, returning from mill in the same way, 
had the misfortune to have his load thrown entirely off his horse 
by running against a tree. He was too small to replace it, and, 
after chasing the hogs that abounded in the woods, away from the 
vicinity of his meal, he tied his horse, and running to the nearest 
cabin, some two miles away, secured assistance to replace it 

The place of holding elections, at an early day, was at Shur's 
cabin, but after 1823, when Franklin was set off, the voting place 
was removed to McCracken's, south of the village, and nearer the 
middle of the township, as then limited. After the village of 
Chesterville assumed more importance, the voting precinct was 
moved there ; but not without exciting considerable feeling in senti- 
ment, as it was geographically, by the creek. 

Salt could be secured only at Zanesville, at fifteen to eighteen 
dollars per barrel, and iron 'goods and glass at the same rate. 
Leather was equally necessary, and as difficult to procure, and 
John Meredith relates that he used to go to Mount Vernon to 
husk com, getting a pound of leather a day for his labor and 
bringing home his week's earnings on his shoulder every Saturday 
night. James Breese, who came from near New London, Connecti- 
cut, in 1818, and settled two miles east of the village — ^used to haul 
flax to Zanesville, and poplar lumber to Columbus, and get a dollar 
a thousand. The first tannery was started south of Chesterville 
by David Holloway, who, in the absence of oak, tried the virtue of 
beech bark. This experiment was a failure, and shoes made of 
the leather would get soaked up, and when hung up to dry warped 
so out of shape that they had to be soaked again and dried on a 
last, to be of any service afterward. These industries thus sup- 
plied, sufficed the necessities of the community, until, Chesterville 
being laid out, business began to come in, and rival even some of 
the older villages in its prosperity. 

During the War of 1812 soldiers were seldom seen here. The 
township was not in the line of march of any of the troops, there 
was not a single trail of importance, and the settlement was too 
new and sparsely settled to attract recruiting officers. Shur and 
Walker were pressed into the service with their teams, but they 
were not long retained. So little apprehension was felt here that 
the tide of immigration scarcely showed any signs of falling oflf. 

A large tract of land had been purchased by a Mr. McLaughlin, 
of Chillicothe, and desiring to put the land upon the market, he 

Vol. 1—23 

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offered John Walker fifty acres of land at fifty cents per acre, if 
he would go out to it and clear it, which he concluded to do, and 
in March, 1808, he moved out with his family from Washington, 
Pennsylvania, to Chester township, choosing a barren knoll just 
north of the present site of Chesterville. A fine spring was on 
the land, which was the chief consideration in making his choice, 
and the soil has since become fair farming land. When he came 
he found Indians encamped upon the site of Chesterville. Jacob 
Shur came from the same county as the Walker family, in the 
fall of 1810, bringing his wife and family with him, and all were 
hailed by the Walkers with delight. Mr. Shur bought one hundred 
and twenty-five acres of land and erected a double-log cabin, about 
a quarter of a mile northwest of where a hotel was later built.. In 
the spring of this year David Miller came from Payette county, 
Pennsylvania, and settled about a half mile south of where the 
village stands on the Sparta road. Here he bought fifty acres 
of McLaughlin, on which some slight improvements had been made. 
Mr. Miller packed his family with a few household goods in a cart, 
and, yoking his cow with an ox, made the tedious journey through 
the wilderness to his new home in Chester. In the succeeding year, 
Henry George came and settled in the vicinity of Chester church, 
near the center of the township. David Jones had come previous 
to this, and they settled upon the same section. In this settle- 
ment there were only seven cabins, occupied by Samuel Shaw, 
David Peoples, Evan Holt, John Walker, Jacob Shur, David 
Miller and Wilson Johnson. 

The game which proved such an attraction to the Indians and 
was such a benefit to the early settlers, continued for nearly 
twenty years after the first settlement was made. Deer, turkeys, 
wolves and bear thronged the forests, furnishing food, sport, etc. 
The settlers found the wolves to be dangerous besides being numer- 
ous, and, as both the state and the county offered bounties for their 
scalps, they were killed in large numbers, and, as their scalps were 
legal tender for the payment of taxes, commercially they were a 


Dr. Richard E. Lord came to Chesterville in 1833, and was 
the first practicing physician in the township. His labors of love 
and self-sacrifice are yet kindly remembered. Later in life he 
retired from practice and turned his attention to the cultivation 

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of his farm. In 1839 he put up a grist mill, four stories and a 
half high, and located it on the Mt. Gilead road, a little south- 
west of the center of the village. This did not prove to be a very 
profitable investment for Dr. Lord, for its construction and equip- 
ment cost more than the business at that time would warrant. An 
accident, which nearly proved fatal, occurred to the millwright. 
He was standing on the top superintending the raising of one of 
the massive bents that were peculiar to that time, and, missing 
his footing, he was precipitated into the mill-race below. The 
bent was partially raised, and, with admirable presence of mind, 
realizing that if the men became demoralized, they would let the 
bent fall and crush some of them, he gave an order while in the 
very act of falling, and he was not missed until, straightening 
the bent up, they looked for further directions. He was imme- 
diately rescued, and for a while his life was despaired of, but he 
finally recovered, none the worse for his sixty-foot descent. 

In 1819 the first mill in Chester township was erected. It was 
a small one story structure. Later the mill was enlarged and a 
saw mill with steam fixtures added. In 1825 John Dewitt^ Sr., 
put up a saw mill on the site of the Rush grist mill, which was 
burned down a few years later. In 1833, he rebuilt the saw-mill. 
The buhr stones were got at Bellville, and John Dewitt, Jr., re- 
lated that while he was at that place, there occurred that remark- 
able phenomenon of ** shooting stars," that has been so widely 
noted and a sketch of which is herewith given. 

On November 13, 1833, lights resembling stars were seen 
falling for three or four hours, in the after part of the night. 
The appearance was like a shower of stars. One writer said it was 
the grandest and most charming sight ever witnessed by man. 
Awakened from sleep, he sprang to the window, thinking the house 
was on fire, but when he looked out he beheld stars, or fiery bodies, 
descending like ** torrents.'* He wrote that the shed in the ad- 
joining yard to his own was covered with stars, as he supposed, 
during the whole time. A professor in Yale college wrote that 
he thought tlie exhibition was the finest display of celestial fire- 
works that had been witnessed since the creation of the world. 

Churches and Schools. 

The first religious denomination represented in the township 
was the Old School Baptists. Henry George was a Welsh preacher 
of that faith, was given a farm on condition that he would give 

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four acres for church purposes. Accordingly, in 1819, a hewed- 
lo^ cabin was erected on this land. About three years before this, 
however, Preacher George had formed a church organization. The 
first church edifice stood on a comer of the George farm, was about 
twenty by twenty-five feet and had greased paper windows and a 
huge fireplace at one end. In 1830 a frame building was erected. 
About 1836 there was a division of the church, the Old School part 
withdrawing and establishing a church in Harmony. 

The first school teacher in Chester township was John Gwynn, 
who taught one term in the old Chester church. The coming of 
Enos Miles, in 1813, aroused new interest in the educational cause 
for he was a professional teacher and largely instrumental in 
securing the first school house in the township, selling the land on 
which it was built for a pint of oats. He taught school in the old 
Baptist church, and later in a part of Shur's double cabin. This 
first log school hous3 was like the usual structure of the frontier, 
with greased paper windows, huge fireplace and puncheon floor, 
and thither the scholars found their way from miles distant along 
the blazed paths. 


Chesterville is one of the most prominent villages in Morrow 
county, and its people are classed in the front rank as to respects 
ability, intellectual endowment and other attainments. The site 
of the village embraces beautiful landscapes and an attractive 
topography, with the romantic Kososing coursing around its 
southern borders. 

Chesterville at the present time has three ch"urches. The 
Methodist Episcopal church, built in 1851, is of brick and seems 
in as good condition as when erected. The Baptists and Presby- 
terians have frame houses of worship of quite attractive appear- 
ance. All the churches are in a prosperous condition. The old 
United Brethren church building is now used as a bam, having 
been abandoned for religious purposes for many years. 

First Churches. 

We are told that the first church building in the village stood 
on the comer of the George farm ; that its dimensions were about 
twenty by twenty-five feet, and that it had greased paper windows 
and a huge fireplace. It was built by the Baptists, and, while the 

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date of its erection is not given, it must have been at a very early 
date, for in 1830 they erected a frame building a little northeast 
of their present house of worship. About 1836 there was a divi- 
sion of the church, the Old School part withdrawing and establish- 
ing a church in Harmony township, leaving the New School part 
in Chesterville. About four years later they erected a better 
church building, it being a frame structure. 

The Methodists next founded a church home in Chesterville, 
and among the early circuit ministers were Pilcher, in 1829, fol- 
lowed by David Young, Jas. McMahon, Leroy Swampsted, John H. 
Power, Elmore Yocumb and William Criste. About 1836 a class 
was formed and meetings were held in the old school house. A 
church building was erected, which later served as a school house. 
A new church building of brick was erected in 1851, which is the 
one occupied by the Methodists at present. 

In 1845 the Presbyterians formed a society in Chesterville. 
and later built a church. The first membership of the society was 
taken largely from other churches of that denomination in adjoin- 
ing localities. 

The building in which the post oflBce is located is the oldest 
structure in Chesterville. It was erected by William Gordon for 
a Mr. Squires, who later died of cholera in this same building. 
Diagonally across the street stands the second house erected in the 
place. This has been remodeled and is now quite an attractive 
residence. Both of these old buildings were erected as residences, 
and have remained as such, except that the postoflBce is now in the 
north half of one which was originally a double house. 

The old brick hotel which stood for many years at the north- 
west comer of the cross streets, was a few years ago destroyed by 
fire and was not rebuilt. A part of the old foundation is yet 
visible. More than sixty years ago George Shaffer kept tavern in 
Chesterville in a house which was later remodeled into a residence 
and is now the home of Joel Brown. 

The history of Chesterville records that Enos Miles, Sr., came 
to where Chesterville now stands in about 1817, and built his 
cabin a little back of where the old hotel later stood, carrying the 
water used in the household from a spring on the William Denman 
place, until about 1833, when a well was dug near the center of 
the square, which supplied the wants of the village in that line for 
years. At the coming of Mr. Miles, in 1817, a piece of about ten 
acres in the southern part of the village had been felled and partly 
chopped over. 

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Chestbrville (Miles' Cross Roads) Pounded. 

The village was laid out in 1829, and named Chesterville from 
the name of the township, but the local name of Miles' Cross 
Roads was given the village for some time. The first sale of lots 
occurred the following April. In the fall of this year the old 
tavern was built, where Mr. Miles entertained the public until 
1833. The house was afterwards kept by Phineas Squires, Wil- 
liam Ash, P. B. Ayers, Davis Miles and others. In 1838 Mr. Miles 
erected a brick building west of the hotel, which he intended for an 
academy, but as there was no demand at that early date for such 
a school, he turned it into a dwelling. At that time brick houses 
were few on account of the scarcity of brick masons. The first one 
was built in 1815 by Henry George for Robert Dalrymple. The 
second was Jacob Shur's house, built in 1825. Among the early 
merchants were W. T. Bartlett, Stephen Husey, Enon Jackson, 
Sharon Burgess, Wells and Arnold, Mark Ketchem, Sharon Miles 
and Page and Hance. 

A post office was established at Chesterville in about 1837, with 
Enos Miles, Sr., as post master. Por some time it was kept in 
the hotel, but it was afterwards removed to another room, and later 
to one of the stores. The mail was carried from Marion to Mount 
Vernon twice a week on horseback, the carrier generally stopping 
at Chesterville over night. About 1860 the route between Pred- 
ericktown and Mount Oilead was established, mail being carried 
three times a week, and in 1865 it was changed to a daily route. 
John McCausland the present postmaster, has held the position 
for a number of years, and will probably continue in the same 
position for years to come as the office of that class is under civil 
service rule. There are no rural routes starting from this office. 

Davis Miles was the first mayor of Chesterville and the present 
incumbent is D. S. Mather. The village has four fraternal ordew, 
the P. and A. M., with its auxiliary; the Eastern Star; the I. O. 
0. P. and Rebekahs. 

The first practicing physician in Chesterville was Robert E. 
Lord, who came to the place in 1833. It was he who erected the 
four story grist mill just at the edge of the village, and which 
served its purpose for many years until patent utilities relegated 
it out of business. When the roller process mills began opera- 
tion, making seven or eight different brands of flour, which became 
very popular in the market, the old buhr process was no longer 
in demand, and, as the law of demand and supply controls the 

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markets, the old mills had to shut down. Dr. Lord is dead, and 
the mill has been sold a number of times — once for $5,000 and the 
last time for $1,125. The old building is yet standing, but is now 
used as a bam. The old Shur mill, at the southeast part of the 
village, has been cut in two, one part being used as a barn and the 
other removed a short distance and fitted up for a residence. 

Chesterville has a fine brick school building and the graded 

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Roger's lake is about a mile southwest of ChesterviUe, and 
covers about ten acres of ground. Grounds have been fitted up 
for a picnic and summer resort, and they are rendered attractive 
by reason of their natural beauty, development and the care which 
is taken of them. 

South Bloomfield Township. 

The magnificient country, of which South Bloomfield township 
is now a part, was less than a century ago but a vast waste of lux- 
uriant nature, where amid the scenes of privemal solitude, wild 
beasts and savage Indians roamed at large. Nature built the wig- 
wams in the hidden recesses of the forests, and on the banks of 
the winding streams. But finally the pioneers— ^tiie torch-bearers 
of civilization — wended their way toward this virgin territory, and 
soon the smoke from the cabins and the noise from the woodman's 
ax proclaimed the beginning of a new era. 

In the autumn of 1813 three hunters left Mount Vernon and 
pushed into the wilderness, armed with their rifles, for the purpose 
of hunting beyond a settlement. They also desired to fix upon 
a location. Their names were Peter and Nicholas Kile and Enoch 
Harris. They entered South Bloomfield township at the southeast 
corner, coming from the east, and, admiring the country, decided 
to locate and form a settlement. The scene before them was a 
very pleasing one. There was the branch of Dry creek, threadin{$ 
its way amid green banks and grasses and mosses. There was 
the narrow valley of the creek, skirted with long rows of beech 
and walnut and maple, and the neighboring hills crowned with 
clusters of trees, the bright foliage of which was tinted with the 
rich coloring of autumn. From the foot of the hills crept out 
small brooklets that stole rippling down to the creek. These three 
hunters were delighted with the outlook and entered into an 
agreement to enter a quarter section each. All being satisfied 
with their selections, they returned to Mount Vernon to complete 
the purchase of their new homes. 

The First Settlers Locate. 

During the following winter, Harris went out with his ax 
and cleared suflScient land to afford material for the erection of 
a house, and in March, 1814, with the assistance of some friends 
from Mount Vernon, he erected the first log cabin ever built in 

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South Bloomfield township. His family consisted of a wife and 
one child, and they moved into the cabin the same spring. 

But little is known of Enoch Harris, and that which is told 
of hin^ is mostly traditionary. One-half the people in the township 
never heard of his existence. He was said to be a jovial, good- 
natured fellow, built like Hercules, and with that enviable courage 
and fortitude that distinguished the pioneer. When he left the 

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his cabin on horseback. Turkeys were very large and numerous, 
and, when cooked by the skilful backwoods woman, would charm 
the appetite of an epicure. Wolves were numerous, very trouble- 
some and often dangerous. Though shy and silent during the 
day, when the shades of night settled down, they became bold and 
would howl around the cabins until daybreak. Sheep were unsafe 
in the woods at any time. Cattle and horses were safe during the 
day, but if they became mired down, or were caught in the wind- 
falls at night, they fell victims to the rapacious wolves. 

The settlers in Bloomfield township usually came in wagons, 
drawn by horses or oxen, and their log cabins were often built 
and occupied before the land had been purchased. Some of the 
earlier settlers often lived in their wagons, or in temporary tents 
made of boughs and bark until they could get their cabins erected. 

William Lyon and wife came all the way from Connecticut 
in one. wagon drawn by two yoke of oxen with a horse, ridden by 
one of the party, on the lead. They were forty days on the road, 
and, when their destination was reached, freezing cold weather had 
set in. It was too cold to mix mortar, so the chinks in their 
cabins were filled with moss gathered from the woods. 

Augustus and Giles Swetland came two years in advance of 
their parents and the rest of the family. They erected a small 
log cabin and began to clear the land their father had previously 
purchased. They did their own cooking, except their com and 
wheat bread, which was baked for them by Mrs. Allington. An 
abundance of venison and wild turkey was to be found on their 

Roswell and Marshall Clark endured the same privations and 
enjoyed the same repasts. They came a year or two before to 
prepare a home, so that some of the privations of pioneer life 
might be saved their families. 

As many of the early settlers in Bloomfield township came from 
the vicinity of Mount Vernon and Delaware, but were originally 
from the eastern states, although located with only enough money 
to enter land, they brought with them fortitude and energy suflSc- 
ient to endure the hardships and privations of pioneer life in the 
woods. Their cabins were not structures of beauty or models of 
elegance, but were ordinarily built of rough logs and contained but 
one room each ; occasionally a double cabin was erected which con- 
tained two rooms, with one end in common to form the partition. 
The cabins were sometimes built from hewed logs, which improved 
their appearance. 

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The township was named Bloomfield on account of the rich, 
fragrant clusters of wild flowers, growing in forest and field when 
the lands were first opened. 

South Bloomfield township is one of the finest sections of 
Morrow county. In 1848 it was separated from Knox county, 
the township was closer to Mount Vernon than it was to Mount 
Oilead, and the former place was larger and a better trading point. 

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in this society for many years. The meetings were first held in 
the settler's cabins, afterwai*d in the school houses, and finally in 
the Christian church at Sparta, erected in 1841. A Methodist 
society was organized near Sparta, about 1822. It was a strong 
one, and did much to improve the settlement. 

In 1850 the Wesleyan Methodists erected a small church one 
and a half miles west of Sparta; but the building, for several 
years past, has been used for other purposes. The United Breth- 
ren own a small church in the southern part of the township. 

Aaron Macomber settled about half a mile northeast of Sparta, 
in 1823.. He made wooden bowls from cucumber wood, turning 
them out with machinery run by horse power. Hugh Hartshorn 
lived near him with a small storeroom in which he kept a stock of 
hats, which he manufactured from wool, Mn a small log building 
near his house. In 1824 Macomber secured the services of a sur- 
veyor, and laid out a small town which he named Aaronsburg. It 
does not appear that the lots were sold, and the town project was 
soon abandoned. In 1827 Lemuel Potter laid out a town not far 
from Potter's hill and named it Rome, but it passed into oblivion, 
and was gradually forgotten. Sketches of the two existing towns 
— Sparta and South Bloomfield — are given elsewhere. 

** Tread-mills" were early introduced into the township, and 
were set in motion by horses or cattle, walking upon an inclined 
plane, to which was attached an endless belt connected by shaft- 
ing with the stone that ground the grain. They were finally 
changed to water-mills. 

Political and Physical. 

The township, as a whole, is well drained and is quite fertile. 
It is bounded on the north by Chester, and on the west by Benning- 
ton township; on the east and south by Knox county. It is com- 
posed of twenty-five sections, the northern five being fractional. 
Prior to 1848, the township was part of Knox county. In the 
spring of 1808, the county of Knox having been formed by act of 
the legislature, the commissioners divided it into four townships — 
Wayne, Morgan, Union and Clinton, the latter including South 
Bloomfield, which was afterward created a separate township. 

The township is bountifully supplied with numerous springs 
of hard, cold water, many of them being used as wells by the 
citizens. A great many are brackish, some quite salty, and a few 
contain iron, soda, magnesia and other minerals. Heavy timber 

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at one time covered the whole surface, though the hand of the 
settler has leveled it until but one-sixth of the land is covered with 
primitive woods. The native timber consists mainly of 'beech, ash, 
hard maple, black walnut, elm, oak and hickory. There are also 
found, though to a limited extent, soft maple, butternut, sycamore, 
whitewood, dog-wood, linden, cucumber, chestnut, etc. There are 
no large streams; yet along the valleys of the creeks, and in the 
small well-drained basins, the drainage is good. 

Sparta of the Present. 

The old state road passing northeast and southwest through 
Sparta, was laid out before the War of 1812. Sparta is a very old 


town and a very interesting one, and had houses, stores and in- 
dustries long before Morrow county had an existence. The town 
is upon an irregular tableland, from which small streams flow in 
all directions. 

The writer's visit to Sparta was full of interest, and the 
stories narrated to him were very fascinating. He delighted in 
walking the streets which were trodden by the pioneers, almost 
a century ago; and to have the old land marks pointed out as 
'*here was the old factory, there was the old mill, and yonder was 

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the old store kept by Benjamin Chase/' who was the father and 
grandfather of the Chases known to him. 

**That large, old frame building to the right/' our informant 
said, **was the store of Dr. A. W. Swetland, whose successor was 
William Chase. One room in the building was occupied as a 
drug store. The old frame structure is now used as Knights of 
Pythias hall and a hardware store. It is supposed to have stood 
there at least sixty-five years. And the building diagonally across 
the street was the residence of Dr. Swetland, which has since been 
remodeled somewhat and is now the home of Freeman Jackson. 
Dr. Tim's house and oflSce on the opposite side of the street from 
Dr. Swetland 's old home, is now occupied by George Herrod as a 

There are three churches in Sparta — the Methodist Episcopal 
church, the Christian and the First Day Adventist. The large 
brick school house does honor to the place. In it is taught a graded 
school, with a second grade high school. 

Methodist and Christian Churches. 

When the Methodists wished to build a new church, P. B. 
Chase, of Washington, District of Columbia, told them to go ahead 
and raise all the money they could for that purpose, and he would 
duplicate the amount; which they did, and now they have a fine 
cement block building that would be a credit to a place double the 
size of Sparta. The old church building was sold to the Reverend 
Wilson Grove, who removed the same to the opposite side of the 
street, and has remodeled and fitted it up as an opera house. The 
Methodists erected their new structure upon the old site. 

The Sparta Christian church was organized by Reverend 
/ames Smith in June, 1820, in a barn west of town on the Marengo 
i-oad, now the property of Mr. Edwin Frost, just twelve years 
after the denomination had published its first religious newspaper, 
September 8, 1808. For many years services were held in cabins 
and barns, and time would fail us in recounting the sacrifices 
made by these pioneers in a new country as they declared the 
doctrines they believed were correct. Reverends James Smith, 
Robert Close, W. H. Ashley, Hiram Westbrook and James Marvin 
served as pastors, for many years. In 1844 the present edifice 
was erected, on land purchased of Augustine Swetland and Han- 
nah, his wife, the deed being recorded in Mount Vernon, as the 
village at that time was in Knox conty. In 1861 Reverend Mills 

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Harrod was engaged to preach, and his services as pastor continued 
until 1873 (except the time spent in the service of his country, 
during the Civil war) and perhaps to his energy and earnestness, 
more than to any other, is due the progress made by the church 
during those years that so tried men's souls. The church building 
has been remodeled, and at the present time is in good repair. 

During the past fifty years the following ministers have served 
as pastors : Reverends Harrod, Lohr, Hutchinson, Black, E. Peters, 
Duckworth, Prank Peters, McReynolds, Butler, Long and B. P. 
Hoagland (who is pastor at this time). ' One of the members has 
been a kind benefactress, Mrs. Angeline Bennet Bell, leaving 
to the church she loved a bequest of five hundred dollars in the 
hands of the trustees to be used in keeping up the property. 

In 1900 the church celebrated it eightieth anniversary and in 
1920 looks forward to a centennial service. Like all other similar 
bodies there have been things to mar its peace and progress for 
a little time, but one would look a long way before he would find 
a more affectionate family than at this writing. . 

The first board of trustees consisted of the following: Thomas 
Richards, W. H. Ashley, Hiram Westbrook, Reuben Beard and J. , 
W. Tims. The present board consists of five members, as follows: 
Kelly Palmer, chairman; Wilbur Buckmaster, Ira Vail, Dr. Hug- 
gins and R. Anna Sheldon. The deacons are Elza Daugherty and 
Wilbur Buckmaster. Other oflScers: church • clerk, R. Anna 
Sheldon; treasurer, Mrs. Lettie Vail. 

To continue the general description of Sparta as it is : Entering 
Sparta on the Marengo road, at the edge of the town, there is 
a tile and saw mill, and judging from the hum and buzz, it is 
supplying all demands. 

The old steam grist mill has been remodeled into a residence 
and is the home of the Reverend Grove and his estimable wife. 
There is a feed and chop mill yet remaining in the place, all the 
other old industries having given place to more modern inventions 
in railroad centers. 

The Chase farm at the edge of the village has been in the 
piissession of the family since its first entry. P. B. Chase has fitted 
up golf links there, where he spends his vacations, free from city 
life and business cares. 

Retrospectively, we will now consider the early history of 
Sparta, going back to its first log cabin. 

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Spabta op the Past. 

The first building in Sparta was a double lo^ cabin, built by 
William B. Carpenter, in 1826. A month later he erected a small 
log house across the street, just opposite his dwelling, to be used 
as a store room and in which he opened up a stock of goods. 
The second dwelling was erected in 1828 by Joseph Skinner, who 
was a carpenter by trade, and located in the western part of the 
town. The third was built by David McGinnis, in 1829. Mr. Mc- 
Oinnis entertained travelers, and in one part of his cabin kept 
a small stock of notions. Osgood Dustin built his cabin in 1S30. 
These four families comprised the population of Sparta in 1830. 
Carpenter had an fishery and exchanged his goods for ashes, which 
were made into ** scorched" and ** white salts," and a small 
amount of **pearlash " Mr. Carpenter later sold his ashery to 
Dr. A. W. Swetland, who placed in the store room a stock of goods. 
The doctor s brother, Puller Swetland, clerked for him during the 
winter of 1882-8, jmd in the spring of 1833 the doctor himst^lf 
brought his family en from Delaware county. After this Sparta, 
which was then kuown by the general appellation of Bloomfield, 
became an extensive trading point. Dr. Swetland increased his 
stock of goods from time to time and continued to run the asherv 
in connection with the store, the goods being exchanged for ashes. 
This ashery becjm-e one of the most extensive in central Ohio. 

The town began to iniprove on account of its business activity, 
and the settlement increased in number. All got their goods >it 
the store on trust. Butter sold then at six cents per pound. Dr. 
P.Nvetland was the proj«utor and proprietor of the town of Spartn. 
helping to survey it in 1837, and giving it the name it now benrs. 
lie secured the location of a post oflSce there in 1838 and becam*? 
the first post master. The surveyor of the town was Johnson 
Stone, of Knox county, who laid out twenty lots on each side of the 
Columbus road. Additions were later made. The village of 
Sparta was not incorporated until about 1870. 

In 1835 Chase & Bliss had a stock of goods in eastern Sparta 
and in 1838 Potter & Bliss conducted a store on Potter's hill. 
William Chase became Dr. Swetland 's successor, buying him out 
in 1854 and entering into partnership with his brother John. This 
firm did a large business for a country store. They dealt largely 
in wool, which sold then at seventy-five cents per pound. Sheep 
were bought and sold and handsome profits realized. Byron 
Swetland kept a stock of goods there for many years. 

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TTTC»mi^T>"rr r\T:\ n r r\T%Ti r\'%:rr r^r^TTT^jm-rr oiro 

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Events up to the Early Thirties— Marengo — Pagetown 
AND Vail's Cross Roads — Morton's Corners — Canaan Township 
— Friends in Need— Churches op the Township — Denmark — 


It is always interesting to note the history of a community in 
the beginniiig, to follow society in its formative state, and to 
note its material development and scientific achievements The 
history of this township is as an open book. The pioneers made 
advancements and improvements as no other class of people ever 
did, and their achievements are due not only to their strength and 
courage, but to their sturdy' character, as well. They laid the 
foundation of our greatness. And the citizens of Bennington 
township and Morrow county must depend for their future progress 
and advancement upon the education of the people for good citizen- 

As early as 1804-6 pioneers had formed settlements at Sun- 
bury, Delaware and other portions of Delaware county. In a 
few years these settlements became quite populous, and land in their 
vicinity went to a higher price than many could afford to pay; 
therefore the settlers of a later day began to branch out into the 
trackless forests. A large percentage of the earliest settlers of 
Bennington township came from Delaware county, which was 
chiefly settled by New Englanders and Quakers. 

The pioneers, aware of the treacherous nature of the savages 
and knowing that attacks from them would come unheralded, 
made rapid preparations for their safety by the erection of strong 
stockades. These forts or block houses, capable of resisting sudden 
onslaughts by the savages, were erected in the more populous 
localities, and messengers would be dispatched to carry warning 
of danger to venturesome settlers on the outskirts of the settle- 
ments. Families often came in confusion and excitement to these 
block houses, with thrilling stories of narrow escapes from im- 
pending conflicts with Indians. 


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Events op the Early Thirties. 

But one settler is known to have lived in Bennington town- 
ship prior to the war of 1812. This man was John Roseerans, a 
distant relative of General Roseerans. As the settlers slowly 
began to leave SunBury and Delaware, and to locate north along 
the banks of Walnut (yeek, John Roseerans finally overstepped the 
present southern boundary of Bennington, and built a small log 
cabin about half a mile north of the present site of Pagetown. 
This cabin was erected in 1811, and a small clearing made around 
it, barely suflScient to insure its safety in case of wind storms. In 
1812, Roseerans raised a small crop of com and potatoes, which, 
with the addition of a little wheat flour obtained at Delaware, 
constituted his vegetable diet, while his never failing rifle supplied 
him with any quantity of the choicest venison or turkey. He had 
a wife, but no children, and was a great hunter, roaming the forests 
for miles around, in search of more stirring adventures with ani- 
mals of greater courage and ferocity than deer and wolves. One 
day in the winter of 1811-2, while hunting in the woods about eight 
miles from his cabin, he heard a peculiar sound above his head, 
and glancing quickly up, saw the green, glaring eyes of a huge 
wildcat fixed upon him from a large limb, behind which it was en- 
deavoring to conceal itself. It was about forty feet above him, 
and, raising his rifle, he took deliberate aim at its head and fired. 
With one convulsive spring, it bounded to the ground, striking 
within a few feet of where he stood, scattering and tearing up the 
leaves and snow in its dying struggles. It was one of the largest 
of its kind, and had a fine mottled skin, which was made into a cap 
and was worn by Roseerans for many years. 

On the 22nd of April, 1817, the commissioners of Delaware 
county authorized the creation of a new township, and, on that day, 
the county surveyor laid out the new township from the following 
bounds: ** Beginning at the southwest corner of Clinton township, 
Knox county ; thence west on the line between townships 5 and 6, 
to the center of the 17th range ; thence north to the county boun- 
dary; thence east on said line to the stake between 15 and 16 
ranges; thence south on said line to the place of beginning." 
Dwinnell assisted in the survey, and was the one to suggest Ben- 
nington as the name of the new township. Subsequent to its 
creation, it had been surveyed into lots or sub-sections of irregular 
size and shape. 

This township is one of the most fertile in the county. Its 

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natural drainage from geological slopes renders the character of 
the soil largely alluvial and greatly productive. It is usually a 
rich sandy loam, with a large proportion of alluvium. Walnut 
creek, or **Big Belly," runs south through the western half, and 
its winding branches drain the entire township, except the north- 
eastern comer and the central portion of the western side. Since 
the forests have disappeared, the action o4 the sun is unchecked, 
rendering the hills (containing a fair percentage of clay) subject to 
severe baking after a heavy rain followed by sunshine, but fitting 
the valleys for satisfactory and unlimited production. These facts 
account for the almost invariable rule followed by early settlers 
in selecting their farms from the higher land. Two or three 
quarries have been opened in the township, and a fair sample of 
sandstone obtained. A quarter of a mile west of Marengo, on an 
extensive prominence, is a large earth inclosure, made by Mound 

In 1813 two brothers named Olds erected a rude cabin north 
of Pagetown, on the east side of Walnut creek, and began to clear 
the land. They experienced several Indian alarms, and were com- 
pelled to return for short periods to the fort. In 1814 they sold 
their partly-earned title in the land to a man who became the most 
prominent in the early history of the township. This man, Allen 
Dwinnell, invested largely in land, becoming one of the heaviest 
land holders for miles around. He was well educated, for the 
backwoods, and was a lawyer, the first in the township. 

Shortly after Allen Dwinnell bought the Olds property, in 
1814, Thomas Hance came into the township and erected his cabin 
two miles north of Pagetown. Mr. Hance became well known, for 
he kept the first store in the township, and he also had the first 
carding mill. The mill was built in 1824, and was a two story 
frame building. The machinery occupied the upper story, and 
the tread wheel, which furnished the motive power, the lower. In 
1828 a small room was partitioned off from the carding room in the 
upper story, and filled with a stock of goods for a general store. 
This was the first store in the township. Mr. Hance purchased his 
goods at Delaware. 

In 1815 Dr. Alfred Butters settled in Bennington township, 
building his log cabin about a mile north of Morton's Comers. 
One comer of his cabin he used as an office. His practice became 
quite extensive. He was intelligent and a good talker. He 
usually went dressed in a complete suit of deer skin. 

Allen Sherman, the first blacksmith, appeared in 1815, and 

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worked at his trade for many years. Stephen Barnaby came in 
the same year and began making tables, chairs, spinning wheeh^, 
bedsteads, etc. In 1816 Joseph Vining, Joseph Powers, Samuel 
Page, Joseph Horr and Peleg Sherman made homes in the forests 
of Bennington township. Sherman was a wagon maker, but did 
not build a shop until 1819. The others were farmers and settled 
near Pagetown. In 1817 David Wilson, Justin Dewey, Benoni 
Moss, Stephen Sprague, John Stoddard and James Westbrook 
settled in the northeast comer of the township. 

The settlers in the southern part of Bennington township got 
their grinding done, either at the Sunbury mills, or at the Quaker 
settlement on Alum creek. There were no roads then — merely 
bridle paths and trails through the woods — and often in the night 
time wolves would attack belated travelers on their way home from 

In the spring of 1819 a log school house was built about a half 
a mile north of Pagetown, and Sally Dwinnell was the' first teacher. 
She died the following year, and her death was the second in the 
township, that of Mrs. Lawrence being first. 

Solomon Westbrook taught school during the winter of 1819-20, 
which was very long and cold. The settlers suffered in their cabins, 
many of them having no flour or meal for months. Wild animals 
came close to the cabins, distressed with hunger. Frederick 
Davis taught in the same school house the next winter. In 1828, 
a log school house was erected near Isaac Davis' cabin. Samuel 
Lott was the first teacher in the eastern part of the township. 
William Bailey taught soon after him, and was the first to intro- 
duce the system of object-teaching. ▲ frame school house was 
built at Morton's Corners in 1835. The year before, the first one 
built in the northern part, was a half mile north of Marengo. 
George Mead taught in the northeastern part of the township in 
the winter of 1837-8. 

A Methodist society was formed in the southern part of Ben- 
nington township in 1818. The members began meeting at the 
settlers' homes; afterwards in school houses and finally in churches. 
Elders Tivis and Swarmstead, from Delaware county, visited them 
about every two weeks, preaching to the settlers. 

Dr. Butters was one of the earliest members, and was himself 
a local preacher, taking the elder's place when they were absent. 
He was a popular citizen and a good physician. Through his 
exertions, a small log church was built near his cabin, north of 
Morton's Comers, in 1828. Camp-meetings greatly strengthened 

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the society. In 1838 the Methodists erected a building at Morton's 
Comers, which took the place of the hewn-log one near Dr. Butters'. 

In 1848 a rupture occurred in this church, dividing the congre- 
gation, and forming a new one known as Wesleyan Methodists. 
In 1850 seven members met at the house of Marcus Phillips, in 
Peru township, and organized the Wesleyan society. These seven 
were Marcus Phillips, Henry Bell, Mary Ann Whipple, Martha 
Crist, Henry- Crist and his wife Amanda, Caroline Ames, and 
another, whose name is forgotten. The Wesleyan Methodists then 
erected a church building at the Comers. 

The Methodist Episcopals organized a society at an early day 
and built a church near Marengo. A church society was organi- 
zed in the southeastern part of the township about 1830, which 
flourished for a time and then ceased to exist. 

Christopher Wilson and Henry Cronk owned saw mills in the 
eastern part of the township in about 1833. Since then, numerous 
mills have b^en started, suflScient to supply the citizens with all 
classes of rough building material. The mills, with the exception 
of a few in later times, have been run by water power. The 
streams have considerable fall, making it easy to secure an excellent 
water power by means of strong dams. The earliest wheels were 
re-action, and the mills were called ** up-and-down "mills; but the 
overshot wheel soon supplanted the former kind, and **muley" and 
** circular" mills took the place of the less convenient up-and-down 
ones. Vast heaps of logs were collected during the winter months, 
as the snows rendered their transportation much easier at that 
season; then, in the spring and fall, when the equinoctial rains 
came on and large quantities of water were dammed up, the saw 
was run night and day until the logs were converted into suitable 
building timber. The settlers hauled their logs on sleds to the 
mills, where they would remain until the sawyer could work them 

The following was related by Jonas Vining, one of the early 
settlers of Bennington township : He had gone to the Sunbury 
Mills, and, being obliged to wait until late at night for his bag of 
flour, resolved to start for home, though the night was dark and the 
path obscure. It was a chilly night late in autumn, and the wind 
sighed mournfully through the branches of the trees, and the 
sudden rustling of leaves and weird creaking of the trees kept the 
traveler on the anxious lookout for signs of danger. The wolves 
began uttering their discordant notes, and, to add to the unpleasant 
situation, heavy thunder was heard in the distance. Mr. Vining 

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drew his ** great coat" closely about him, and urged his horse on 
as fast as could be safely done through the deep woods. Finally 
a startling wail, ending with a peculiar, heavy tone, was heard 
above the rustling leaves and sighing winds, and he knew that he 
was followed by a panther. He heard 'it bounding lightly over the 
leaves to ** leeward," endeavoring to ascertain by scent the nature 
of the game it was in pursuit of. It appeared several times, but 
only for an instant, as it flitted through the glades of the forest. 
It finally veered off into* the wilderness, and its screams were lost 
in the sounds of the gathering storm. When his jaded horse 
carried him into the clearing at home, which he reached in safety, it 
was almost daybreak. 


Marengo is an attractive village and an imi)ortant station on 
the Toledo & Ohio Central Railroad, south of Mt. Gilead, in Ben- 


nington township. The town is situated upon an elevation and 
the topography of its site adds much to the beauty of the village. 

Marengo, with a population of two hundred and eighty-three, 
has one church — the Methodist Episcopal — and a post oflSce from 
which five rural routes supply between six and seven hundred 
families. M. W. Steritt is the post master, and seems to be a very 
obliging one. Five post offices have been discontinued since these 

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routes were established, namely: Pagetown, Fargo, Penlan, Stan 
ton and Bennington. The village has also a well conducted public 

The village has a bank, several general stores and the usual 
amount of business for a place of its size. L. W. Mead is the mayor 
of the place, and the physicians are Drs. Piatt and Thompson. 

Marengo has been so unfortunate as to have a number of disas- 
terous fires, in years past, which destroyed much valuable property, 
including the mill and the railroad depot. The steam grist mill 
there at present is on the site where the depot stood, and ttit; 
planing mill is near where the old grist mill was. There is also 
a creamery near these plants, which is a branch of the Sunbury 

The village has two hotels where the public can be hospitably 
entertained. Curfew rings at Marengo at 7 o'clock, and the 
children seem to be very observant of the rule. 

The first building erected in what is now Marengo* was a log 
cabin, built in 1843, by Isaac P. Freeman. Two years later he 
erected a two story frame building for a store room and placed in 
it a stock of goods valued at about fifteen hundred dollars; this 
made Marengo quite a central point for the northern part of the 
township. A post oflSce was secured in 1847 and named Marengo, 
honoring the victory of Napoleon over the Austrians at Marengo, 
in 1800. The early merchants of the place were Freeman, Mc- 
Masters, Standish, Green, Ingraham, Powers, Livingston, Evans, 
Hance and Noe. Both in 1871 and 1874 Mr. Noe suffered by fire. 

In 1873 Marengo was surveyed and platted into thirty lots, 
Robert L. Noe being the projector and proprietor. Additions 
were later made by Mr. Noe and Mr. France of one hundred and 
five lots. After the Toledo & Ohio Central Railroad was built 
through the town, it improved at a rapid rate and new business 
interests were opened. 

The Noes were prominent in the early settlement of northern 
Bennington. Mr. and Mrs. Robert L. Noe came to where Marengo 
now is at an early date. Mrs. Noe is yet living, and at the age of 
eighty-three is yet well preserved, looking at least ten years 
younger. She has the full possession of all her mental faculties, 
and talks very interestingly about the early settlement of the town 
and township. As she expressed it, she came there in the ** deaden- 
ing. ' * Lest some of the readers of this work may not understand 
the meaning of that word, an explanation may here be in place. 
Preparatory to clearing the forest the trees should be deadened. 

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and this was done by barking and cutting a ring around the trees 
about two feet above the ground; then in a year or two the trees 
could be felled, cut into length and made into log-heaps and 
burned, thus creating a bi-product of ashes, which could be profi- 
tably marketed. 

Marengo was laid out upon the Noe land, he having bought it 
of Isaac P. Freeman, who had come to the vicinity from New 
Jersey at a still earlier date. Mrs. Noe lives in the large, hand- 
some frame house which was built in Jersey style by Mr. Freeman, 
and which is located in a grove of native trees at the south limit 
of the village. 

Major Johnson, of Marengo, is the only Mexican war survivor 
in Bennington township. 

Paqbtown and Vail's Cross Roads. 

Pagetown was laid out as a village in 1827, under the manage- 
ment of Marcus and Dr. Samuel Page, and Marcus was appointed 
the first i)ostmaster of the place. Prior to platting the town, 
Isaac Page owned the land upon which it was laid out. In 1837 
he sold seven acres to Marcus Page, who employed a surveyor to^ 
plat the land into lots, and in honor of its founder the place was 
named Pagetown. It is situated in the extreme southern part of 
Bennington township, near the Delaware county line. The Mor- 
tons had already opened a store at the Corners, when Pagetown was 

Samuel Johnson established a store at Pagetown in 1842, but 
it did not run any great length of time. About the time a tavern 
was opened at Morton's Corners, Ball Fish commenced entertain- 
ing the public at .Pagetown.- A carding mill was established there 
in 1847, which ran for several years and did good work, and a 
foundry was erected at about the same period. The latter was an 
important industry. The foundry did a general casting business 
for a number of years, making plow-points, and irons, etc., from 
pig and scrap iron. 

In 1819 a log school house was built about a mile north of 
Pagetown. Sally Dwinnell was the first teacher. She died the 
following year, and her death was the second in the township. 
Solomon Westbrook taught there during the winter of 1819-20, 
which was very long and cold. 

The old Methodist Episcopal church which was built at Mor- 
ton's Comers in 1838, was later removed to Pagetown, and is now 
used as a bam. 

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A church society was organized in the southeastern part of 
the township in 1830. It grew slowly until 1850, when the mem- 
bers built a small church at Vail's Cross Roads. Elders David 
Lyon and Robert Chase were among the earliest pastors. Through 
their influence the society continued for many years, but it finally 
died out 

Vail's Cross Roads, or Five Comers, is in Bennington town- 
ship. In the early settlement of the township, there was a tavern 
at that place built in 1839, but it has long since disappeared. There 
is now an Adventist church at that locality, which was never 
known as a village ; just a few houses at a cross roads. A son of 
the Vail who kept the old hostelry is now living in Sparta. 

Morton's Corners. 

In 1838 a village was platted in the southern part of Benning- 
ton township and named Olrasteadville, in honor of its projector, 
Francis C. Olmstead, who then owned quite a tract of land at that 
point, having purchased it of John Nimmons. Many years before 
the town was laid out Jonas Vining, one of the earliest settlers, 
^ad entered the land and owned it until about ten years before the 
plat was made. Mr. Olmstead thought, when he had the village 
platted, that it would in time make a flourishing town, but his 
anticipations were never realized. The place was later known as 
Morton's Comers, as Mr. Morton opened a store there and suc- 
ceeded in getting a post ofiSce established. The Mortons also 
erected an ashery at the Corners, and made black and white salts 
and pearl ash, giving orders on their store, or money, in exchange 
for ashes. A tavern was also opened at the Comers by Caldwell 
Olmstead. A school house was built -here in th^ spring of 1835, 
and in 1838 the Methodist Episcopate erected a house of worship. 

There was quite a rivalry between Morton 's Comers and Page- 
town, largely on account of their close proximity to each other, but 
now the industries of both places are gone and only a few houses 
mark their old locations. 

In 1848 a rupture occurred in the Methodist Episcopal church 
at Morton 's Comers, dividing the congregation, and forming a new 
one known as Wesleyan Methodists. They were permitted to meet 
a while in the Methodist Episcopal church at the Corners, but later 
they were denied this privilege, and in the following year the 
church building was removed to Pagetown. The Wesleyans then 
built a church at the Corners. The church which the Wesleyans 

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built at Morton's Corners, about 1859, was later remodeled and in 
March, 1911 was destroyed by fire. It was insured, and with the 
amount thus realized and what they may be able to raise, in addi- 
tion, they hope to soon erect a new building. 

Morton's Comers, now known as Fargo, is situated half a mile 
west of Pagetown. The post office there has been discontinued, 
and the community is now supplied by the rural route delivery. 

Canaan Township. 

The unknown has always had and will always have for think- 
ing minds a peculiar fascination. It was this which led the pioneers 
to leave their homes in the east, become settlers in the New Pur- 
chase, and carve out for themselves and their children new hopes. 
We often he^r much about social conditions and surroundings, and 
are sometimes excusing their short comings because of their en- 
vironment. We should consider what the pioneers did within 
their environment. One could scarcely think of more untoward 
circumstances than those in which the pioneers often found them- 
selves; and yet amid those environments they planted schools and 
colleges, built churches, opened up and developed magnificent 
farms and on them reared sturdy, cultured, helpful sons and 

Originally, Canaan township embraced the territory at pres- 
ent forming four townships — Tully, Scott and Claridon townships, 
Marion county, and what is now Canaan township, in Morrow 
county It is told that a Mr. Stewart, a pioneer in this section, 
gave the township its name. This division of the present township 
with their present boundaries occurred in 1821. The soil is as 
fertile as any to be found in Morrow county. This fact is mani- 
fest in the timber which originally covered the entire territory, 
making it a dense wilderness. While such varieties as hickory, 
oak, ash, beech and maple were abundant, walnut was most common 
among the trees of its forests. The most of the early fences were 
built of walnut rails, while from the maple trees sugar was made in 
sufficient quantities to supply the wants of the settlers. And the 
forests abounded in game; so that the pioneers had at hand the 
necessaries of living while subduing the torests. Flour and bread- 
stuff, however, were scarce and hard to obtain. The township 
was slow in developing, on account of its low, wet, swampy condi- 
tion. Slow creek and south and middle forks of the Whetstone, 
in their circuitous courses through the territory ought to have 

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given good drainage, it would seem, yet the soil remained wet until 
a BuflSeient quantity of the timber was felled to allow the sun's 
rays to penetrate the soil. Later, under drainage aided much in 
drying up places shut off from the sunshine; this being accom- 
plished, the soil soon became fit for cultivation. 

Canaan township is located in the western part of Morrow 
county. It is bounded on the north and west by Marion county 
and on the south and east by Qilead and Washington townships, 
Morrow county, and is known in an early survey as township 5, 
range 17. 

Friends in Need. 

In the spring of 1821 John Rice came from Greenfield, Pair- 
field county, this state, prospecting for land and a. home. He 
found in Canaan township an unbroken forest, a swamp, and the 
Indians roaming at large ; he also found two white settlers. Comfort 
Olds and Abraham Q. Andrews. Mr. Andrews had entered land 
immediately south of the mound just one week before, and Mr. 
Olds had taken possession the day before of a tract in the near 
vicinity. Mr. Andrews was sick and induced Mr. Rice to buy him 
out. Here Mr. Rice built his cabin, improved the land and made 
his home. Mr. Olds was likewise busily engaged. They became 
acquainted with each other in the unbroken wilderness, Mr. Rice 
being led to where Mr. Olds was working by the sound of his ax. 
There were no other neighbors within miles. When Mr. Rice had 
completed his cabin he returned to Pairfield county for his family, 
consisting of a wife and three small children. In August of that 
year, he gathered together the things that were necessary and moved 
into his new home. It took four days to make the journey, which 
would not now require two hours in an automobile, notwithstand- 
ing that he made the trip in the best time of the year, as the streams 
he would have to ford were low. 

Mr. Olds was very poor and would have suffered for the neces- 
sities of life had not Mr. Rice divided with him the supplies he had 
brought with him from his old home. There was no thought that 
any return would ever be made for this, but a time of need brought 
about a possibility of restoration when it was especially appreciated. 
Mr. Olds had removed to the plains in Marion county and put up 
a horse mill. The sickly year came. The squirrels stole ever>'- 
thing. Com was worth one dollar per bushel and everything else 
high in proportion. Mr. Rice went to the mills on the plains and 

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obtained two bushels, for which Mr. Olds would receive no remun- 
eration. Com was too valuable to sell, but not too valuable to 
give to one who had proven himself a friend in need. 

This reminds the writer of a somewhat similar case in Rich- 
land county, which adjoins Morrow on the east. John Moody was 
a pioneer preacl\^r of the faith of the Disciples of Christ (Campbel- 
lites), and owned a large farm and a grist mill near Belleville. 

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Grandmother Merritt narrated that upon one time when she 
was left alone, a squad of Indians came to their cabin. They 
brought with them a number of scalps of white men, which they 
laid in a row upon the floor, and beside them placed the tongues of 
the whites, which they would count over in their native language, 
apparently gloating over them with savage vengeance. They 
left, however, without attempting her any injury. 

At this time there was but one road through the township, and 
it might be said to have been all over the township, since the short- 
est (to Mt. Gilead) was the one chosen until that thoroughfare be- 
came so badly cut up as to make it impassable, when it became 
necessary to go farther around. However, there was another, but 
it could scarcely be called a road, being part of the old army trail 
and had been blazed from Chesterville to Upper Sandusky. What 
was known as the state road was later made and was then employed 
as the mail route. There were no bridges in those days, and at the 
time of high water people must stay at home, waiting till the 
streams subsided. There was also another road through the town 
ship, from Claridon, on the west, to the southeast corner of the 
township. All these roads contrast painfully with the pike roads 
which now traverse the township, with good substantial structures 
bridging the streams at every crossing. 

Among the later arrivals in the township, we find the names of 
Thomas Patton, William Peigley and James McKeever. Mr. 
Patton was a native of Ireland. On coming to America he entered 
land in this township, and upon his arrival in Mansfield it wab 
necessary to secure a guide to the land he had entered, blazing his 
way as they went. 

There is a mound in Canaan township erected by the Mound 
Builders, a prehistoric people whose origin and fate are unknown. 
We know of them only by the monuments they reared in the form 
of earth works, and as such jnemorials are principally mounds, we 
call the people who made them ** Mound Builders." But the term 
is not a distinguishing one, for people the world over, since time 
commenced, have been mound builders. Prehistoric mounds speak 
of bygone ages, of people over whom time has spread its pall of 
silence and left them wrapped in mystery. 

In the early settlement of the township it was necessary to go 
to Mt. Vernon to get wheat ground. Mr. Boyles rigged up a rough 
mill structure, which was run by horse power, to grind com. It 
had a capacity of about fifteen bushels per day. Such mills were 
not employed longer than circumstances made it necessary, but in 

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the early times they were quite a convenience. The first saw mill 
run by water power was built on the Middle fork of the Whetstone, 
about 1825, by William Shaffer. It was later run by several 
parties, then ceased to exist. Mr. Rice also built a saw mill on 
the same stream, about the year 1833, but four years later he moved 
to the South fork of the Whetstone, where he ran it until 1851, 
when it went out of commission. 

Canaan township is a farmyig district. The soil is too rich 
to be encumbered with mills when they are so convenient in adjoin- 
ing townships, and farming and stock raising pay too well for the 
Canaanites to engage in anything else. Sheep are raised in large 
numbers in all the townships in Morrow county, and the enterprise 
has proved satisfactory, as has also that of raising blooded horses 
for the market. 

The first school house in the township was built in Denmark, 
and will receive further notice in the sketch of the village. 

Churches op the Township. 

The first religious services in Canaan township were held in 
log cabins, and the elder Merritt was the superintendent. The 
younger scholars were taught to read, while the older ones recited 
verses of scripture they had committed during the week. Occa- 
sionally preaching was had in connection with the Sunday School, 
if a circuit rider happened in the community. The Rev. William 
Matthews was one of the early preachers. He formed a Presby- 
terian society in 1825 at Denmark. 

The North Canaan Methodist Episcopal church was first 
organized, in 1833, by the Rev. James Wilson. It was then merely 
a class of five members, over whom Jacob Geyer was appointed 
class leader. In the year 1842 a protracted meeting was held at 
the home of Mr. Geyer, by the Rev. Mr. Sharp. This meeting 
resulted in a large number of accessions, and a more complete organ- 
ization was made, with the following official board: Class leaders, 
Jacob Geyer, Jacob Harrison and John Campbell; stewards, 
Al^raham Poulk, Jacob Geyer and Richard Stime; trustees, Abra- 
ham Poulk, Jacob Geyer, Jacob Harrison, S. Valentine and John 
Campbell. The first church edifice was of hewn logs, and erected 
in 1846. Prosperity marked the history of the church till 1861, 
when the old log building was superseded by a beautiful frame 
structure; when in the act of raising the building, a part of the 
frame fell, and several workmen were caught beneath the falling 

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timbers, and, though several were seriously hurt, yet no one was 
fatally injured. When the raising was going forward, a neighbor 
drove up with a fast trotting horse, and many of the bystand^v 
were attracted out to the road to see him try his speed, and by this 
means were out of danger when the building fell. The work 
progressed, however, to completion, and was dedicated in the fall 
of the same year. 

This building is yet standing* It has a beautiful location for 
K country church, being surrounded by a grove of trees and stand- 
ing at the crossing of two well built pike roads, one running east 
and west and the other north and south. It is yet known as the 
Canaan church and is prosperous. 

The other churches in the township at an eariy day were two 
of the Protestant Methodist denomination, one of these being 
located at Denmark and the other in what was known as the Queen 
settlement. In those times people went to church, following a 
course blazed upon the trees. The men were clad in linsey- 
woolsey, and the women had handkerchiefs tied over their heads or 
wore sun bonnets. These two churches belonged to the same circuit. 


Denmark is a little to the south of the center of Canaan town- 
ship, and is a very small village of less than fifty people. The 
most important thing that attention is called to is that it was the 
old home of Calvin Brice, a noted capitalist in financial railroad 
circles and at one time a United States Senator. He is now de- 
ceased. The house in which Mr. Brice was bom was near the 
center of the village, and was destroyed by fire a few months ago, 
the ashes only remaining to mark the place. 

Denmark has a general store, and one church, the Methodist 
Episcopal. The old church was burned and a new one has been 
erected. The other old church there is now standing idle. An 
attempt was made to turn it into a public hall, but after the floor 
was relaid and other repairs made the project was for the time at 
least abandoned. There is no post office at Denmark, it being on 
the Rural Free Delivery. 

The old Denmark Episcopal church was first organized in 1849, 
with the Rev. John Orr, as pastor. The first church edifice was 
erected the following year, and the society formed a part of the 
Iberia circuit. 

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Climax is a station on the Toledo & Ohio Central Railroad, 
in the northeast part of Canaan township, and although the place 
is of more recent origin, it is larger than its sister town of Denmark. 
It has about a hundred inhabitants, a United Brethren church, a 
town hall, a poet oflSce and a*general store. 

Vol. 1—25 

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Son. AND Drainage of Congress Township-t-Pioneers — 


Houses — John Cook and OTHiais — Pulaskiville. 

There are no more 'forests to subdue; the men who felled 
them are dust, and this work is only a faint attempt to render them 
due honor. We have arrived at an age when luxuries are sup- 
planting simple wants, and the demand for the ** ready-made" is 
blotting out the individuality that was so distinguishing a trait in 
the character of the pioneer. The influence of the farm will yet 
reassert itself, and when the education and culture of the farm is 
coequal with that of the professional field, it will again be the best 
spot on earth for a birth place and a place on which to be reared, 
trained and reside. There is a force arising in the agricultural 
world — in its agricultural schools, colleges, experiment stations 
and working departments of agriculture — that will uplift and 
finally triumph. 

Sohj and Drainage. 

Congress township in its general appearance and character 
resembles Bloomfield, being rather level, yet gently undulating in 
some portions. ' The land is tillable and the soil fertile. There 
are several streams coursing through this region, affording drainage 
and supplying stock with water. The early settlement gravitated 
between two points — Williamsport and West Point. 

The Whetstone or Olentangy, enters the township a little east 
of *West Point, flows almost south through sections 5 and 6, when 
it changes to a westerly course, passing out through section 7. A 
tributary of this stream rises in section 2, runs southwest two or 
three miles, changes to a westerly course, passes out a little south of 
the Whetstone, and unites with the latter in the south part of Wash- 
ington township. Two or three other small tributaries have their 


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sources in the southwest part, and flowing southward, empty into 
the Whetstone near Mt. Gilead. Owl creek has its source in sec- 
tion 13, flows almost south, and passes out through section 36. 
The middle branch of Owl creek rises near Williamsport, starts 
out in a westerly direction, and then, with a curve of several miles 
extent, changes to the southward and passes through the township 
on section 33. The northeast quarter of the fownship was gener- 
ally known as the Owl Creek prairie, and is a fine farming region. 
The timbered portion of the township is stocked with the different 
species common to this section of the state. 

Pioneers op Congress Township. 

Perhaps the first settler in Congress township was John Cook, 
Sr., who located on a farm three miles south of Williamsport in 
1811. William Levering settled on Owl creek at an early day and 
built a horse grist mill, which was the only thing practicable then, 
and the settlers for miles around brought their grist of wheat and 
com on horseback, hitched their horse to the grinder and ground 
their own grain ; then mounted and returned home. Mr. Levering 
built the first saw and grist mills in the township about 1815, on 
Owl creek. 

Enoch Hart was among the pioneers of Congress township. 
He entered a piece of land embracing. what was later the site of 
Williamsport. William Rush, of Washington county, Pennsyl- 
vania, settled there in 1821. He was a soldier of the War of 1812. 
When Mr. Rush and wife came to Congress township, there were 
but five families there. 

Among the early settlers, besides Rush and Levering, were 
Samuel Graham, Jonathan Brewer, Samuel Graham, Timothy 
Gardner and a Mr. Bailey. 

When white people first began to settle in Congress township, 
they had to go to Mt. Vernon or Predericktown to mill, and it took 
several days to make the trip. This was before Levering built 
his mill on section 25, which proved a great convenience to the 
people. A country store and the country blacksmith early put in 
an appearance. Dan Mitchell was perhaps the €rst blacksmith, 
and John Levering the next. 

In the early settlement there were plenty of Indians passing 
to and fro through Congress township. They would encamp near 
the streams and hunt for several days at a time. They were great 
beggars and when they could not beg they would steal, and there- 

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fore required constaDt watching when in the neighborhood. But 
after a few years they were removed to the reservations the govern- 
ment had provided for them, and their old haunts and hunting 
grounds in the forests of Morrow county are among the things of 
the past. 

Gideon Chamberlain was an early settler near the southern line 
of Congress township, where he located in 1828. He has a son, 
Squire Chamberlain, now living in Williamsport. Samuel Mc- 
Cleneham settled in Congress about 1831-2. He died in 1873, 
but his widow is still living. ' Mr. Poultz, who settled in the north- 
east part of the township very early, is said to have been a soldier 
under Napoleon Bonaparte, and participated in the ill-fated expedi- 
tion to ^foscow. He is now dead. John Moffett came from Penn- 
sylvania, but was of Scotch descent, and came to this township in 
1831, where he died in 1846. His widow is still living and is 
ninety-three years old. She crossed the mountains with her family, 
in 1802, and settled in southern Ohio, where she lived until her 
marriage and removal to this township. She has been a member 
of the church for more than sixty years. John Garverick was 
from Pennsylvania in 1833, and settled in north part of township, 
where he died in 1872. 

In 1830, there were scattered through the township the follow- 
ing additional settlers: Amos Melotte, Thomas Fiddler, William 
Andrews, Joseph Vannator, George and James Thompson, John 
Swallum, Enoch Hart, William Williams, Jerry Preeland, and per- 
haps a few others. Melotte was from Pennsylvania originally, 
but had been living for some time in the southern part of the state. 
He settled here in 1831 about one and a half miles south of Wil- 
liamsport. Thomas Piddler settled originally in this township, 
but moved over into Pranklin township. Andrews settled where 
A. B. Richardson now lives, moved to Wisconsin and died there. 
Vannator came about the time of Andrews' arrival. The Thomp- 
sons came in 1830, and were originally from Ireland. George 
Thompson was the father of James, and died in 1859. Swallum 
was from Virginia, and is living on the place of his original settle- 
ment. His father was one of the Hessians captured by Washing- 
ton at Trenton during the Revolutionary war. There was a family 
living on the adjoining ** eighty" to that on which Swallum settled, 
when he came, but they are now all gone. Hart was from Penn- 
sylvania, and his wife was from Maryland. He, with his father, 
settled in what is now Perry township, at an early day. Enoch 
Hart entered the land on which the village of Williamsport now 

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stands, in 1827, and soon afterward he and his young wife settled 
on it. He erected a cabin on this land, and lived one year in it 
without a door, except a quilt hung before the opening. This 
afforded but a slight protection against the wolves, which some- 
times became very fierce and forced the family to guard the open- 
ing against the intrusion of the unwelcome animals. Mr. Hart 
sold his property to a man named Freeland, and moved into the 
northern part of the township, where he died in April, 1878. 

Probably the next arrival, after those already mentioned, was 
John Russell. He was from New York, and is supposed to have 
settled about 1824. He entered the place where Dan Mitchell 
lived and died, and where his widow is still living. He sold out 
to Mr. Mitchell, upon his arrival in 1828, and bought a farm between 
BellviUe and Lexington. Here he remained but a few years, when 
he sold his place and removed farther west, where he died some 
years afterward. Dan Mitchell, who went by the name of **Dan," 
and did not allow himself to be called Daniel, bought out Russell. 
He was from Washington county, Pennsylvania, and settled origi- 
nally in Perry township, in the spring of 1823, where he dwelt 
until the fall of 1828. He then sold out and removed to Congress 
township, and settled where his widow now lives, one mile east of 
the village of Williamsport. She is seventy-nine years old, and 
enjoys good health. They came from Pennsylvania in wagons, 
and were sixteen days on the road. It was at a disagreeable season 
of the year, the ground was muddy, and over much of the route 
their wagon was the first to open the way. Often they had to stop 
and cut out a road and build pole bridges over the streams. But 
**time, patience and perseverance*' finally overcame all obstacles, 
and the journey was accomplished without accident. Mr. Mitchell 
died about a year ago, but has several children still living, among 
whom is Z. H. Mitchell, who owns a saw mill east of Williamsport. 
Another son keeps a hotel in that village. The elder Mitchell was 
a man of some prominence in his neighborhood, and was one of the 
early county commissioners. 

The schoolmaster was an early addition to the settlement^ as 
well as the pioneer preacher. One of the first schools taught in 
the township, was by Benjamin P. Truex, about 1834. It was kept 
in a small cabin, built for school purposes, not far from the village 
of Williamsport. A man named Hayden taught school near Dan 
Mitchell's, at a very early day, perhaps the next school after that 
taught by Truex. The house in which Truex taught was the first 
built in the township, perhaps, for school purposes. It waa the 
usual log cabin school house. 

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The first birth in the township was that of Lavina Mitchell, a 
daughter of Martin Mitchell. She was born in 1829. The first 
marriage could not be ascertained. One of the first deaths was 
that of Samuel Peoples, who was killed at a house-raising at a 
very early day. Margaret Swallum died in 1832. 

The first roads through Congress township were the Indian 
and emigrant trails. The first laid out by authority was the Dela- 
ware and Mansfield road, which passes through the township. 
Congress township has excellent roads, which in most cases are laid 
out on sectional lines, and are kept in good condition. 

The pioneer preachers came into the township at an early date, 
and some of them were pioneers themselves. Private houses were 
used to hold services in until churches or school houses were built. 
The preachers in those days were seldom college graduates, but 
they had physical power and could be heard at a considerable 
distance, and they would preach from three to four hours. When 
called upon to preach a funeral, exposure to cold and wet and storm 
did not prevent an answer to the call of distress from stricken 
fellow pioneers. It was considered as a part of the work of the 
Master, and was done without money and without price. 

It cannot be definitely ascertained who was the first preacher 
in Congress township, but the Rev. Silas Ensign was one of them 
and is supposed to have been the first Methodist preacher in the 
field here. He used to preach at Gardner's long before there was 
either a church or school house in the township. The Revs. 
David James and John Thomas were Welshmen and two of the 
pioneer Baptists. The Rev. Mr. Shedd was one of the first Presby- 
terian preachers. 


Williamsport, near the center of Congress township, has less 
than a hundred inhabitants ; two general stores, a hotel and a black- 
smith shop. There is no church in the place — ^United Brethren — 
which worships in an old frame building. The youth there attend 
a district school. 

Williamsport was laid out in 1836. Enoch Hart entered land 
upon which it is located, and after a few years sold out to Jerry 
Freeland He sold to William Dakan, who laid out the village 
and called it Williamsport, in his own honor. The first store was 
opened by William Andrews, as soon as the village was laid out; 
later he built a dwelling and a store house. Dakan also had a 

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store of nearly the same size. A post oflSee was established at the 
house of WiUiam Andrews, about half a mile west of the town. 
The community is now served by the rural delivery. 

The first tavern was kept by Reuben Luce, and it was a favorite 
place of resort, being on the direct road from Delaware to Mans- 
field, and a place where news from the outside world could be ob- 
tained from the travelers. Martin Mitchell was also an early 
hotel keeper in Williamsport. The first school taught in the 
village was by Z. H. Mitchell, in 1842. 

Although Williamsport is an old town, it never obtained much 
size, but there is plenty of room for growth. There are several 
country churches near the place. Mount Tabor Methodist Epis- 
copal church is about two miles southwest. It was organized in 
1836. There is a cemetery adjacent to the church, which con- 
tains the mortal remains of its early members, as well as many of 
the pioneers of the township. 

Pleasant Grove Disciple church was founded about sixty years 
ago ; a log meeting house was erected on a comer of John Swallum's 
land, and later a frame church structure was built near the site of 
the old log one. A neat little burying ground adjoins this church. 
Rev. William Neal, a very earnest advocate of their doctrine and a 
very worthy man, has been one of its ministers. 

6ryn Zion Baptist church was formerly in this township, but 
since the addition to Gilead township of a section or two from the 
southwest comer of Congress, the church is just across the line in 
Oilead. This is a very old church organization, having been 
founded more than seventy years ago. 

West Point. 

The village of West Point is situated on the line between North 
Bloomfield and Congress townships, and is divided about equally 
between them. It is a small place, with a general store and a 
church — ^the Free Methodist. The post oflSce has been discon- 
tinued, and the community is now supplied by the Rural Free 
Delivery from Gallon. 

Franklin Township. 

The pioneers brought their moral standards and their social 
conscience with them and established here a type of society as good 
as they had left behind. They cultivated and manifested the 

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great virtues of courage and of endurance — indispensible qualities 
in pioneer life. They had days of hard labor and lonely ni^ts 
in the primeval forests. They had persistent struggles with the 
firece wilderness to subjugate the soil, hoping that those who should 
come after them would reap the fruit of their sowing, and through 
their sacrifices enter into security and peace. 

Franklin township is situated on the Oreenville treaty line, 
and is composed in part of United States military landif and Con- 
gressional lands, the latter being that portion north of the treaty 
line. It was originally surveyed in 1807. That portion of the 
township situated below the treaty line was then described as being 
level and of second rate quality, bearing principally sugar, beech 
and ash timber. Above the treaty line the land is more rolling, 
forming somewhat of a ridge along the line of the road passing 
through Pulaskiville, which divides the waters of the two branches 
of Owl creek. The Middle branch takes its source in Congress 
township, and flows in a southerly course through the western por- 
tion of Franklin. Another small tributary to Owl creek takes 
its rise just north of Pulaskiville and follows a southeasterly direc- 
tion, joining the main stream in Knox county. The soil is some- 
what clayey, but the bottom lands are better soil and have some 
walnut timber. In the pioneer period some of the land was 
swampy and needed draining. 

The boundaries of Franklin township are quite irregular. 
For twenty-five years it was the extreme township in the northwest 
comer of Knox county. At that time Harmony township ex- 
tended northward to the natural boundary of the treaty line. 
When the township was set oflf to form a part of Morrow county, 
a row of sections was taken off the eastern end above the treaty 

Franklin township is bounded on the north by Congress and 
Perry, on the east by Middlebury, £nos county, on the south by 
Chester and Harmony, and on the west by Harmony and Oilead 
townships. The territory thus embraced is well adapted to 
general farming, and under the management of the owners has 
proven to be second to none in the county. Orain raising is the 
principal pursuit of the farmers, although stock raising has also 
proven profitable. The place on the map called Pulaskiville is 
really only a cluster of houses at the crossing of the two main 
roads north of the center of the township. This cross road hamlet 
was laid out in 1834 by William Linn and Richard Traux, on land 
which they owned. The original plat exhibits several streets and 
a number of lots. In 1836 a one story frame building was erected. 

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Defunct Towns. 

Many years ago a town was projected by Allen Kelley. It 
was situated in the western end of the township on the land later 
owned by William Kelley. The site was one admirably adapted 
to a village site with the comers of four counties centering near 
it, and the founder might well entertain sanguine hopes of its 
ultimate success, but the reorganization of the counties changed 
the whole aspect, and Jamestown became a thing of the past. 
The House Brothers had a store there early, where they did busi- 
ness until Mount Qilead began to show elements of growth, when 
they removed to that place. This establishment attracted trade 
from all points. 

Sometime previous to 1823 the village of Florida Grove was 
laid out on the land later owned by Thomas P. Morrison. The 
project was inaugurated by Reverend George Van Eman, who then 
owned the land, together with Plumb Sutleff and Samuel Harden- 
brook. A number of lots were sold, but the would-be town failed 
to thrive, and has long since become a part of the farming land 
of the township. 

There were no large landholders in this township save James 
Brady of Greensburg, Westmoreland county, Pennsylvania; and 
most of the settlers bought direct of the government at the land 
office in Canton. 

The congressional lands were a part of what was known as the 
new purchase, and were put on the market about 1809, or as soon 
• as practicable after the necessary survey was completed. The first 
actual settler was Samuel Shaw, who Came from Washington 
county, Pennsylvania, in 1810. He was bom in Carlisle, that state, 
in 1762, and came to Pickaway county, Ohio, in 1809, locating at 
Franklin a year later and settling on land where Salathiel Bonar 
later lived. He had bought six hundred acres there in 1808. Mr. 
Shaw is represented as a clever, quaint old gentleman, who cam- 
manded the universal respect of his fellow-townsmen. He brought 
a large family of children, the oldest of whom, David, achieved 
considerable distinction in a local way. He was an early school 
teacher, the third person to be elected to the position of justice 
of the peace — an office he held for twenty-three years — a colonel 
in the peace establishment, and a county commissioner for nine 
years. David Peoples came from Jefferson coimty, Ohio, to Frank- 
lin, in 1810, shortly after Mr. Shaw. He was young, unmarried, 
and in straitened financial circumstances. After securing one 

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hundred acres of land, he had not money enough to buy an ax 
with, and worked for some time at clearing,' for four dollars per 
acre, to get money to help himself. He got his first lot cleared 
early,, and had the first rolling of the season, and afterward was 
called upon to ** return the compliment" every day for six weeks. 
About this time his horse, his only possession, died, and he was 
forced to put in his com without plowing, using his hoe for all 
purposes of plowing and planting. In the meanwhile, he had 
boarded at Mr. Shaw's, but, having prepared a home and got in 
his crop, he returned for his mother, whom he brought to 
Franklin in the same year. In the fall of 1810, John Cook 
started from his home in Maryland in search of a better land and 
a newer community, where he might turn his limited capital to 
a larger account. He was a native of New Jersey, but had emi- 
grated in 1794 to Maryland. 

School Houses. 

School houses were among the first structures built by the 
pioneers of Franklin, and in some instances preceded the meeting 
houses. The first one was built about 1815, ob the site of the Owl 
Creek Baptist church (North branch), in the northeast comer of 
the township. It was a round log affair, with a huge fireplace in 
one end, and greased paper windows. This was used until 1822, 
when it was burned, the fire originating from some defect in the 
rude chimney. In the following year, another house was put up 
on a part of Mr. Levering 's land. This had a brick chimney, and ' 
boards overhead, but wfthout glass in the windows. It was con- 
sidered a fine building, and served the public for years. About 
1820, a log school house was erected a little southeast of Center 
Comers. Nellie Strong was the first teacher here, and W. T. 
Campbell followed her. The school building was made of round 
logs, with an inclined puncheon running along the side of the wall, 
supported by pins driven into the logs, just above which a part 
of one log was cut away to give light. This was covered by greased 
paper, which admitted all the light needed for school purposes. 
Here Mr. Campbell taught the rudiments of reading, writing, 
** ciphering" and geography, to some thirty or forty scholars. In 
explanation of the number of scholars, it should be said that they 
came from three or four miles away, and that each family sent 
several — ^those of Shur and Walker, in Chester, sending five pupils 
each. A little later a school house was built near the cross roads, 

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which waff constructed on a unique plan borrowed from the pio- 
neer structures of **York State." It was a large, square log 
building, with a fireplace in the center of the room. A large 
surface of stone was laid in the center of the room, at each corner 
of which, out of reach of the flames, was placed a large post which 
supported the chimney about six feet above the fire. 

The formation of Ohio as a state had opened up a vast 
amount of land to the enterprising pioneer. Maryland at that 
time furnished one of the most available markets for the frontier 
settlements in the new territory, and it was no uncommon occur- 
rence to see a string of pack-horses, numbering from ten to thirty 
animals, ladened with flax, making their way to Hagerstown, to 
return with supplies for the Ohio settlements. The reports con- 
cerning the beauty and resources of the country, and the fertility 
of its soil, brought to the attention of those who began to feel 
crowded in the older communities the advantages to be found in 

John Cook and Others. 

It was this condition of affairs that induced John Cook, John 
Ackerman and William Levering to mount their horses in the fall 
of 1810, and start to investigate the new country. They stopped 
at the settlement in Wayne township, where some fifty families 
had settled, and were there directed to lands which are now a part 
of Franklin township, as desirable for farming purposes. They 
were pleased with the prospects, and purchased lands adjoining 
those of the elder Cook. The latter had commissioned his son 
to look after the boundaries of his land, and to see that it was 
located as he supposed it to be, and found that it was not — that 
the supposed spring and grove which would have added so much 
to his purchase were not on his land. When this was reported to 
Mr. Cook he secured another half section, taking in the desired 
property. Late in the year 1812 Mr. Cook started for his new home 
in Ohio. 

With his effects and family stowed in one of those Pennsyl- 
vania wagons known by the expressive name of land-schooners, 
with a team of five horses as the motor power, he started for the 
**far west." The route took them along the Hagerstown pike, 
which had been partially completed, for about forty miles. Prom 
this point, they followed a plainly marked road, along which there 
was considerable travel. They could make but slow progress at best, 

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and four weeks had passed before they reached their journey's 
end. On their way they met with persons leaving their frontier 
homes, and giving the most discouraging reports of matters on the 
border. At Cambridge, they met one of the soldiers who had been 
wounded at the Copus affair at Mansfield, who almost discouraged 
Mr. Cook from proceeding farther; but he was a ** plucky" sort 
of a man, and was determined that nothing short of actual danger 
should impede his progress. On reaching Mount Vernon he found 
that his former neighbors, who had settled near the farm to which 
he was going, had fled to Mount Vernon and Fredericktown for 
protection from the Indians, who, it was feared, were about to 
make a descent upon the unprotected settlements in that region. 

It was but natural that this news should create a lively 
alarm among the isolated settlements ; the towns of Mount Vernon 
and Fredericktown were thronged with families anxious to arrange 
some plan for defense. It was in this situation that Mr. Cook 
found affairs when he arrived at Mount Vernon. He came as 
far as Middlebury, where he took possession of an empty cabin 
belonging to an old surveyor by the name of Mitchell, which he 
occupied until he got a cabin of his own erected. When built, 
his cabin was a structure eighteen by twenty feet, ** staked and 
ridered,** a chimney constructed of **eat and clay," and contained 
one room and a loft. The following year was a busy one for this 
part of the township. Among Mr. Cook's neighbors were Benja- 
min Hart, in the edge of Perry township ; John Ogle, Henry Sams 
and his sons, who were married, and lived near, Andrew and Henry 
Sams, Jr., and a family by the name of Hoofmire. But little 
improvement had been made upon their farms, and about three 
days in the week were spent by each family in assisting to build 
cabins for new arrivals, or helping to roll their neighbors' fields. 
The plan was for each one to cut the timber on three or four acres, 
and then invite all the neighbors for three or four miles around 
to roll these logs into piles for burning. During the work, it was 
expected that the beneficiary would provide plenty of whiskey, 
and a supper when the task was finished. The logs were cut 
twelve or fourteen feet long, and were handled with ** handspikes" 
alone, as oxen were too slow motioned for the enthusiastic ardor 
of the pioneers. 

Meanwhile his first cabin had proved a rather uncomfortable 
home even for a pioneer family, and Mr. Cook employed some 
persons who carried on a rude carpentry, to erect a two storied, 
hewed log house, eighteen by twenty-six feet. This building was 

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provided with a brick chimney and a shingled roof, and was con- 
sidered as quite an aristocratic residence for that time. 

Abednego Stevens, who came with a large family of grown-up 
children from Bedford county, Pennsylvania, was among the first 
families to settle in the township. His son William had been in 
the army under Harrison, and in coming home had been attracted 
by the country in this township, and had entered a considerable 
tract lying in the southeast section of the congressional portion 
of the land. 

In 1812, Benjamin Corwin came to Franklin, being a tanner 
by trade, and on arriving immediately set about resuming his 
trade; he sunk vats on the Johnston road, in the eastern part of 
the township, and set up the first and only tannery in this vicinity. 
The dearth of the raw material for his trade made the first efforts 
rather insignificant, but a murrain which broke out among the cat- 
tle soon furnished him with ample material for the exercise of 
his ability; there was but little stock save what the necessities of 
the situation demanded. Cows were indispensable, and most of 
the pioneers brought one or more of these animals, but so great 
was the fatality among them that the settlers for miles around lost 
all they had. It seems that the cause of this fatality was something 
the animals found in the woods, and the pioneers were in the habit 
of giving them alum, soot, soap, etc. There was a considerable 
demand among the men for buckskin leather, which furnished 
substantial and not unattractive clothing ; the skins were treated in 
some way and then smoked to a fine color that was permanent and 
attractive. Pants of this material were made tight-fitting, as they 
were the reverse of comfortable on a cold day if not kept in close 
contact with the person all the time. This material in many in- 
stances furnished the whole suit, which was capped by a hat made 
from the skin of some fur-bearing animal. 


Pujaskiville is a small village in Franklin township^. At 
present it has not more than a dozen houses and one general store. 
It has Methodist Episcopal and New School Baptist churches. 
The Baptist society was formed about 1830 by Elders James and 
George, of Chester. They had previously preached at the cabins 
of Stevens and Campbell. They afterwards used the school house 
to hold services in, and in 1840 the whole neighborhood assisted 
them in building a frame structure for a house of worship. In 

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1874 a new church was erected at a cost of $2,200. The Green- 
ville treaty lines run about a mile and a half south of this little 

This Greenville treaty line runs through Morrow county from 
east to west, somewhat diagonally, entering the county in Frank- 
lin township, and forming the north boundary of Harmony; 
thence through the southern part of Gilead, forming part of its 
southern boundary passing along part of the northern boundary 
of Lincoln through the southern part of Cardington township and 
Cardington village leaving the county at the northwest comer of 
Westfield township. 

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Physical Features op Harmony Township — Settlers Prior 
TO 1830 — Later Settlers — Religious Organizations — ^Penlan 
Lincoln Township Erected — Pioneer Settlers — Churches 
AND Schools — Fulton. 

The settlers who eanie to Harmony township were men of thrift. 
They clipped the hilltops of their wild forests, and converted the 
township into a land of plenty. They helped to advance the 
march of civilization, built homes that rank among the best in 
Morrow county, and founded schools and churches, thus giving to 
their descendants a true and abiding Christian prosperity. 

The early pioneers who came to this locality were largely 
from the eastern states. Some families hesitated to plunge into 
forests remote from the older settlements, and located along the 
old Granville road by the Alum creek trail and up Ihe Olentangy 
river, settling up the southern part of the county. When the 
county was formed and the business and social center was at the 
county seat, the tide of emigration went further north, but still 
measured its advance by the proximity of its settlements to the 
newly formed center. This was of vast importance to the pioneers 
in those days of blazed roads and unbridged streams. For years 
the county seat was the vital and social nucleus, besides being 
the official center of the communities that settled about it. There 
the sessions of the court were held; there was a store and a grist 
mill, and thither the settlers must go to pay their taxes. Under 
such influences, a large part of the northern and eastern part of 
the county was for years but little more than the common hunting 
grounds of Indians, yet occasionally a few white settlers could be 
found who were more venturesome than the majority. 

Physical Features of the Tow'nsiiip. 

This large area of territory was formed into a small town- 
ship called Sunbury, and from it, at various times since, smaller 
divisions have been formed, until now only the thriving village of 


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that name in Berkshire serves to perpetuate its name. Harmony 
was set off from this comprehensive township June 5, 1820; and, 
was first erected, included the northern half of Bennington, the 
northeast section of Peru, the eastern half of Lincoln, the whole 
of the present township of Harmony, and a strip of country of 
this width extending to the northern boundary of Crawford county. 
It retained this wide area of territory for a short time only. The 
erection of other counties curtailed its jurisdiciton to the limits 
of the treaty line, and, in 1828 was restricted to its present bounds 
by the erection of Lincoln township. As now situated, it is 
bounded on the north, following the treaty line, by Franklin and 
Oilead, on the east by Franklin and Chester, south by Bennington 
and west by Lincoln. The general character of the surface of 
Harmony township is that of low, "wet ground. The northern part 
was surveyed, in 1803, by Jesse Spencer, and the southeast section 
by William Harris in 1811. 

This section was then wet, with only narrow tracks of solid 
land winding among the swamps. These swamps the early settlers 
designated by names, suggestive of their different characteristics. 
In the northern part of the center of the township was an ex- 
tensive swamp called Long swamp ; to the south and east, a short 
distance, were the Prairies and Feather Bed swamps. About the 
middle of the township was located the Wild Cat swamp, and a 
little to the east of that was the Rosy swamp. This part of the 
township has undergone a remarkable change in the course of 
clearing. The swamps have disappeared under the influence of 
the sun and drainage, and the site of some of them is now among 
the finest farming land in the township. Across the comer of this 
quarter of the township flows the Middle branch of Owl creek, 
and flowing up from the south, along the eastern border of the 
township, the Southern ranch of the same stream is found. This 
was once locally known as ** Taylor's run,'* but that name was 
soon lost sight of, and it is now generally called the South branch 
of Owl creek. Owing to the lay of the land, however, these streams 
afford but little drainage. In the western portion of Harmony 
township the Big Walnut takes its rise, formerly heading in a 
swamp. This stream flows south along the western part of the 
township, without reaching any considerable size in this region, 
and with few branches. To the west of this stream, the surface 
is higher, and is fine, rolling clay land. East of the river the 
general characteristics of the township prevail. The general busi- 
ness of the township is farming. The soil in most places is a 
rich, black muck that yields abundant returns. 

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The swamps of Harmony township had quite an attraction 
for the Indians in an early day. Wild fruits grew here in great 
abundance, and wild flowers bloomed in every corner of the wood. 
**Rosy** swamp which occupied a part of Mr. Meredith's farm 
gained its name from the profusion of wild flowers that brightened 
its damp recesses. This was also a favorite haunt for certain 
kinds of game that the Indians delighted to hunt. In the swamps 
near the center of the township, wild cats of great size were found, 
and though but few remained for the whites to capture, Wild Cat 
swamp obtained its name from the traditions of the Indians. 

Settlers Prior to 1830. 

The commissioners' records of Delaware county show that 
Harmony township was erected in 1820, but so far as can be 
ascertained no settlements were made within the present bound- 
aries until about 1826. The land was known, and would doubtless 
have been early settled if the status of the land had been more 
secure. The southeast quarter had been bought by (Jeneral James 
Taylor, of Newport, Kentucky. The southwest quarter was school 
land, and the rest was congress and military lands. Many settlers 
who would have settled on this land were diverted to other parts 
because they did not care to hunt up the character of the land 
when there was plenty at hand just as good, where no diflSculty 
of that nature existed. To set the matter at rest, however, early 
in 1824 William Davis, a resident of Knox county, wrote to Chilli- 
cothe for information, and in that year entered the first congres- 
sional land within the present limits of the township. The tract 
was located near the bend in the South branch of Owl creek. 
The first actual settler, however, was Alexander Walker, who had 
come some years before as one of the earliest settlers to the site 
of Chesterville. He came originally, from Washington county, 
Pennsylvania, and stayed in Chester some fifteen years. He lo- 
cated his land where Hugh Green later lived, building his cabin 
on the banks of Owl creek, but, following the bent of his mind, 
he left the township in a few years in search of a newer country. 
If not the second family, that of Charles McCracken very closely 
followed that of Walker. McCracken came to Chester from Lan- 
caster county, Pennsylvania, but finding the land of Harmon, 
not so generally taken entered a farm of one hundred acres in th». 
eastern part of the township, near where runs the Cardington and 
Chesterville road. Coming close upon this family was William 

Vol. 1—26 

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Kramer, from Franklin county, Ohio, who settled on a small tract 
just west of McCracken, on the branch of Owl creek. The 
way thus opened was soon followed by those who had become 
restless in the older settlements and desired a newer country, and, 
notwithstanding the forbidding character of tl^e soil, the north- 
east quarter settled up quite rapidly. The settlement was thus 
principally made up from the older settlements near at hand, 
and to considerable extent by those, who, after partially clearing 
up their farms, moved again to newer territory. Among those 
who came into this section within .a few years of the first settlers, 
was James McCrary, originally from Licking county. He came 
to Chester, and then removed to Harmony, settling in the land 
just north of Kramer and on the opposite side of the stream. 
Zabad Pierce entered a farm in the same vicinity, and George 
Burns, who came from Columbiana county, located on the land 
now owned by Jacob Fogle. 

On January 7, 1826, Samuel Hayden came into the township 
and settled on the Cardington and Chesterville road just north of 
the stream, his farm lying right on the boundary line between 
Chester and Harmony townships. With his parents, he moved 
from Greene county, Pennsylvania, when about five years old, and 
settled in Licking county, in November, 1808. The two hundred 
miles which intervened was traveled on horseback within the space 
of eight days, the party being delayed one day by a storm. Wil- 
liam Hayden, the father, came by way of the Ohio and Muskingum 
rivers, in order to bring the household goods. The mother, with a 
fortitude rarely . equaled, performed the long journey overland, 
riding on horseback, carrying her infant daughter, and leading 
a horse on which Samuel and his younger brother rode. 

Soon after Hayden, Jeremiah Smith moted on to land in the 
northeastern part of the township, which he had entered as early 
as 1825. Mr. Smith came from Luzerne county, Pennsylvania, 
in 1824, and settled at Berkshire, but did not purchase any prop- 
erty until the following year, when, after looking the whole 
township over, he chose that in the northeast part of the township. 
The land was then pretty much under water, but there was quite 
a large cleared spot which bore a luxuriant growth of grass, and 
near by was an excellent spring. It did not take him long to dis- 
cover that the land could be drained and made into excellent farm- 
ing land, while the spring would prove a perpetual treasure. The 
grass-land, though too insecure for cattle or horses to walk on, 
would furnish an amount of feed that was a valuable consideration 

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at that time. Mr. Smith at once entered two hundred and fifty 
acres of this land at the office in Chillicothe, his deed bearing 
date August 5, 1825, and paid $297.02 in cash for it. He made no 
improvements on this property, however, until late in 1827, when 
he put up a cabin, and in March of the following year moved 
his family into it. The prospect here was not inviting, and would 
have discouraged any one not trained to the hard experiences of 
the pioneer. The whole country was but little more than a suc- 
cession of swamps, many of them so soft as to mire the dogs of 
the coon hunters. On Mr. Smith's farm was a large beaver dam 
of semi-circular shape, ^ enclosing about thirty acres of swamp, 
which was known as the Feather Bed swamp, on account of its 
softness. It seemed to have no solid bottom, a pole having been 
thrust into it to the depth of twenty feet without touching firm 

In 1827 a setlement was made in the southeast comer of the 
Taylor quarter, by Enoch George, who, when a boy in 1811, came 
to Chester township with his father, an Old School Baptist 
preacher. Jonathan Frost and E. Salisbury were also early 
settlers in Harmony township, as were also the families of Timothy 
Foss, Symmons and Heald. 

Later Settlers. 

Among those who came to Harmony township in 1833, were 
Japheth West, from Clay township, Knox county ; Thomas Madden, 
Ashley Nutt, William Bennett and Christopher Stovenaur. In 
1837 Enoch George, who had gone back to Chester after selling 
his farm in the southeast comer of the township, to Mr. Salisbury, 
returned and bought eighty acres near Burns' Comers. Here 
he stayed but a short time, when he sold out, and, leaving his 
family there, he went to Iowa to work for a home. Familiar all 
his life with a timbered country, the rough fashion of the prairie 
winds discouraged his idea of emigration, and he bought one hun- 
dred acres. In the fall of 1840, Thomas Meredith, a native of 
Chester township, came into Harmony and bought a hundred acres 
of land in the Taylor section, at five dollars per acre. The cheap- 
ness of land all about this quarter, had left this part of the town- 
ship for the most part unsettled, and Mr. Meredith found it, at 
that comparatively late date, fraught with all the obstacles that the 
earliest settlers met. 
The absence of any considerable streams and the nearness of 

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Chesterville, where mills, tanneries and a general store supplied the 
meager demands of the settlers, operated against the establishment 
of similar enterprises in this township. There were two saw mills 
that were built rather early, one about 1835, about three-quarters 
of a mile north of Jeremiah Smith's farm; and another by Chil- 
coat, on Owl creek. These afforded the first opportunity for the 
improvement of their dwellings, and Mr. Smith built the first 
frame house in the township. In 1846 William Bennett built a 
brick house in the southeastern part of the township, and in 1850 
John Ralston erected another, Jesse Vernon burning the brick on 
the place. 

There was a post office, a store and mills at Chesterville, and 
this was the point of attraction to the settlement in Harmony 
township. At that time Cardington was scarcely known, and a 
blazed road from the northeast comer of Harmony, out to the 
treaty line, was the only road to the two or three cabins that have 
since grown to the now thriving town of Cardington. 

Religious Organizations. 

Religious missionaries were early in the community of Har- 
mony, the first denominational influence in the township was prob- 
ably that of the Old School Baptists. Their first place of worship 
was built in the middle of the township, and was known as the 
** Wildcat Church.*' 

Ebenezer church was one of the oldest organizations in the 
township. This was located in the southeast part of the township, 
and was organized by the Reverend Mr. Kaufman, an Old School 
Baptist minister. Among the early members were Peter Powell, 
Tunis Ashbrook, Joseph Ullery, Charles McCracken and wife, 
James James and wife, and Benjamin McCrary and wife. Pisgah 
church was of the New School Baptists and had its origin in the 
divison of the old Chester church, which occurred in 1836. 

Harmony chapel was built by the Methodist Episcopal denom- 
ination in 1850. In 1831 Jeremiah Smith laid out a small 
cemetery, donating a quarter of an acre to this purpose, and in 
August of that year buried his first wife there. Later he added 
another quarter of an acre, and, as he was desirous of having a 
church in that community, he offered a building site to any denomi- 
nation that would build a house of worship on it. The proposition 
was taken into consideration by both the Baptists and Methodists, 
but the latter came to a decision first and were given the site. The 

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first class had been formed about two years previously under the 
influence of such preachers as Russell Bigelow. Mr. Bigelow has 
been described as an orator of divine inspiration. It is said that 
his unequaled and soul-stirring appeals have caused people to 
leave their seats and go as near the pulpit as possible, apparently 
unaware of having changed their seats. 

''Such vast impresaions did his sermons make 
That he always kept his flock awake.'' 

Pleasant Hill church was built about the time Harmony chapel 
was erected. It was constructed by the United Brethren denomi- 
nation, but not long afterwards they sold the building to the Old 
School Baptists. As a dissension arose among the purchasers, 
however, which caused a split in the church, the former owners 
sold it to private parties. 

The early ministers preached for some time in the cabins of 
the settlers, before the community was strong enough to erect 
places of worship. At Jeremiah Smith's cabin, for some time, 
services were held by the Reverend William Dowling and Rever- 
end Henry MoflSt, of the Disciple church, the Reverend Ashley, of 
the New Lights, and others who came on missionary tours. 

The southwest quarter of Harmony township was part of the 
land set aside for school purposes, and did not come into the market 
until late. Ere this most of the available government lands had 
been taken up, and the price of land had risen considerably. 
These were principally taken up by settlers from Muskingum, 
Perry and Knox counties. 


While Harmony township has no town within its borders, 
there are several places worthy of mention. There is a township 
hall near the center, in which any desired meetings can be held. 

Penlan is the name given a cross roads, where there are a 
few dwellings and a general store. There was a post oflSce there 
by that name but it has been discontinued, and the Comers are 
now served by the Rural Free Delivery. 

Lincoln Township. 

The faith of the pioneers should also animate us. We should 
believe as they did that there are better days coming; that our 
labors will not be in vain. They did not despair of future success 

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even here in the wilderness, with trackless forests encircKng them 
and stubborn soils defying them, and bloody foes lurking every- 
where in ambush for them. We honor and applaud the courage and 
heroism of the pioneers, and close akin to their courage was their 
faith in the future. It takes a high order of faith to discern the 
beauty and bounty of the ages to come, and be willing to live for 
them and die without seeing them. 

This township was named Lincoln in honor of Qeneral Lincoln, 
distinguished in the Revolutionary war. The community at that 
time was not isolated from the outside world and the ordinary 
privileges of the older settlements, as were the first pioneers, and 
yet the stores and mills were reached only after traveling through 
miles of woods and fording unbridged streams, guided only by 
blazed trees. Game was found here in great abundance. Deer, 
turkeys and wolves thronged the woods at an early day, and bears 
of the largest size were frequently killed by the early settlers. 

Lincoln township in the early settlement was a favorite place 
of the Indians. They had left their haunts further south in the 
county with great reluctance, and, finding the settlements had not 
disturbed the native quiet of this locality, they had settled down 
in the vain belief that they could make this their permanent home. 
But they soon found that immigration and civilization were on 
their track, but they continued to retain their camps until about 
1833. The Indians in Morrow county were remnants of several 
tribes. The disintegration of their tribal bands had been going 
for some time, and no one tribe remained intact. They built bark 
wigwams and dug holes in the ground in the center for their fire. 
Occasionally the whites had some trouble with the Indians, grow- 
ing out of their propensity to pilfer and sometimes carried to the 
extent of stealing horses. 

The Township Erected. 

Lincoln township originally formed a part of Harmony. 
Later, as the lands within the present limits of Harmony were 
taken up and settlements began to multiply, there was a movement 
for a separation, and on March 3, 1828, the commissioners of 
Delaware county erected the new township from '*that part of 
Harmony and Westfield townships beginning on the north line 
of the county, in Westfield township, one mile east of the line be- 
tween ranges 17 and 18, thence south on lot line to south line of 
Westfield township and the line between the 6 and 7 townships; 

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thence east one mile beyond the west line of range 16; thence 
north through Harmony township to north line of the county; 
thence west along the north line of the county to place of 

The eastern border of the township is a natural boundary,, 
the land rising so as to form a dividing line between the waters 
of Big Walnut and Alum creek. Just west of this ridge, the lat- 
ter stream takes its rise in two branches in the low land in the 
northern part of the township, flowing in a southerly course 
through it. Along the upper branches of this stream is found 
some bottom land, though of no great extent. Below the forks of 
the creek, the banks, though not high, are abrupt, the clay forma- 
tion coming in contact with the water. In the western part of 
Lincoln, the West branch of Alum creek takes its rise, and, flowing 
in a southwesterly course, passes through a part of Westfield, and, 
changing its course, unites with the other branch in the southwest 
comer of Peru. The upper end of this branch has been widened, 
and is known as the Williams ditch, and thus serves to drain con- 
siderable territory, which was before inadequately provided for. 
The western part of the township is low, and bears such timber 
as sugar, burr oak, birch and hickory. On the high land in the 
eastern part is found white oak, maple and beech, while on the 
bottoms originally grew black walnuts of mammoth size. The 
streams afford but little drainage. The banks are low, and the 
fall is so slight that the surplus water occasioned by heavy rains, 
floods the fields to a considerable extent, while in other parts large 
ditches and extensive underdraining are necessary to the proper 
cultivation of the land. The predominant characteristic of the 
soil is that of a yellow clay on the higher ground, a good strong 
soil for grass, com, and, when well farmed, for wheat. On the 
bottoms is found a rich black soil, which yields large crops, and is 
easily renewed. The ordinary style of farming — raising com, 
oats, rye and wheat, with a little stock — is the occupation of most 
of ihe residents of Lincoln. 

The early organization of the township bounded it on the 
north by Qilead, on the east by Harmony, on the south by Ben- 
nington and Perry, and on the west by Westfield. Subsequent 
changes to accommodate the growing village of Cardington took 
a piece a mile square out of the northwest comer, and later six 
lots were taken off the northern part, and attached to Qilead, to 
maintain the balance of power between the rival villages and their 
townships. This was originally United States military lands, and 

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was surveyed by Jesse Spenser in 1807. The third quarter, how- 
ever, was surveyed as early as 1803 by the same civil engineer. 
The original notes class the quality of the land as third rate, and 
its appearance before the cultivating hand of the pioneer had 
wrought its changes doubtless warranted this estimate. 

Pioneer Settlement. 

The settlement of this country was due principally to the 
Quaker colony that settled in what is now called Peru. Thih 
community continued to receive accessions from the east, who, 
finding the farms pretty well taken up, resorted to lands further 
north. Others came single, and, marrying, sought a home in the 
lands of Lincoln. The first settler was Benjamin Collins, a native 
of Rhode Island, but emigrating from Junius, in the state of New 
York, to this township. He was a man considerably advanced in 
years, and brought with him an only child, a married daughter, 
with a large family. He bought a cabin situated on the banks of 
Alum creek. This cabin was built in 1814 by Edmund Buck and 
Amos Earl. After coming to Peru, they struck out in the lands 
to the north, and, assuming a squatter's right, built a cabin and 
kept ** bachelor's hair* for some six months. Three years later, 
William Steiner came. He was a native of Maryland, and, emi- 
grating to Ohio, had stopped a few years in Fairfield county, but 
the ague seized him here and drove him out in search of a better 
situation. He was attracted by the prospect in Lincoln, and built 
his cabin on the Sunbury road, a little South of where the Carding- 
ton and Chesterville pike crosses this road, boarding in the main 
while at Mr. Collins*. After selling out to Collins, Edmund 
Buck went some two miles up the river and built his cabin on the 
Sunbury road, just north of the pike. Buck's mother was a widow, 
and related to the Benedicts, and was induced to emigrate from 
New York state to give her boys an oportunity to get a start 
in the world. She came with friends in 1812 to the settlement in 
Peru, Edmund making the journey on foot vrith a cousin by the 
name of Earl. 

While Steiner is credited with the second cabin. Buck really 
made the second settlement, the former not bringing his family on 
until about a year later. There was an earlier cabin erected than 
those built by either Steiner or Buck, erected in the northern 
part of the township by a Mr. Beadle, but it was not occupied 
until 1818. 

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Closely following the preceding families came Joseph King- 
man and Noah White, from Clinton county, New York. Kingman 
came west with his father-in-law, to Peru. He had just been 
married, and, having accumulated but little property, made the 
journey on foot, Mr. Wood bringing his wife and household goods 
on his wagon. For this transportation, he paid his father-in-law 
twelve and a half cents per pound. Fortunately for his slender 
purse, his wife only weighed about a hundred pounds, and the rest 
of his baggage was light, but aggregated to the amount of two 
hundred pounds, costing him twenty-five dollars. White was a 
nephew of Mr. Wood, and came with the party, a young man, to 
try the fortunes of the west. Kingman and White both bought 
land in Lincoln, locating opposite each other on the Sunbury road, 
just above Buck's cabin, on land now owned by V. T. Kingman. 
White married in Bennington, and finally, in 1823, selling out to 
Kingman, went to Cardington, where he lived and died. King- 
man's father, Alexander, an old Revolutionary soldier, came about 
the same time to Lincoln and settled just north of Steiner. North 
of Kingman, Stephen Westcoat made his home, and Alanson Piatt 
just north of him, and just west of the latter Paul White built his 

The earliest roads here were laid out about 1823. The state 
road, west of Alum creek, was originally the famous Indian trail, 
which led up from Pickaway county along this stream. This trail 
was fitted for the passage of wagons by the settlers, and there are 
frequently found, on the unused portions even yet, some mementoes 
of the travelers who once used this road. The state engineers 
straightened the angles of this road, and it serves the same purpose 
it did in years gone by. The Sunbury road, east of the creek, was 
blazed out at a very early date, and was the one principally used 
by the earlier Lincoln settlement. It was laid out in 1824. 

The settlement in Lincoln, growing out of the Quaker commun- 
ity in the adjoining township, would naturally be an early 
supporter of church influences. The first families were intimately 
related to the Quakers, or joined their society, and all attended 
their meetings. There were other denominations firmly established 
in the communities settled not far away, and they were fortunate 
in having such able evangelists as Russell Bigelow, Leroy Swamp- 
sted, Henry George and others. 

It is difficult to determine what denomination came first to 
share the work and responsibilities of the Quakers in Lincoln. 
Russell Bigelow was here early, and preached at the cabin of 

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William Steiner, and a society was formed very early here. A 
logr church was built about eighty rods south of where ** Steiner 's 
Comer'' now is, Alexander and Joseph Kingman and William 
Steiner being the principal movers in this project. This was the 
first place of worship erected in the township. Russell Bigelow 
preached his first sermon within the bounds of the township, but 
that was before the township was organized. He traveled the 
Columbus circuit in 1819, and one of his appointments was at 
Butter's, some twelve miles south of Steiner 's. He completed the 
circuit once in six weeks. Stopping one day at Steiner 's for re- 
freshments, and pleased with the cordial welcome he received, he 
appointed a meeting six weeks from that date at his host's cabin. 
The preacher and the people came at the appointed hour, and 
among the rest a mother had brought her rather mischievous boy. 
The lad disturbed the great preacher, and, turning to him, Bigelow 
shouted at him, telling him to get under the bed and keep still. 
The boy was taken by surprise, and obeyed with considerable 
promptness. Edmund Buck gave a site for a church and a build- 
ing was erected on the Sunbury road, just north of the pike, about 
1850. An acre of ground was later bought by this society for 
cemetery purposes and the church building was removed onto this 
property. It is known as the Ashley church. 

About the year 1818, Sylvester Dillingham, a young man, 
worked for Jonathan Wood in Peru township, for an acre of land 
per week. He worked a year, and having accumulated a farm of 
fifty-two acres, married and moved onto the land. It was situated 
in the northern part of the township. In 1820 Marquis Gardner, 
Joseph Philbric and Stephen Doty, Sr., came to Lincoln township 
and bought property, Philbric buying about two hundred acres. 
This was in the southern part of the township, which was but 
sparsely settled then, and it is related that Gardner was obliged 
to invite the settlers for miles around to assist him in raising his 
building. Doty was a native of Maine and first ** squatted" on the 
school lands in Harmony township, but in a short time bought 
land. Appleton Snell, from Maine, and James McConica, an Irish- 
man, came into the settlement, and, marrying daughters of Mrs. 
Hubbell, built cabins and became members of the little 
community. The Pompey section, as it was called, was settled, 
about 1828, by a number of families that came originally from 
Pompey, New York. Prominent among these were the families of 
Leander Benson and his brothers Darius and Almeran ; Job Daven- 
port, Ephraim Davenport, John H. Warner, Lyman Wheeler and 

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Job Liggett. A little later, to the southern part of the township, 
came Peter Powell and T. P. Ashbrook. 

The organization of the township of Lincoln in 1828, was 
•mainly due to the efforts of Collins Buck, Steiner and Shadrack 
Hubbell. The first election was held on the first Monday in April, 
1828, at Hubbell 's cabin. It resulted in the election of Edmund 
Buck as justice of the peace, and as there were but seventeen men 
to fill twenty-four positions each of the voters present was elected 
to one or more- offices. 

In 1818, Alexander Edgar came to Peru and put up a store 
and distillery. This was then the nearest store, and absorbed the 
greater part of the trade of Lincoln trade until the business at 
Chesterville and Cardington divided it. The nearness of these 
places of business and the lack of any good water power in the 
township had the effect of discouraging the undertaking of similar 
enterprises in Lincoln. A saw mill was built very early on Ed- 
mund Buck's place, near one of the branches of Alum creek, by 
Shadrack Hubbell. This aften^ards passed into the hands of Mr. 
Buck, and later into the possession of Stephen Doty, Jr. In 1830, 
after Stephen Doty, Sr., bought the Collins Buck place, his son, 
Geo. W., built a small saw mill on the stream as it passes through 
that property. A tannery was early established on the Fulton 
farm by Stephen Corwin, which supplied the neighborhood material 
for shoes, clothing and harnesses. About 1850 Thomas Roby 
establish another tannery on the Ashbrook farm( but it did not 
prove a permanent affair. 

The Westfield, Cardington and Chesterville pike was projected 
by J. H. Benson, John Andrews, Dr. I. H. Pennock, M.. P. Brooks, 
J. T. Buck, J. B. Trimble, Lester Bartlett and others. It was 
surveyed by J. T. Buck and was built to Windsor Comers, where it 
conected with the Ashley and Delhi pike. It was constructed east 
only about four miles and a half, because it was found that further 
expenses would not be warranted. Toll was collected for a while, 
but it never resulted in a sufficient income to keep the road in order 
and it was abandoned as a pike. 

Churches and Schools. 

The Lincoln Christian church was early organized by Reverend 
William Ashley. Among the members of the first class were 
Leander Benson, Nelson Wheeler, John Mann, J. H. Warner and 
their wives. Meetings were held in school houses and log cabins. 

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from about 1843 to 1858, when a church building was erected. 

The Center United Brethren church was organized with but 
few members. Meetings were held in log school houses until 1853, 
when a neat frame building was erected. 

A school was established in 1819. The first structure for that 
purpose was built of logs, sixteen by nineteen feet, on lot 37, sec- 
tion 2. The first teacher was Nathan Randolph. Among the early 
school houses was one near the east toll gate. This building was 
about twenty-four feet square, and was built in 1839. Log School 
houses became things of the past about the year 1857. 

A township hall was built in 1872, and is situated near the 
center of the township. 


Pulton is comparatively a new village, having sprung up, 
almost Aladdin-like, on account of the stone quarries there and 


because of being a station on the Toledo and Ohio Central Rail- 
road. It is about midway between Mount Gilead and Marengo. 
The recent census gave it a population of 285. The citizens had 
hoped it would reach the three hundred mark, but it fell fifteen 
short of the desired number. The stone quarry is about a half 
mile from the village, and it has quite an output and the railroads 

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affords it ample shipping facilities. The stone is of a grayish 
color, of the nature of the Berea grit, and is used for building 
purposes, flagging, abutments, fence posts, etc. Wire fencing is 
extensively used, and upon corners large stone posts are sunk to 
which the fencing can be attached, stretched and its tension main- 

There is a post office at Pulton and two general stores. The 
place supports two churches — Methodist and Baptist. Pulton has 
also a town hall and an I. 0. 0. P. hall. These are both in one 
building, the town hall occupying the ground floor, and the Odd 
Pellows the second story. There is a large frame school house in 
the place, in which three grades are taught. Work is now pro- 
gressing upon a new pike which passes through the place. 

The day the writer visited Pulton, he arrived there just as 
school was dismissed for the day, and meeting a bevy of young 
school girls upon the street, interrogated them as to the town, its 
population and history, and a more intelligent class he never 
encountered. They were not only intelligent, but courteous as 
well, and judging the population of the town by these girls, he 
formed a high opinion of the inhabitants of Pulton. 

Pulton is upon an elevation, with Alum creek coursing at its 

About a mile south of the village is a tile mill. 

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Formation and Natural Features op North Bloomfield 
Township — Early Settlers and Settlements — Roads and Post 
Offices — Blooming Grove — Perry Township — Physical Char- 
acteristics — Organized — The Early Arrivals — Churches and 
Schools — Johnsville — North Woodbury. 

As a township North Bloomfield has kept pace with her sister 
townships of Morrow county. Slowly but surely has the township 
progressed, until it now stands upon a solid foundation of morality 
and education. 

Formation and Natural Features. 

This township joins Troy on the west. It was embraced within 
the limits of the latter, which was then twelve miles long from east 
to west and six miles wide. On March 4, 1823, a tract six miles 
square was set off from the west and named North Bloomfield. The 
surface of this township is quite smooth, and the soil is free from 
stone. The early settlements clustered about two points, located 
in the extreme northwest and southwest portions of the township, 
West Point and Blooming Grove. 

North Bloomfield township originally extended north to the 
Mansfield and Gallon road, but, upon the formation of Morrow 
county, one tier of sections was added to Sandusky township in 
Richland county ; thus it is one tier of sections short of a congres- 
sional township. Its territory is well drained by the several little 
streams that have their source within its limits and their natural 
tributaries. The North fork of the Mohican rises in section 2, and 
flows nearly north for six or eight miles, when it changes its 
course to the eastward, and passes out into Troy township through 
section 12. The Clear fork of the Mohican rises also in section 23, 
flows in a southeast direction, and passes out through section 36. 
The Whetstone has its source in section 27, flows west for a few 


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miles, and then changes southward, passing into Congress, near 
the little village of West Point. A number of other rivulets and 
brooks traverse the township, which are nameless, but which form 
a natural system of drainage. 

The surface of North Bloomfield is suflficiently rolling as to 
require but little artificial draining, but cannot be termed hilly 
or broken. It is one of the finest farming regions in Morrow 
county, and the comfortable and even elegant farm houses denote 
the prosperity of the people. Grain of all kinds is extensively 
grown, while considerable attention is paid to stock raising. The 
township was originally covered with fine timber, consisting of 
oak, walnut, beech, hickory, elm, ash and other species. 

Early Settlers and Settlements. 

Stephen Borham who settled about four miles south of the* 
village of Blooming Grove, came to the vicinity before 1820. His 
daughter, Mrs. Eckler, was perhaps the first white child bom in 
Bloomfield township. William Harris also came about 1820. 
About 1833 quite a tide of immigration came to this part of Mor- 
row county. A Mr. Maxwell also became a settler about the year 
1820. He came from Pennsylvania and sold out to the Hardings. 
Amos Harding, the patriarch of the Harding family, located first, 
and settled in what is still Richland county, about the year 1819. 
Ebenezer, one of his softs, was the next comer and brought out 
Maxwell in 1821-22. The following year his two brothers, George 
T. and Salmon E., came and settled near him. While the elder 
Harding settled north of the village, his two sons located south of 
it, Salmon laid out the village of Blooming Grove, but after wards 
sold his property and removed to Gallon, where he died. His re- 
mains were brought back and buried in the village cemetery upon 
ground he had donated for cemetery purposes. Ebenezer did not 
remain long, removing further west. George died a short distance 
from where his father had settled when he came to the township. 
The son of George Harding was wont to narrate many facts of 
interest conected with the early settlers of this section. He used 
to go to old Benny Sharrock's mill down on the Whetstone, when 
he was a lad but seven years old, and was so small they had to tie 
both him and the sack of com on the horse. Once he was belated, 
and the shades of evening settled down before he reached home. 
His father and mother became somewhat frightened, and, unable 
to endure the suspense, the former mounted a horse and went in 

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Bearch of him. He had but a short distance to go, when the trails 
separated, and either one went to the mill. He deliberated some 
time as to which to take, but finally made up his mind and hurried 
on. Scarcely had he passed out of sight, when the boy came in on 
the other trail and pursued his way on home, ignorant of the fact 
that his father had gone the other trail to meet him. Upon his 
arrival at home, his mother hastily lifted him from the horse, 
jerked the bag of meal oflf, and mounting, immediately took the 
back track after the old gentleman, to try, if possible, to prevent 
his going on to the mill. When we remember that wolves were 
plenty, and when maddened by hunger did not hesitate to attack 
grown-up people, we can realize readily the anxiety of the parents 
when their boy was detained at the mill until after nightfall. 

Mr. Harding remembers Galion when there were but two 
houses in it, and the place was called **New Moccasin," and after- 
wards **Spongetown," and still later when it enjoyed several other 
names equally as rude. He also remembers Mansfield when it con- 
sisted merely of an old block house, which was, at a later day, 
improvised into a jail and court house — the upper story used for 
a court room and the lower for a prison. Indians were plenty in 
those days, but none lived in the immediate vicinity, but often 
passed through from Upper Sandusky to Mount Vernon. Their 
hunting grounds embraced all this country, and squads used to 
come down and hunt for weeks. 

William Buckingham settled a little northeast of West Point 
in 1831. He came originally from Pennsylvania and settled in 
Knox county as early as 1828, whence he came to this settlement. 
He died in 1837. 

John Elder settled first in Troy township, in 1829, and, in 
the fall of 1830, removed to this section, where he died in 1837. 
A son told of hauling com from the old place in Troy township, 
the first winter they lived here. It was a winter of unusual sever- 
ity, and, with oxen hitched to a large sled, they would go back and 
forth through the snow, taking two days to make a round trip and 
carrying their provisions with them, as the country was not thickly 
settled as it is now. 

Jacob Sief was the next settler after Elder, and came in 1829. 
He was originally from Baden, Germany, but had lived some time 
in Columbiana county, Ohio, before settling in North Bloomfield 

Prom the coming of the Hardings up to 1827, the following 
families came to the neighborhood from Pennsylvania: James 

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Stearns, Hiram Stephens, James Wells, a Mr. Bascom, James Kerr, 
Isaac Barnes, John Crawford, Amos Webster and perhaps others. 
They all cleared farms and are now dead. Bascom and Kerr came 
all the way from Pennsylvania in wagons which were then the 
common means of traveling, and settled in the then unbroken 
forest. Among those who came to the Sief neighborhood were 
Daniel Bolgard, Philip Flock and Vincent Dye, all from Pennsyl- 
vania. Flock and Dye came about the same time. Farms were 
soon cleared up in every direction, the pioneers' cabins dotted the 
plains and the valleys, and domestic animals filled the forests 
instead of bears and wolves. 

John Warner came to the settlement a few years after the 
Elders. Henry Snyder, from Pennsylvania, located there in 1834. 
He moved to Indiana, where he afterwards died. Arch McCoy and 
Reverend Mr. Hosier were early settlers; the one was an early 
teacher and the other a preacher. McCoy went to Missouri, where 
he became a prominent man, was elected to the legislature, and was 
also a delegate to the national Democratic convention that nomi- 
nated James Buchanan for president. He was killed in Missouri 
during the late war, but by whom was never known. 

William Kenyon, another of the early settlers of this township, 
came from the Isle of Man originally, about 1831. He and his 
wife are both dead, and sleep in the little burying ground at 
Ebenezer church, of which they were members in life. 

Schools and Churches. 

Education received the earnest attention of the pioneers, and 
at an early day the log school house made its appearance. Even 
before the people were able to build these primitive temples of 
learning, schools were taught in deserted cabins, bams, old stables, 
or any kind of a building found vacant. The first school of which 
we have any account in this township was taught by Arch McCoy, 
in a rude log cabin near Aaron Sief 's, which had been built for a 

The howling of the wolves and the whooping of the Indians 
were yet to be heard when the pioneer ministers — most of whom 
were circuit riders — came to North Bloomfield. They were so early 
in the field that the only place for them to hold worship was in the 
cabins of the settlers, or in warm weather in some cool grove. The 
Reverend Mr. Hosier, of the faith of the Albrights, was one of 
the very early preachers in the township, and is the first one re- 
Vol. 1—27 

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membered in the west part of it, where he used to preach every 
two weeks at the house of Peter Perestermaker. He finally re- 
moved to Illinois, where he died. Elder Enapp, Reverends Bell, 
Camp and DuBois were also early preachers. 

Ninety years ago the pioneers found an unbroken forest, 
marked only by Indian trails. Now the historian finds well-culti- 
vated farms, beautiful homes, churches and school houses, where 
once the woods stood dark and dismal. 

To obtain the necessaries of life was the great source of worry 
to the pioneers. Meat was easily procured by killing deer or wild 
turkey, as often deer could be shot from the cabin door. But 
bread was not so easily obtained. The mills at Mount Vernon and 
Predericktown were quite a distance and it took several days to 
make the trip. A mill which was patronized considerably by the 
early settlers was a small concern which was operated by *' Uncle 
Benny" Sharrock, as he was called. It was little more than a 
com cracker, but he ground com, wheat and buckwheat on the 
same run of stones, which were made of ''nigger heads." 

Roads and Post Offices. 

There are excellent roads in the township, generally being laid 
uui on section lines. The first road in the township was that passing 
through the village of Blooming Grove, running from Oalion to 
Lexington. It is one of the highways of the township that was 
laid out regardless of section lines. The next road through the 
township was the Mansfield-Marion road. 

The first post oflSce in North Bloomfield township was estab- 
lished at the residence of William Wallace, who lived on the state 
road running from Delaware to Mansfield, three miles south of the 
village of Blooming Grove, at a very early day. Wallace was the 
post master and the name of the oflBce was Barcelona. He kept 
it until it was removed to Blooming Grove village, after the place 
had been laid out. 

Blooming Grove is in North Bloomfield township and West 
Point is divided by the boundary line which separates the town- 
ship from Congress (which see). 

Bloomino Grove. 

Blooming Grove is very pleasantly situated. It is quite an ideal 
little home town — ^not a business center, but is an ideal place of 

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rural domesticity. It has not more than a hundred citizens, a 
post office and two general stores. The name of the post office, 
as stated, is Corsica, and the postmistress is Miss S. S. Williams. 
There are three churches in Blooming Grove, the Methodist Epis- 
copal, Baptist and Seventh Day Adventist. The Methodists built 
their church in 1870 and it is a very neat brick structure, the 
Baptists erecting an edifice about the same time. The Seventh Day 
Adventists erected their church building about the year 1879. It 
is at the edge of the village. 

The Methodist Episcopal church, of Blooming Grove was 
organized in 1835, and the Baptists three years previous. Each 
of these church societies was organized outside of the village, but 
later removed to it. The Adventists organized in the seventies. 

About four miles south of Blooming Grove, the Methodists 
are preparing to erect a new church building — Ebenezer Methodist 
Episcopal church. 

Blooming Grove is the home of the venerable Doctor McFar- 
land, who is now past eighty years of age, who has been engaged in 
the practice of medicine there more than fifty years, and has been 
the longest in practice of any physician now living in Morrow 
county. The day the writer was in Blooming Grove the doctor had 
just returned from making a professional visit, having been called 
from the plow for that purpose. He is an agriculturist as well 
as a physician. Dr. McParland is in full possession of his 
mental faculties, the infimities of age not having yet come to 

The village of Blooming Grove was laid out by Salmon E. 
Harding, upon whose land it was mostly located, and the plat was 
recorded March 5, 1835. A small portion of George T. Harding's 
land was embraced in the original survey, and several additions 
have since been made to the plat.. The first residence was built 
by William Johnson, and the first store house was built by Carl and 
Dunlap, who were the first merchants. Carl and Dunlap were suc- 
ceeded by a Mr. Whitaker, who carried on a store for some years. 

The post office established here was removed from Wallace's 
to this place in 1841, after the town had been laid out, and the 
name changed from Barcelona to Corsica. I. G. Baker was the 
first post master after it was removed to Blooming Grove. 

The first tavern in the place was kept by John Johns. 
J. C. Johnston was the first blacksmith of the village, and opened 
a shop in 1836. 

Blooming Grove is a moral town and a religious one. The 

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citizens did not permit a saloon in the place, even before Morrow 
''went dry." 

There is a cemetery adjacent to the town, the land for which 
was donated by Salmon Harding. This was the first graveyard in 
the neighborhood and several additions have since been made to it. 

In the northern part of North Bloomfield township, on the 
south side of the Mansfield-Marion road, there was formerly a large 
frame building called the Buckhom tavern, which was a popular 
hostelry for many years — especially during the Civil war period. 
It was kept by a Mr. Lewis and after his death was continued by 
his widow, but it is now no more. Mrs. Lewis and her two daughters 
usually wore ** bloomers," a style of dress somewhat in vogue in 
those days. 

Perry Township. 

Less than a hundred years ago a few intelligent and determined 
white men settled here in the unbroken wilderness, which settle- 
ment soon became and has ever since remained the center of a 
far reaching salutary influence. It was one of the important and 
permanent steps toward reducing to cultivation and civilization 
the wilderness of which Perry township is now a part. When 
we look around and see the wondrous transformation which has 
taken place in such a comparatively brief period, our minds are 
filled with amazement and our hearts with thankfulness that we 
are so bounteously blessed as a people. 

Physical Characteristics. 

Perry township is one of the first surveyed congressional 
townships, and before it was divided contained thirty-six sections. 
Its surface is less diversified than that of the townships adjoining 
it. The township may be reached as the tableland of the broken 
country that characterizes eastern Ohio, and in which originates 
some of the headwaters of the Clear fork of the Mohican river and 
the Owl creek, and makes it the dividing ridge between these two 
streams. Owl creek cuts diagonally across the southwest comer 
of the township, and has several tributaries from it. The Clear 
fork flows almost eastwardly through the second tier of sections 
from the north, after the union of the two branches into which it 
is divided. The declivity toward Owl creek is rapid and very 
broken, while towards the Clear fork it is comparatively gentle, 

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with a surface more smooth. The most fertile soil in the town- 
ship is found along the streams in the northern part. 

Originally a large part of the township was covered with 
forest, principally beechwood, while the ground was covered with 
a dense growth of nettles, and the decayed accumulation of years 
formed a surface soil which could be easily plowed. This variety 
of land was very inviting to the pioneers. 

Township Organized. 

On February 24, 1848, the general assembly of the state 
created Morrow county, and Perry township was divided. Since 
then the eastern eighteen sections have exercised all the privileges 
of an independent township, and to the western half a tier of half 
sections were added from the congressional township, which has 
exercised the same privilege. 

The township of Perry obtained its name in the following 
manner. Abraham Hetrick and Philip Stiltz, who were living 
here at the time of Perry's victory on Lake Erie, resolved to per- 
petuate that event by giving the name of Perry to the neighbor- 
hood where they dwelt. This name was confirmed, when, in 
1817, the organization of a township took place. Eleven men met 
in the early spring of the year mentioned above, at the house of 
Philip Stiltz, on section 16, and proceeded to organize the township 
by electing the necessary officers. Jehu Singrey was elected 
justice of the peace and treasurer; William Van Buskirk, constable ; 
John Stout, Abraham Hetrick and Peter Wirick, trustees ; Jonathan 
Huntsman, clerk. When Morrow county was formed, the town- 
ship was divided through the center, and each half, both in Rich- 
land and Morrow counties, retained the name of Perry. 

The Early Arrivals. 

The first actual settler in Perry township was John Frederick 
Herring, who came there in 1809 and built a mill, which was after- 
wards known as the Hannawalt mill, at the crossings of the Lex- 
ington-Fredericktown and the Bellville-Johnsville roads. O. M. 
Herring, of Mansfield, is a grandson of this pioneer, John F. 

John Ogle is supposed to have been the first white settler to 
have erected a cabin in the Perry township of Morrow county, 
as early as 1811. He was from Bedford county, Pennsylvania, 

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and entered the land upon which he had settled after his arrival. 
He and the Blairs came together, and they had to cut a road from 
Mt. Vernon to the place where they settled. Mr. Ogle was a 
great hunter and killed many bears and deer. Mr. Ogle died 
many years ago. 

Benjamin Hart settled in the township shortly after Mr. 
Ogle's arrival. Mr. Hart also came from Pennsylvania, as did 
the majority of the pioneers of this locality. He is also dead, as 
are all the pioneers of this period. Philip Stiltz, David Carr, 
James Welsh and James Huntsman came to Perry township among 
the early settlers, being all men of families. Lawrence Lamb came 
to the settlement in 1816. Although he entered land in 1812, he 
did not occupy it until that year. He was a soldier in the War 
of 1812, and after its close moved to his new home. 

John Shauck, another early settler and soldier of the War of 
1812, came from Pennsylvania and entered his land in 1814. 
Francis Baughman came from Maryland about the same year 
and entered land in Perry. Some of his descendants live in that 
part of the country yet. Adam Lucas, Abraham Hetrick and 
John Ely were also arrivals, from Pennsylvania, the first two com- 
ing about the year 1816 and the latter a few years later. 

The Singrey family has been closely allied with the settle- 
ment and progress of the township. Jehu Singrey came from 
Baltimore county, Maryland, in 1815, and settled on the site of 
Shauck 's mill, entering one hundred and sixty acres of land. Up- 
on this land he built a cabin, and moved into it in the spring of 
1816. At the time of his settlement there was an encampment of 
about one hundred and fifty Indians nearby and they remained 
there for about seven years. While looking at this land, before 
entering it, Mr. Singrey met with three Indians out hunting with 
their bows and arrows; he shot the deer which he divided with 
them. After that they entertained a very high regard for him, 
and always called him the ** White Chief." Chief was one of 
their most honorable titles. Mrs. Singrey often baked bread for 
the Indians. The first wheat Mr. Singrey had to sell he hauled to 
Zanesville and sold it for fifteen cents per bushel, taking pay in 
sugar, rice, salt and leather. His son, Dr. D. M. L. Singrey, was a 
prominent physician, and lived on the old homestead for many 

Another pioneer of Perry township was William Lockart, a 
Revolutionary soldier. He came from Pennsylvania in 1833, and 
died in 1846, at the age of eighty-seven years. Dan Mitchell was 

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from Washington county, Pennsylvania, and settled in the town- 
ship in 1823, where he lived until the fall of 1823, when he removed 
to Congress township. William Halferty was a settler of 1822, 
and died in 1828, leaving his wife in the woods with a large family. 
Rev. Benjamin Green was from Baltimore county, Maryland, and 
settled in Perry in the fall of 1817. He was a Baptist preacher, 
and traveled across the mountains as a missionary preacher. He 
was one of the early pastors of the old Baptist church, at Shauck's 
mill. Adam Baker settled on the line between Perry and Con- 
gress townships. He was a native of some one of the Franco- 
Gkrman provinces, and a soldier under the first Napoleon. He 
accompanied that famous general on his ill-fated expedition to 
Moscow, and was one of the few of that grand army of 600,000 
men who survived the disastrous retreat from the ancient capital 
of the Russias. Although he could speak little English, yet, when- 
ever the name of Napoleon was mentioned, his eye would blaze with 
excitement, and he would take off his half-military cap, which he 
always wore, and show the scars upon his head — the remains of 
wounds received while fighting under his great military leader. 
He died a few years ago. Samuel Dennis came from Pennsyl- 
vania in an early day. He was drafted as a soldier of 1812 in 
Pennsylvania, but hired a substitute. Henry Stephens was an old 
settler of the township. 

Among the early industries and pioneer improvements of 
Perry township were mills, * tanyards, carding machines, black- 
smith shops, etc. The first milling was done at Mt. Vernon, and 
other places equally remote. One of the first mills in the town- 
ship was a grist and saw mill on the Clear fork of the Mohican, 
built by Ely & Shauck, about a mile and a half east of Johnsville. 
This flouring mill served its purpose for two thirds of a century, 
but was destroyed a few years ago and has not been rebuilt. 

Perry township has two **fin3t births." A daughter of Ben- 
jamin Hart was one of the first, and Phoebe Ogle the other ; both of 
these are claimed as the first. Their fathers were the first two 
settlers, Ogle coming in 1811, and Mr. Hart in the fall of the same 
year or the next spring. Which is entitled to the preference, we 
are unable to say, and, as they are both ladies, and ladies are usual- 
ly sensitive about their ages, we refrain from giving dates. 

Henry Sams' was the first funeral which occurred in the 
settlements. The first wedding is not remembered. 

In olden times, before the era of railroads, the business of 
teaming was very extensive. Qoods were hauled in wagons from 

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Baltimore and Philadelphia, and even from New York. David 
Paxton, of this township, was one of these old-time teamsters, 
and made many a trip to those Eastern cities with his large wagon 
drawn by six horses. Such a trip took up about two months by 
traveling ** every day and Sunday too,*' and the expense of the trip 
was not far short of one hundred dollars. 

Churches and Schools. 

A church of the Old-School Baptists was built at the mill in 
Perry township about 1825, and ten years afterward was burned. 
It was used both as a church and school house. A brick church 
was built about 1845 and served the congregation until 1877, when 
the present new frame was erected. Rev. Benjamin Green was 
one of the first pastors of this church. One of the oldest grave- 
yards in the township is adjacent to this church. 

In addition to the Old-School Baptist church at Shauck's 
mill, Perry township has another outside of the villages. The 
Evangelical Lutheran church, situated a few hundred yards north 
of North Woodbur}% was organized more than forty years ago. 
As early as 1835-6, a few persons met out-of-doors near the site 
of the present church, among whom were (ieorge B. Hosier, Martin 
Bechner, Samuel Hoffman, Ilenrv Sowers, Sr., Peter Baker, John 
Snyder, Henry C. Buhl and Henry Sowers, Jr, They were mem- 
bers of the German Reformed and the old Lutheran churches. In 
1836, they employed Rev. Samuel Leiter, of IMansfield, to preach 
for them. He was of the German Reformed church, and admin- 
istered the sacrament to the members of the new congregation. 
About this time, Peter Baker donated one acre of land, upon which, 
during the summer of 1839, they erected a frame building thirty- 
five by forty feet. Rev. Mr. Myers preached the sermon at the 
laying of the corner-stone. During the summer of 1840, Rev. 
Barney Hoffman preached to them. He was from Pennsylvania 
and was of the Evangelical Lutheran denomination. In Decem- 
ber a protracted meeting was held, when the society was organized 
into an Evangelical Lutheran church, and increased to over one 
hundred members before the close of winter. 

The first school taught in Perry township was by Lawrence 
Van Buskirk, in 1817, near the farm of Joshua Singery. He 
taught in the Owl Creek settlement several terms in succession. 
The next schools, perhaps, were taught in the villages of Johnsville 

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and North Woodbury. The schools of the present day are in a 
flourishing condition, and in striking contrast to those of the early 


Johnsville is situated in the north central part of Perry town- 
ship, and has at the present writing about a hundred inhabitants. 
It has a fine brick school house, in which are taught three grades, 
one of which is a second class high school. It also has a telephone 
exchange, and several churches. The United Brethren church is 
near the center of the town; near the west end is situated the 
United Evangelical church. About a mile from Johnsville, on 


the Lexington road, there are two churches, nearly opposite each 
other ; the brick building belonging to the Old-School Baptists and 
is occupied by them ; the other is the Mennonite church — the house 
being a frame structure. Near these is a large brick house, which 
is pointed out as the old home of John A. Shauck, who is now one 
of the judges of the supreme court of Ohio. 

The post office at Johnsville bears the name of Shauck. The 
Shaucks were early settlers there and have ever been a prominent 
family in the township. The village has two general stores, one 
drug store and a hardware store. A Mr. Hosier is the present 
post master, and he is of an old and prominent family. 

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The village of JohnsviUe was laid out in 1834, by John Ely 
and William H. Shauck, each owning a quarter section, and on a 
part of each man's land the town was located. The first residence 
in the place was built by Francis Holmes. The first merchants 
were Boyd & Ackley, who opened a store there in about 1837, and 
the next year were succeeded by Creigh & Shauck. Asa Cover 
opened a tavern in about 1839, which was the first in the town, 
and which continued in business until 1860. A post office wAs 
established there in 1825 by John Shauck, was named for him, and 
he was the first post master. The first blacksmith was William 
Shauck. John T. Creigh was also a post master there. He was 
one of the first county commissioners and was elected to the state 
senate in 1854. 

A fact worthy of note about this village is that every man who 
engaged in continuous business there, became rich. Two men are 
yet remembered who came to the place poor, but by perseverance 
and steadfastness of purpose, they became wealthy. 

North Woodbury. 

North Woodbury is a small village, situated about the center 
of Perry township. There is a general store but no post office, 
the place being on the Rural Free Delivery. At the west edge of 
the village, the Albrights have a frame church building, and about 
a quarter of a mile north of the place a Lutheran church is 

The village of North Woodbury was surveyed and laid out by 
Elisha Cornwall, David Tuthill and Charles Campbell, who owned 
the land upon which it was located, and the plat was recorded 
June 30, 1830. Terry and Cornwall, hatters by trade, built the 
first residence on the village site.